MYSQL(1)              User Contributed Perl Documentation             MYSQL(1)

       DBD::mysql - MySQL driver for the Perl5 Database Interface (DBI)

           use DBI;

           $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname;port=$port";

           $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

           $drh = DBI->install_driver("mysql");
           @databases = $drh->func($host, $port, '_ListDBs');

           $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM foo WHERE bla");
           $sth = $dbh->prepare("LISTFIELDS $table");
           $sth = $dbh->prepare("LISTINDEX $table $index");
           $numRows = $sth->rows;
           $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'};

           $rc = $drh->func('createdb', $database, $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
           $rc = $drh->func('dropdb', $database, $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
           $rc = $drh->func('shutdown', $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
           $rc = $drh->func('reload', $host, $user, $password, 'admin');

           $rc = $dbh->func('createdb', $database, 'admin');
           $rc = $dbh->func('dropdb', $database, 'admin');
           $rc = $dbh->func('shutdown', 'admin');
           $rc = $dbh->func('reload', 'admin');


         use strict;
         use DBI();

         # Connect to the database.
         my $dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:database=test;host=localhost",
                                "joe", "joe's password",
                                {'RaiseError' => 1});

         # Drop table 'foo'. This may fail, if 'foo' doesn't exist.
         # Thus we put an eval around it.
         eval { $dbh->do("DROP TABLE foo") };
         print "Dropping foo failed: $@\n" if $@;

         # Create a new table 'foo'. This must not fail, thus we don't
         # catch errors.
         $dbh->do("CREATE TABLE foo (id INTEGER, name VARCHAR(20))");

         # INSERT some data into 'foo'. We are using $dbh->quote() for
         # quoting the name.
         $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (1, " . $dbh->quote("Tim") . ")");

         # Same thing, but using placeholders
         $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (?, ?)", undef, 2, "Jochen");

         # Now retrieve data from the table.
         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM foo");
         while (my $ref = $sth->fetchrow_hashref()) {
           print "Found a row: id = $ref->{'id'}, name = $ref->{'name'}\n";

         # Disconnect from the database.

       DBD::mysql is the Perl5 Database Interface driver for the MySQL
       database. In other words: DBD::mysql is an interface between the Perl
       programming language and the MySQL programming API that comes with the
       MySQL relational database management system. Most functions provided by
       this programming API are supported. Some rarely used functions are
       missing, mainly because noone ever requested them. :-)

       In what follows we first discuss the use of DBD::mysql, because this is
       what you will need the most. For installation, see the sections on the
       INSTALLATION manpage, the section on WIN32 INSTALLATION, and the
       section on KNOWN BUGS below. See the EXAMPLE manpage for a simple
       example above.

       From perl you activate the interface with the statement

           use DBI;

       After that you can connect to multiple MySQL database servers and send
       multiple queries to any of them via a simple object oriented interface.
       Two types of objects are available: database handles and statement
       handles. Perl returns a database handle to the connect method like so:

         $dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:database=$db;host=$host",
                             $user, $password, {RaiseError => 1});

       Once you have connected to a database, you can can execute SQL
       statements with:

         my $query = sprintf("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (%d, %s)",
                             $number, $dbh->quote("name"));

       See the DBI(3) manpage for details on the quote and do methods. An
       alternative approach is

         $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (?, ?)", undef,
                  $number, $name);

       in which case the quote method is executed automatically. See also the
       bind_param method in the DBI(3) manpage. See the section on DATABASE
       HANDLES below for more details on database handles.

       If you want to retrieve results, you need to create a so-called
       statement handle with:

         $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM $table");

       This statement handle can be used for multiple things. First of all you
       can retreive a row of data:

         my $row = $sth->fetchow_hashref();

       If your table has columns ID and NAME, then $row will be hash ref with
       keys ID and NAME. See the section on STATEMENT HANDLES below for more
       details on statement handles.

       But now for a more formal approach:

       Class Methods


                use DBI;

                $dsn = "DBI:mysql:$database";
                $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname";
                $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname;port=$port";

                $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

            A database must always be specified.


       port      The hostname, if not specified or specified as '', will
                 default to an MySQL daemon running on the local machine on
                 the default port for the UNIX socket.

                 Should the MySQL daemon be running on a non-standard port
                 number, you may explicitly state the port number to connect
                 to in the hostname argument, by concatenating the hostname
                 and port number together separated by a colon ( : ) character
                 or by using the  port argument.

                 Enables (TRUE value) or disables (FALSE value) the flag
                 CLIENT_FOUND_ROWS while connecting to the MySQL server. This
                 has a somewhat funny effect: Without mysql_client_found_rows,
                 if you perform a query like

                   UPDATE $table SET id = 1 WHERE id = 1

                 then the MySQL engine will always return 0, because no rows
                 have changed.  With mysql_client_found_rows however, it will
                 return the number of rows that have an id 1, as some people
                 are expecting. (At least for compatibility to other engines.)

                 As of MySQL 3.22.3, a new feature is supported: If your DSN
                 contains the option "mysql_compression=1", then the
                 communication between client and server will be compressed.

                 If your DSN contains the option "mysql_connect_timeout=##",
                 the connect request to the server will timeout if it has not
                 been successful after the given number of seconds.


                 These options can be used to read a config file like
                 /etc/my.cnf or ~/.my.cnf. By default MySQL's C client library
                 doesn't use any config files unlike the client programs
                 (mysql, mysqladmin, ...) that do, but outside of the C client
                 library. Thus you need to explicitly request reading a config
                 file, as in

                     $dsn = "DBI:mysql:test;mysql_read_default_file=/home/joe/my.cnf";
                     $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password)

                 The option mysql_read_default_group can be used to specify
                 the default group in the config file: Usually this is the
                 client group, but see the following example:



                 If you read this config file, then you'll be typically
                 connected to localhost. However, by using

                     $dsn = "DBI:mysql:test;mysql_read_default_group=perl;"
                         . "mysql_read_default_file=/home/joe/my.cnf";
                     $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

                 you'll be connected to perlhost. Note that if you specify a
                 default group and do not specify a file, then the default
                 config files will all be read.  See the (missing :-)
                 documentation of the C function mysql_options() for details.

                 As of MySQL 3.21.15, it is possible to choose the Unix socket
                 that is used for connecting to the server. This is done, for
                 example, with


                 Usually there's no need for this option, unless you are using
                 another location for the socket than that built into the

       mysql_ssl A true value turns on the CLIENT_SSL flag when connecting to
                 the MySQL database:


                 This means that your communication with the server will be

       Private MetaData Methods


                my $drh = DBI->install_driver("mysql");
                @dbs = $drh->func("$hostname:$port", '_ListDBs');
                @dbs = $drh->func($hostname, $port, '_ListDBs');
                @dbs = $dbh->func('_ListDBs');

            Returns a list of all databases managed by the MySQL daemon
            running on $hostname, port $port. This method is rarely needed for
            databases running on localhost: You should use the portable method

                @dbs = DBI->data_sources("mysql");

            whenever possible. It is a design problem of this method, that
            there's no way of supplying a host name or port number to
            data_sources, that's the only reason why we still support ListDBs.

       Server Administration


                $rc = $drh->func("createdb", $dbname, [host, user, password,], 'admin');
                $rc = $drh->func("dropdb", $dbname, [host, user, password,], 'admin');
                $rc = $drh->func("shutdown", [host, user, password,], 'admin');
                $rc = $drh->func("reload", [host, user, password,], 'admin');


                $rc = $dbh->func("createdb", $dbname, 'admin');
                $rc = $dbh->func("dropdb", $dbname, 'admin');
                $rc = $dbh->func("shutdown", 'admin');
                $rc = $dbh->func("reload", 'admin');

            For server administration you need a server connection. For
            obtaining this connection you have two options: Either use a
            driver handle (drh) and supply the appropriate arguments (host,
            defaults localhost, user, defaults to '' and password, defaults to
            ''). A driver handle can be obtained with

                $drh = DBI->install_driver('mysql');

            Otherwise reuse the existing connection of a database handle

            There's only one function available for administrative purposes,
            comparable to the m(y)sqladmin programs. The command being execute
            depends on the first argument:

       createdb  Creates the database $dbname. Equivalent to "m(y)sqladmin
                 create $dbname".

       dropdb    Drops the database $dbname. Equivalent to "m(y)sqladmin drop

                 It should be noted that database deletion is not prompted for
                 in any way.  Nor is it undo-able from DBI.

                     Once you issue the dropDB() method, the database will be gone!

                 These method should be used at your own risk.

       shutdown  Silently shuts down the database engine. (Without prompting!)
                 Equivalent to "m(y)sqladmin shutdown".

       reload    Reloads the servers configuration files and/or tables. This
                 can be particularly important if you modify access privileges
                 or create new users.

       The DBD::mysql driver supports the following attributes of database
       handles (read only):

         $errno = $dbh->{'mysql_errno'};
         $error = $dbh->{'mysql_error};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_hostinfo'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_info'};
         $insertid = $dbh->{'mysql_insertid'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_protoinfo'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_serverinfo'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_stat'};
         $threadId = $dbh->{'mysql_thread_id'};

       These correspond to mysql_errno(), mysql_error(),
       mysql_get_host_info(), mysql_info(), mysql_insert_id(),
       mysql_get_proto_info(), mysql_get_server_info(), mysql_stat() and
       mysql_thread_id(), respectively.

       The statement handles of DBD::mysql support a number of attributes. You
       access these by using, for example,

         my $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'};

       Note, that most attributes are valid only after a successfull execute.
       An undef value will returned in that case. The most important exception
       is the mysql_use_result attribute: This forces the driver to use
       mysql_use_result rather than mysql_store_result. The former is faster
       and less memory consuming, but tends to block other processes. (That's
       why mysql_store_result is the default.)

       To set the mysql_use_result attribute, use either of the following:

         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("QUERY", { "mysql_use_result" => 1});


         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("QUERY");
         $sth->{"mysql_use_result"} = 1;

       Column dependent attributes, for example NAME, the column names, are
       returned as a reference to an array. The array indices are
       corresponding to the indices of the arrays returned by fetchrow and
       similar methods. For example the following code will print a header of
       table names together with all rows:

         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM $table");
         if (!$sth) {
             die "Error:" . $dbh->errstr . "\n";
         if (!$sth->execute) {
             die "Error:" . $sth->errstr . "\n";
         my $names = $sth->{'NAME'};
         my $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'};
         for (my $i = 0;  $i < $numFields;  $i++) {
             printf("%s%s", $i ? "," : "", $$names[$i]);
         print "\n";
         while (my $ref = $sth->fetchrow_arrayref) {
             for (my $i = 0;  $i < $numFields;  $i++) {
                 printf("%s%s", $i ? "," : "", $$ref[$i]);
             print "\n";

       For portable applications you should restrict yourself to attributes
       with capitalized or mixed case names. Lower case attribute names are
       private to DBD::mysql. The attribute list includes:

            this attribute determines whether a fetchrow will chop preceding
            and trailing blanks off the column values. Chopping blanks does
            not have impact on the max_length attribute.

            MySQL has the ability to choose unique key values automatically.
            If this happened, the new ID will be stored in this attribute. An
            alternative way for accessing this attribute is via
            $dbh->{'mysql_insertid'}.  (Note we are using the $dbh in this

            Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
            respective column is a blob. This attribute is valid for MySQL

            Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
            respective column is a key. This is valid for MySQL only.

            Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
            respective column contains numeric values.

            Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
            respective column is a primary key.


            A reference to an array of maximum column sizes. The max_length is
            the maximum physically present in the result table, length gives
            the theoretically possible maximum. max_length is valid for MySQL

       NAME A reference to an array of column names.

            A reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates that
            this column may contain NULL's.

            Number of fields returned by a SELECT or LISTFIELDS statement.
            You may use this for checking whether a statement returned a
            result: A zero value indicates a non-SELECT statement like INSERT,
            DELETE or UPDATE.

            A reference to an array of table names, useful in a JOIN result.

       TYPE A reference to an array of column types. The engine's native
            column types are mapped to portable types like DBI::SQL_INTEGER()
            or DBI::SQL_VARCHAR(), as good as possible. Not all native types
            have a meaningfull equivalent, for example
            DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_INTERVAL is mapped to DBI::SQL_VARCHAR().
            If you need the native column types, use mysql_type. See below.

            A reference to an array of MySQL's native column types, for
            example DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_SHORT() or
            DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_STRING().  Use the TYPE attribute, if you
            want portable types like DBI::SQL_SMALLINT() or

            Similar to mysql, but type names and not numbers are returned.
            Whenever possible, the ANSI SQL name is preferred.

       Beginning with DBD::mysql 2.0416, transactions are supported.  The
       transaction support works as follows:

       ·    By default AutoCommit mode is on, following the DBI

       ·    If you execute

                $dbh-E<gt>{'AutoCommit'} = 0;


                $dbh-E<gt>{'AutoCommit'} = 1;

            then the driver will set the MySQL server variable autocommit to 0
            or 1, respectively. Switching from 0 to 1 will also issue a
            COMMIT, following the DBI specifications.

       ·    The methods


            will issue the commands COMMIT and ROLLBACK, respectively. A
            ROLLBACK will also be issued if AutoCommit mode is off and the
            database handles DESTROY method is called. Again, this is
            following the DBI specifications.

       Given the above, you should note the following:

       ·    You should never change the server variable autocommit manually,
            unless you are ignoring DBI's transaction support.

       ·    Switching AutoCommit mode from on to off or vice versa may fail.
            You should always check for errors, when changing AutoCommit mode.
            The suggested way of doing so is using the DBI flag RaiseError.
            If you don't like RaiseError, you have to use code like the

              $dbh->{'AutoCommit'} = 0;
              if ($dbh->{'AutoCommit'}) {
                # An error occurred!

       ·    If you detect an error while changing the AutoCommit mode, you
            should no longer use the database handle. In other words, you
            should disconnect and reconnect again, because the transaction
            mode is unpredictable. Alternatively you may verify the
            transaction mode by checking the value of the server variable
            autocommit.  However, such behaviour isn't portable.

       ·    DBD::mysql has a "reconnect" feature that handles the so-called
            MySQL "morning bug": If the server has disconnected, most probably
            due to a timeout, then by default the driver will reconnect and
            attempt to execute the same SQL statement again. However, this
            behaviour is disabled when AutoCommit is off: Otherwise the
            transaction state would be completely unpredictable after a

       Certain metadata functions of MySQL that are available on the C API
       level, haven't been implemented here. Instead they are implemented as
       "SQL extensions" because they return in fact nothing else but the
       equivalent of a statement handle. These are:

       LISTFIELDS $table
            Returns a statement handle that describes the columns of $table.
            Ses the docs of mysql_list_fields (C API) for details.

       The statement attribute TYPE has changed its meaning, as of DBD::mysql
       2.0119. Formerly it used to be the an array of native engine's column
       types, but it is now an array of portable SQL column types. The old
       attribute is still available as mysql_type.

       DBD::mysql is a moving target, due to a number of reasons:

       -    Of course we have to conform the DBI guidelines and developments.

       -    We have to keep track with the latest MySQL developments.

       -    And, surprisingly, we have to be as close to ODBC as possible:
            This is due to the current direction of DBI.

       -    And, last not least, as any tool it has a little bit life of its

       This means that a lot of things had to and have to be changed.  As I am
       not interested in maintaining a lot of compatibility kludges, which
       only increase the drivers code without being really usefull, I did and
       will remove some features, methods or attributes.

       To ensure a smooth upgrade, the following policy will be applied:

       Obsolete features
            The first step is to declare something obsolete. This means, that
            no code is changed, but the feature appears in the list of
            obsolete features. See the section on Obsolete Features below.

       Deprecated features
            If the feature has been obsolete for quite some time, typically in
            the next major stable release, warnings will be inserted in the
            code. You can suppress these warnings by setting

                $DBD::mysql = 1;

            In the docs the feature will be moved from the list of obsolete
            features to the list of deprecated features. See the section on
            Deprecated Features below.

       Removing features
            Finally features will be removed silently in the next major stable
            release. The feature will be shown in the list of historic
            features.  See the section on Historic Features below.

       Example: The statement handle attribute


       was declared obsolete in DBD::mysql 2.00xy. It was considered
       deprecated in DBD::mysql 2.02xy and removed in 2.04xy.

       Obsolete Features

       Database handle attributes
            The following database handle attributes are declared obsolete in
            DBD::mysql 2.09. They will be deprecated in 2.11 and removed in

                 Replaced by $dbh->{'mysql_errno'}

                 Replaced by $dbh->{'mysql_error'}

                 Replaced by $dbh->{'mysql_hostinfo'}

                 Replaced by $dbh->{'mysql_info'}

                 Replaced by $dbh->{'mysql_protoinfo'}

                 Replaced by $dbh->{'mysql_serverinfo'}

                 Replaced by $dbh->{'mysql_stat'}

                 Replaced by $dbh->{'mysql_thread_id'}

       Deprecated Features

            Replace with the standard DBI method $dbh->tables(). See also
            $dbh->table_info(). Portable applications will prefer

                @tables = map { $_ =~ s/.*\.//; $_ } $dbh-E<gt>tables()

            because, depending on the engine, the string "user.table" will be
            returned, user being the table owner. The method will be removed
            in DBD::mysql version 3.11.

       Historic Features


            The methods

                $dbh-E<gt>func($db, '_CreateDB');
                $dbh-E<gt>func($db, '_DropDB');

            have been used for creating or dropping databases. They have been
            removed in 1.21_07 in favour of

                $drh-E<gt>func("createdb", $dbname, $host, "admin")
                $drh-E<gt>func("dropdb", $dbname, $host, "admin")

            The method

                $sth = $dbh-E<gt>func($table, '_ListFields');

            has been used to list a tables columns names, types and other
            attributes.  This method has been removed in 1.21_07 in favour of

                $sth = $dbh-E<gt>prepare("LISTFIELDS $table");

            The method


            use to return a hash ref of attributes like 'IS_NUM', 'IS_KEY' and
            so on. These attributes are now accessible via


            and so on. Thus the method has been removed in 1.21_07.

            The method


            used to be equivalent to


            and has been removed in 1.21_07.

            The method


            used to be equivalent with


       Statement handle attributes

                 Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_affected_rows'} or the result of

                 Replaced with $sth->{'PRECISION'}.

                 Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_max_length'}.

                 Replaced with $sth->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
                 $sth->{'mysql_type_name'} (MySQL specific).

                 Replaced with $sth->->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
                 $sth->{'mysql_is_num'} (MySQL specific).

       insertid  Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_insertid'}.

       IS_BLOB   Replaced with $sth->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
                 $sth->{'mysql_is_blob'} (MySQL specific).

       is_blob   Replaced with $sth->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
                 $sth->{'mysql_is_blob'} (MySQL specific).

                 Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_is_pri_key'}.

                 Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_is_pri_key'}.

                 Replaced with $sth->{'NULLABLE'} (do not forget to invert the
                 boolean values).

                 Replaced with $sth->{'NULLABLE'} (do not forget to invert the
                 boolean values).

       IS_NUM    Replaced with $sth->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
                 $sth->{'mysql_is_num'} (MySQL specific).

       is_num    Replaced with $sth->{'TYPE'} (portable) or
                 $sth->{'mysql_is_num'} (MySQL specific).

       IS_KEY    Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_is_key'}.

       is_key    Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_is_key'}.

       MAXLENGTH Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_max_length'}.

       maxlength Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_max_length'}.

       LENGTH    Replaced with $sth->{'PRECISION'} (portable) or
                 $sth->{'mysql_length'} (MySQL specific)

       length    Replaced with $sth->{'PRECISION'} (portable) or
                 $sth->{'mysql_length'} (MySQL specific)

       NUMFIELDS Replaced with $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'}.

       numfields Replaced with $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'}.

       NUMROWS   Replaced with the result of $sth->execute() or

       TABLE     Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_table'}.

       table     Replaced with $sth->{'mysql_table'}.

       The multithreading capabilities of DBD::mysql depend completely on the
       underlying C libraries: The modules are working with handle data only,
       no global variables are accessed or (to the best of my knowledge)
       thread unsafe functions are called. Thus DBD::mysql is believed to be
       completely thread safe, if the C libraries are thread safe and you
       don't share handles among threads.

       The obvious question is: Are the C libraries thread safe?  In the case
       of MySQL the answer is "mostly" and, in theory, you should be able to
       get a "yes", if the C library is compiled for being thread safe (By
       default it isn't.) by passing the option -with-thread-safe-client to
       configure. See the section on How to make a threadsafe client in the

       Windows users may skip this section and pass over to the section on
       WIN32 INSTALLATION below. Others, go on reading.

       First of all, you do not need an installed MySQL server for installing
       DBD::mysql. However, you need at least the client libraries and
       possibly the header files, if you are compiling DBD::mysql from source.
       In the case of MySQL you can create a client-only version by using the
       configure option --without-server.  If you are using precompiled
       binaries, then it may be possible to use just selected RPM's like
       MySQL-client and MySQL-devel or something similar, depending on the

       First you need to install the DBI module. For using dbimon, a simple
       DBI shell it is recommended to install Data::ShowTable another Perl

       I recommend trying automatic installation via the CPAN module. Try

         perl -MCPAN -e shell

       If you are using the CPAN module for the first time, it will prompt you
       a lot of questions. If you finally receive the CPAN prompt, enter

         install Bundle::DBD::mysql

       If this fails (which may be the case for a number of reasons, for
       example because you are behind a firewall or don't have network
       access), you need to do a manual installation. First of all you need to
       fetch the archives from any CPAN mirror, for example


       The following archives are required (version numbers may have changed,
       I choose those which are current as of this writing):


       Then enter the following commands:

         gzip -cd DBI-1.15.tar.gz ⎪ tar xf -
         cd DBI-1.15
         perl Makefile.PL
         make test
         make install

         cd ..
         gzip -cd Data-ShowTable-3.3.tar.gz ⎪ tar xf -
         cd Data-ShowTable-3.3
         perl Makefile.PL
         make install  # Don't try make test, the test suite is broken

         cd ..
         gzip -cd DBD-mysql-2.1001.tar.gz ⎪ tar xf -
         cd DBD-mysql-2.1001
         perl Makefile.PL
         make test
         make install

       During "perl Makefile.PL" you will be prompted some questions.  Other
       questions are the directories with header files and libraries.  For
       example, of your file mysql.h is in /usr/include/mysql/mysql.h, then
       enter the header directory /usr, likewise for
       /usr/lib/mysql/libmysqlclient.a or /usr/lib/libmysqlclient.so.

       If you are using ActivePerl, you may use ppm to install DBD-mysql.  For
       Perl 5.6, upgrade to Build 623 or later, then it is sufficient to run

         ppm install DBI
         ppm install DBD::mysql

       The same applied to Perl 5.005.

       Otherwise you definitely *need* a C compiler. And it *must* be the same
       compiler that was being used for compiling Perl itself. If you don't
       have a C compiler, the file README.win32 from the Perl source
       distribution tells you where to obtain freely distributable C compilers
       like egcs or gcc. The Perl sources are available on any CPAN mirror in
       the src directory, for example


       I recommend using the win32clients package for installing DBD::mysql
       under Win32, available for download on www.tcx.se. The following steps
       have been required for me:

       -    The current Perl versions (5.6, as of this writing) do have a
            problem with detecting the C libraries. I recommend to apply the
            following patch:

              *** c:\Perl\lib\ExtUtils\Liblist.pm.orig Sat Apr 15 20:03:40 2000
              --- c:\Perl\lib\ExtUtils\Liblist.pm      Sat Apr 15 20:03:45 2000
              *** 230,235 ****
              --- 230,239 ----
                  # add "$Config{installarchlib}/CORE" to default search path
                  push @libpath, "$Config{installarchlib}/CORE";

              +     if ($VC  and  exists($ENV{LIB})  and  defined($ENV{LIB})) {
              +       push(@libpath, split(/;/, $ENV{LIB}));
              +     }
                  foreach (Text::ParseWords::quotewords('\s+', 0, $potential_libs)){

                    $thislib = $_;

            =item -

            Extract sources into C:\. This will create a directory C:\mysql
            with subdirectories include and lib.

            IMPORTANT: Make sure this subdirectory is not shared by other TCX
            files! In particular do *not* store the MySQL server in the same
            directory. If the server is already installed in C:\mysql, choose
            a location like C:\tmp, extract the win32clients there.  Note that
            you can remove this directory entirely once you have installed

       -    Extract the DBD::mysql sources into another directory, for example

       -    Open a DOS shell and change directory to C:\src\siteperl.

       -    The next step is only required if you repeat building the modules:
            Make sure that you have a clean build tree by running

              nmake realclean

            If you don't have VC++, replace nmake with your flavour of make.
            If error messages are reported in this step, you may safely ignore

       -    Run

              perl Makefile.PL

            which will prompt you for some settings. The really important ones

              Which DBMS do you want to use?

            enter a 1 here (MySQL only), and

              Where is your mysql installed? Please tell me the directory that
              contains the subdir include.

            where you have to enter the win32clients directory, for example
            C:\mysql or C:\tmp\mysql.

       -    Continued in the usual way:

              nmake install

       If you want to create a PPM package for the ActiveState Perl version,
       then modify the above steps as follows: Run

         perl Makefile.PL NAME=DBD-mysql BINARY_LOCATION=DBD-mysql.tar.gz
         nmake ppd

       Once that is done, use tar and gzip (for example those from the
       CygWin32 distribution) to create an archive:

         mkdir x86
         tar cf x86/DBD-mysql.tar blib
         gzip x86/DBD-mysql.tar

       Put the files x86/DBD-mysql.tar.gz and DBD-mysql.ppd onto some WWW
       server and install them by typing

         install http://your.server.name/your/directory/DBD-mysql.ppd

       in the PPM program.

       The current version of DBD::mysql is almost completely written by
       Jochen Wiedmann (joe@ispsoft.de). The first version's author was
       Alligator Descartes(descarte@symbolstone.org), who has been aided and
       abetted by Gary Shea, Andreas König and Tim Bunce amongst others.

       The Mysql module was originally written by Andreas König
       <koenig@kulturbox.de>. The current version, mainly an emulation layer,
       is from Jochen Wiedmann.

       This module is Copyright (c) 1997-2001 Jochen Wiedmann, with code
       portions Copyright (c)1994-1997 their original authors. This module is
       released under the same license as Perl itself. See the Perl README for

       This module is maintained and supported on a mailing list,


       To subscribe to this list, send a mail to




       Mailing list archives are available at


       Additionally you might try the dbi-user mailing list for questions
       about DBI and its modules in general. Subscribe via


       Mailing list archives are at


       Additional information on the DBI project can be found on the World
       Wide Web at the following URL:


       where documentation, pointers to the mailing lists and mailing list
       archives and pointers to the most current versions of the modules can
       be used.

       Information on the DBI interface itself can be gained by typing:

           perldoc DBI

       right now!

3rd Berkeley Distribution    perl 5.005, patch 03                     MYSQL(1)