44bsd-more

MORE(1)                     General Commands Manual                    MORE(1)

NAME
     more — file perusal filter for crt viewing

SYNOPSIS
     more [-ceinsu] [-t tag] [-x tabs] [-/ pattern] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     The more command is a filter for paging through text one screenful at a
     time.  It uses termcap(3) so it can run on a variety of terminals,
     including hardcopy terminals.  On a hardcopy terminal, lines which should
     be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with an up-arrow.  A
     file may be specified as /dev/stdin to view stdin.

OPTIONS
     Command line options are described below.  Options are also taken from
     the environment variable MORE (make sure to precede them with a dash
     (``-'')) but command line options will override them.

     -c    Normally, more will repaint the screen by scrolling from the bottom
           of the screen.  If the -c option is set, when more needs to change
           the entire display, it will paint from the top line down.

     -e    Normally, if displaying a single file, more exits as soon as it
           reaches end-of-file.  The -e option tells more to exit if it
           reaches end-of-file twice without an intervening operation.

     -i    The -i option causes searches to ignore case; that is, uppercase
           and lowercase are considered identical.

     -n    The -n flag suppresses line numbers.  The default (to use line
           numbers) may cause more to run more slowly in some cases,
           especially with a very large input file.  Suppressing line numbers
           with the -n flag will avoid this problem.  Using line numbers
           means: the line number will be displayed in the = command, and the
           v command will pass the current line number to the editor.

     -s    The -s option causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into a
           single blank line.

     -t    The -t option, followed immediately by a tag, will edit the file
           containing that tag.  For more information, see ctags(1) and
           gtags(1).

     -u    By default, more treats backspaces and CR-LF sequences specially.
           Backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character are
           displayed as underlined text.  Backspaces which appear between two
           identical characters are displayed as emboldened text.  CR-LF
           sequences are compressed to a single newline character.  The -u
           option causes backspaces to always be displayed as control
           characters, i.e. as the two character sequence ``^H'', and CR-LF to
           be left alone.

     -x    The -x option sets tab stops every N positions.  The default for N
           is 8.

     -/    The -/ option specifies a string that will be searched for before
           each file is displayed.

COMMANDS
     Interactive commands for more are based on vi(1).  Some commands may be
     preceded by a decimal number, called N in the descriptions below.  In the
     following descriptions, ^X means control-X.

     h           Help: display a summary of these commands.  If you forget all
                 the other commands, remember this one.

     SPACE or f or ^F
                 Scroll forward N lines, default one window.  If N is more
                 than the screen size, only the final screenful is displayed.

     b or ^B     Scroll backward N lines, default one window (see option -z
                 below).  If N is more than the screen size, only the final
                 screenful is displayed.

     j or RETURN or DOWN-ARROW
                 Scroll forward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are
                 displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.

     k or UP-ARROW
                 Scroll backward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are
                 displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.

     LEFT-ARROW  Scroll leftwards N columns, default 1, or turn on line-
                 wrapping if the screen is cannot be scrolled leftwards.

     RIGHT-ARROW
                 Turn off line-wrapping or scroll rightwards N columns,
                 default 1, if line wrapping is already off.

     TAB         Turn off line-wrapping or scroll rightwards N * 8 columns,
                 default 8, if line-wrapping is already off.

     HOME        Toggle horizontal scrolling and associated line-wrapping on
                 and off.

     d or ^D     Scroll forward N lines, default one half of the screen size.
                 If N is specified, it becomes the new default for subsequent
                 d and u commands.  The entire N lines are displayed, even if
                 N is more than the screen size.

     u or ^U     Scroll backward N lines, default one half of the screen size.
                 If N is specified, it becomes the new default for subsequent
                 d and u commands.  The entire N lines are displayed, even if
                 N is more than the screen size.

     g           Go to line N in the file, default 1 (beginning of file).

     G           Go to line N in the file, default the end of the file.

     p or %      Go to a position N percent into the file.  N should be
                 between 0 and 100.  This does work if standard input is being
                 read, but only if more has already read to the end of the
                 file.  It is always fast, but not always useful.

     r or ^L     Repaint the screen.

     R           Repaint the screen, discarding any buffered input.  Useful if
                 the file is changing while it is being viewed.

     m           Followed by any lowercase letter, marks the current position
                 with that letter.

     '           (single quote) Followed by any lowercase letter, returns to
                 the position which was previously marked with that letter.
                 Followed by another single quote, returns to the position at
                 which the last "large" movement command was executed, or the
                 beginning of the file if no such movements have occurred.

     /pattern    Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the
                 pattern.  N defaults to 1.  The pattern is a IEEE Std 1003.2
                 (“POSIX.2”) “extended format” regular expression, as
                 described in re_format(7).  The search starts at the second
                 line displayed.

     ?pattern    Search backward in the file for the N-th line containing the
                 pattern.  The search starts at the line immediately before
                 the top line displayed.

     /!pattern   Like /, but the search is for the N-th line which does NOT
                 contain the pattern.

     ?!pattern   Like ?, but the search is for the N-th line which does NOT
                 contain the pattern.

     n and N     Repeat previous search, in same or opposite direction
                 respectively, for N-th line containing the last pattern (or
                 NOT containing the last pattern, if the previous search was
                 /! or ?!).

     E[filename]
                 Examine a new file.  If the filename is missing, the current
                 file (see the N and P commands below) from the list of files
                 in the command line is re-examined.  If the filename is a
                 pound sign (#), the previously examined file is re-examined.

     :n          Examine the next file (from the list of files given in the
                 command line).  If a number N is specified (not to be
                 confused with the command N), the N-th next file is examined.

     :p          Examine the previous file.  If a number N is specified, the
                 N-th previous file is examined.

     :t          Go to supplied tag.

     t           Go forward in tag queue [gtags only].

     T           Go backward in tag queue [gtags only].

     v           Invokes an editor to edit the current file being viewed.  The
                 editor is taken from the environment variable EDITOR, or
                 defaults to vi(1).

     = or ^G     These options print out the number of the file currently
                 being displayed relative to the total number of files there
                 are to display, the current line number, the current byte
                 number and the total bytes to display, and what percentage of
                 the file has been displayed.  If more is reading from stdin,
                 or the file is shorter than a single screen, some of these
                 items may not be available.  Note, all of these items
                 reference the first byte of the last line displayed on the
                 screen.

     q or :q or ZZ
                 Exits more.

ENVIRONMENT
     The following environment variables are used, if they exist:

     MORE        Specifies default option flags to more.  Options must be
                 preceeded by a “-” as if they were specified on the command
                 line.

     EDITOR      Specifies default editor.

     SHELL       Specifies current shell in use.  This is normally set by the
                 shell at login time.

     TERM        Specifies terminal type.  This is used by more to get the
                 terminal characteristics necessary to manipulate the screen.

SEE ALSO
     ctags(1), global(1), gtags(1), vi(1)

BUGS
     Reading files with long lines is slow.

     CRLF-terminated 80 character lines are proceeded by an extraneous blank
     line.

     Immediate transitions from bold text to underlined text cause the
     underlining to be not existing.

     Sometimes searches match lines that do not contain the pattern being
     searched for.

AUTHORS
     This software is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Mark
     Nudleman.

HISTORY
     The more command appeared in 3.0BSD.

                                April 18, 1994