DBD::mysql::INSTALL(3)User Contributed Perl DocumentatioDBD::mysql::INSTALL(3)

       DBD::mysql::INSTALL - How to install and configure DBD::mysql

         perl Makefile.PL [options]
         make test
         make install

       This document describes the installation and configuration of
       DBD::mysql, the Perl DBI driver for the MySQL database. Before reading
       on, make sure that you have the prerequisites available: Perl, MySQL
       and DBI. For details see the separate section "PREREQUISITES".

       Depending on your version of Perl, it might be possible to use a binary
       distribution of DBD::mysql. If possible, this is recommended. Otherwise
       you need to install from the sources.  If so, you will definitely need
       a C compiler. Installation from binaries and sources are both described
       in separate sections. "BINARY INSTALLATION". "SOURCE INSTALLATION".

       Finally, if you encounter any problems, do not forget to read the
       section on known problems "KNOWN PROBLEMS". If that doesn't help, you
       should check the section on "SUPPORT".

           Preferably a version of Perl, that comes preconfigured with your
           system. For example, all Linux and FreeBSD distributions come with
           Perl. For Windows, use ActivePerl
           <https://www.activestate.com/activeperl> or Strawberry Perl

           You need not install the actual MySQL database server, the client
           files and the development files are sufficient. For example, Fedora
           Linux distribution comes with RPM files (using YUM) mysql and
           mysql-server (use "yum search" to find exact package names). These
           are sufficient, if the MySQL server is located on a foreign
           machine.  You may also create client files by compiling from the
           MySQL source distribution and using

             configure --without-server

           If you are using Windows and need to compile from sources (which is
           only the case if you are not using ActivePerl or Strawberry Perl),
           then you must ensure that the header and library files are
           installed. This may require choosing a "Custom installation" and
           selecting the appropriate option when running the MySQL setup

       DBI DBD::mysql is a DBI driver, hence you need DBI. It is available
           from the same source where you got the DBD::mysql distribution

       C compiler
           A C compiler is only required if you install from source. In most
           cases there are binary distributions of DBD::mysql available.
           However, if you need a C compiler, make sure, that it is the same C
           compiler that was used for compiling Perl and MySQL! Otherwise you
           will almost definitely encounter problems because of differences in
           the underlying C runtime libraries.

           In the worst case, this might mean to compile Perl and MySQL
           yourself. But believe me, experience shows that a lot of problems
           are fixed this way.

       Gzip libraries
           Late versions of MySQL come with support for compression. Thus it
           may be required that you have install an RPM package like libz-
           devel, libgz-devel or something similar.

       Binary installation is possible in the most cases, depending on your

       Strawberry Perl

       Strawberry Perl comes bundled with DBD::mysql and the needed client

       ActiveState Perl

       ActivePerl offers a PPM archive of DBD::mysql. All you need to do is
       typing in a cmd.exe window:

         ppm install DBD-mysql

       This will fetch the module via HTTP and install them. If you need to
       use a WWW proxy server, the environment variable HTTP_proxy must be

         set HTTP_proxy=http://myproxy.example.com:8080/
         ppm install DBD-mysql

       Of course you need to replace the host name "myproxy.example.com" and
       the port number 8080 with your local values.

       If the above procedure doesn't work, please upgrade to the latest
       version of ActivePerl. ActiveState has a policy where it only provides
       access free-of-charge for the PPM mirrors of the last few stable Perl
       releases. If you have an older perl, you'd either need to upgrade your
       perl or contact ActiveState about a subscription.

   Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), CentOS and Fedora
       Red Hat Enterprise Linux, its community derivatives such as CentOS, and
       Fedora come with MySQL and DBD::mysql.

       Use the following command to install DBD::mysql:

           yum install "perl(DBD::mysql)"

   Debian and Ubuntu
       On Debian, Ubuntu and derivatives you can install DBD::mysql from the
       repositories with the following command:

           sudo apt-get install libdbd-mysql-perl

   SLES and openSUSE
       On SUSE Linux Enterprise and the community version openSUSE, you can
       install DBD::mysql from the repositories with the following command:

           zypper install perl-DBD-mysql

   Other systems
       In the case of other Linux or FreeBSD distributions it is very likely
       that all you need comes with your distribution.  I just cannot give you
       names, as I am not using these systems.

       Please let me know if you find the files in your favorite Linux or
       FreeBSD distribution so that I can extend the above list.

       So you need to install from sources. If you are lucky, the Perl module
       "CPAN" will do all for you, thanks to the excellent work of Andreas
       König. Otherwise you will need to do a manual installation.  All of
       these installation types have their own section: "CPAN installation",
       "Manual installation" and "Configuration".

       The DBD::mysql Makefile.PL needs to know where to find your MySQL
       installation. This may be achieved using command line switches (see
       "Configuration") or automatically using the mysql_config binary which
       comes with most MySQL distributions. If your MySQL distribution
       contains mysql_config the easiest method is to ensure this binary is on
       your path.

       Typically, this is the case if you've installed the mysql library from
       your systems' package manager.


         export PATH

       As stated, to compile DBD::mysql you'll need a C compiler. This should
       be the same compiler as the one used to build perl AND the mysql client
       libraries. If you're on linux, this is most typically the case and you
       need not worry. If you're on UNIX systems, you might want to pay

       Also you'll need to get the MySQL client and development headers on
       your system. The easiest is to get these from your package manager.

       To run the tests that ship with the module, you'll need access to a
       running MySQL server. This can be running on localhost, but it can also
       be on a remote machine.

       On Fedora the process is as follows. Please note that Fedora actually
       ships with MariaDB but not with MySQL. This is not a problem, it will
       work just as well.  In this example we install and start a local server
       for running the tests against.

           yum -y install make gcc mariadb-devel mariadb-libs mariadb-server
           yum -y install "perl(Test::Deep)" "perl(Test::More)"
           systemctl start mariadb.service

   Environment Variables
       For ease of use, you can set environment variables for DBD::mysql
       installation. You can set any or all of the options, and export them by
       putting them in your .bashrc or the like:

           export DBD_MYSQL_CFLAGS=-I/usr/local/mysql/include/mysql
           export DBD_MYSQL_LIBS="-L/usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient"
           export DBD_MYSQL_EMBEDDED=
           export DBD_MYSQL_CONFIG=mysql_config
           export DBD_MYSQL_NOCATCHSTDERR=0
           export DBD_MYSQL_NOFOUNDROWS=0
           export DBD_MYSQL_NOSSL=
           export DBD_MYSQL_TESTDB=test
           export DBD_MYSQL_TESTHOST=localhost
           export DBD_MYSQL_TESTPASSWORD=s3kr1+
           export DBD_MYSQL_TESTPORT=3306
           export DBD_MYSQL_TESTUSER=me

       The most useful may be the host, database, port, socket, user, and

       Installation will first look to your mysql_config, and then your
       environment variables, and then it will guess with intelligent

   CPAN installation
       Installation of DBD::mysql can be incredibly easy:

         cpan DBD::mysql

       Please note that this will only work if the prerequisites are
       fulfilled, which means you have a C-compiler installed, and you have
       the development headers and mysql client libraries available on your

       If you are using the CPAN module for the first time, just answer the
       questions by accepting the defaults which are fine in most cases.

       If you cannot get the CPAN module working, you might try manual
       installation. If installation with CPAN fails because the your local
       settings have been guessed wrong, you need to ensure MySQL's
       mysql_config is on your path (see "SOURCE INSTALLATION") or
       alternatively create a script called "mysql_config". This is described
       in more details later. "Configuration".

   Manual installation
       For a manual installation you need to fetch the DBD::mysql source
       distribution. The latest version is always available from


       The name is typically something like


       The archive needs to be extracted. On Windows you may use a tool like
       7-zip, on *nix you type

         tar xf DBD-mysql-4.025.tar.gz

       This will create a subdirectory DBD-mysql-4.025. Enter this
       subdirectory and type

         perl Makefile.PL
         make test

       (On Windows you may need to replace "make" with "dmake" or "nmake".) If
       the tests seem to look fine, you may continue with

         make install

       If the compilation (make) or tests fail, you might need to configure
       some settings.

       For example you might choose a different database, the C compiler or
       the linker might need some flags. "Configuration".  "Compiler flags".
       "Linker flags".

       For Cygwin there is a special section below.  "Cygwin".

       The install script "Makefile.PL" can be configured via a lot of
       switches. All switches can be used on the command line. For example,
       the test database:

         perl Makefile.PL --testdb=<db>

       If you do not like configuring these switches on the command line, you
       may alternatively create a script called "mysql_config".  This is
       described later on.

       Available switches are:

           Name of the test database, defaults to test.

           Name of the test user, defaults to empty. If the name is empty,
           then the currently logged in users name will be used.

           Password of the test user, defaults to empty.

           Host name or IP number of the test database; defaults to localhost.

           Port number of the test database

       ps-protcol=1 or 0
           Whether to run the test suite using server prepared statements or
           driver emulated prepared statements. ps-protocol=1 means use server
           prepare, ps-protocol=0 means driver emulated.

           This is a list of flags that you want to give to the C compiler.
           The most important flag is the location of the MySQL header files.
           For example, on Red Hat Linux the header files are in
           /usr/include/mysql and you might try


           On Windows the header files may be in C:\mysql\include and you
           might try


           The default flags are determined by running

             mysql_config --cflags

           More details on the C compiler flags can be found in the following
           section. "Compiler flags".

           This is a list of flags that you want to give to the linker or
           loader. The most important flags are the locations and names of
           additional libraries. For example, on Red Hat Linux your MySQL
           client libraries are in /usr/lib/mysql and you might try

             -L/usr/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient -lz

           On Windows the libraries may be in C:\mysql\lib and

             -LC:\mysql\lib -lmysqlclient

           might be a good choice. The default flags are determined by running

             mysql_config --libs

           More details on the linker flags can be found in a separate
           section.  "Linker flags".

       If a switch is not present on the command line, then the script
       "mysql_config" will be executed. This script comes as part of the MySQL
       distribution. For example, to determine the C compiler flags, we are

         mysql_config --cflags
         mysql_config --libs

       If you want to configure your own settings for database name, database
       user and so on, then you have to create a script with the same name,
       that replies

   Compiler flags
       Note: the following info about compiler and linker flags, you shouldn't
       have to use these options because Makefile.PL is pretty good at
       utilizing mysql_config to get the flags that you need for a successful

       It is typically not so difficult to determine the appropriate flags for
       the C compiler. The linker flags, which you find in the next section,
       are another story.

       The determination of the C compiler flags is usually left to a
       configuration script called mysql_config, which can be invoked with

         mysql_config --cflags

       When doing so, it will emit a line with suggested C compiler flags, for
       example like this:


       The C compiler must find some header files. Header files have the
       extension ".h". MySQL header files are, for example, mysql.h and
       mysql_version.h. In most cases the header files are not installed by
       default. For example, on Windows it is an installation option of the
       MySQL setup program (Custom installation), whether the header files are
       installed or not. On Red Hat Linux, you need to install an RPM archive
       mysql-devel or MySQL-devel.

       If you know the location of the header files, then you will need to add
       an option

         -L<header directory>

       to the C compiler flags, for example "-L/usr/include/mysql".

   Linker flags
       Appropriate linker flags are the most common source of problems while
       installing DBD::mysql. I will only give a rough overview, you'll find
       more details in the troubleshooting section.  "KNOWN PROBLEMS"

       The determination of the C compiler flags is usually left to a
       configuration script called mysql_config, which can be invoked with

         mysql_config --libs

       When doing so, it will emit a line with suggested C compiler flags, for
       example like this:

          -L'/usr/lib/mysql' -lmysqlclient -lnsl -lm -lz -lcrypt

       The following items typically need to be configured for the linker:

       The mysqlclient library
           The MySQL client library comes as part of the MySQL distribution.
           Depending on your system it may be a file called

             F<libmysqlclient.a>   statically linked library, Unix
             F<libmysqlclient.so>  dynamically linked library, Unix
             F<mysqlclient.lib>    statically linked library, Windows
             F<mysqlclient.dll>    dynamically linked library, Windows

           or something similar.

           As in the case of the header files, the client library is typically
           not installed by default. On Windows you will need to select them
           while running the MySQL setup program (Custom installation). On Red
           Hat Linux an RPM archive mysql-devel or MySQL-devel must be

           The linker needs to know the location and name of the mysqlclient
           library. This can be done by adding the flags

             -L<lib directory> -lmysqlclient

           or by adding the complete path name. Examples:

             -L/usr/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient
             -LC:\mysql\lib -lmysqlclient

           If you would like to use the static libraries (and there are
           excellent reasons to do so), you need to create a separate
           directory, copy the static libraries to that place and use the -L
           switch above to point to your new directory. For example:

             mkdir /tmp/mysql-static
             cp /usr/lib/mysql/*.a /tmp/mysql-static
             perl Makefile.PL --libs="-L/tmp/mysql-static -lmysqlclient"
             make test
             make install
             rm -rf /tmp/mysql-static

       The gzip library
           The MySQL client can use compression when talking to the MySQL
           server, a nice feature when sending or receiving large texts over a
           slow network.

           On Unix you typically find the appropriate file name by running

             ldconfig -p | grep libz
             ldconfig -p | grep libgz

           Once you know the name (libz.a or libgz.a is best), just add it to
           the list of linker flags. If this seems to be causing problem you
           may also try to link without gzip libraries.

       Connecting to your servers over an encrypted connection (SSL) is only
       possible if you enabled this setting at build time. Since version
       4.034, this is the default.

       Attempting to connect to a server that requires an encrypted connection
       without first having DBD::mysql compiled with the "--ssl" option will
       result in an error that makes things appear as if your password is

       If you want to compile DBD::mysql without SSL support, which you might
       probably only want if you for some reason can't install libssl headers,
       you can do this by passing the "--nossl" option to Makefile.PL or by
       setting the DBD_MYSQL_NOSSL environment variable to '1'.

       The MariaDB native client is another option for connecting to a MySQL·
       database licensed LGPL 2.1. To build DBD::mysql against this client,
       you will first need to build the client. Generally, this is done with
       the following:

         cd path/to/src/mariadb-native-client
         cmake -G "Unix Makefiles'
         sudo make install

       Once the client is built and installed, you can build DBD::mysql
       against it:

         perl Makefile.PL --testuser=xxx --testpassword=xxx --testsocket=/path/to//mysqld.sock --mysql_config=/usr/local/bin/mariadb_config·
         make test
         make install

       Below you find information on particular systems:

       For installing DBD::mysql you need to have the libssl header files and
       the mysql client libs. The easiest way to install these is using
       Homebrew (<https://brew.sh/>).

       Once you have Homebrew set up, you can simply install the dependencies

           brew install openssl mysql-connector-c

       Then you can install DBD::mysql using your cpan client.

       If you are a user of Cygwin you already know, it contains a nicely
       running perl 5.6.1, installation of additional modules usually works
       like a charm via the standard procedure of

           perl makefile.PL
           make test
           make install

       The Windows binary distribution of MySQL runs smoothly under Cygwin.
       You can start/stop the server and use all Windows clients without
       problem.  But to install DBD::mysql you have to take a little special

       Don't attempt to build DBD::mysql against either the MySQL Windows or
       Linux/Unix BINARY distributions: neither will work!

       You MUST compile the MySQL clients yourself under Cygwin, to get a
       'libmysqlclient.a' compiled under Cygwin. Really! You'll only need that
       library and the header files, you don't need any other client parts.
       Continue to use the Windows binaries. And don't attempt (currently) to
       build the MySQL Server part, it is unnecessary, as MySQL AB does an
       excellent job to deliver optimized binaries for the mainstream
       operating systems, and it is told, that the server compiled under
       Cygwin is unstable.

       Install a MySQL server for testing against. You can install the regular
       Windows MySQL server package on your Windows machine, or you can also
       test against a MySQL server on a remote host.

       Build MySQL clients under Cygwin:

       download the MySQL LINUX source from <https://www.mysql.com/downloads>,
       unpack mysql-<version>.tar.gz into some tmp location and from this
       directory run configure:

         ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --without-server

       This prepares the Makefile with the installed Cygwin features. It takes
       some time, but should finish without error. The 'prefix', as given,
       installs the whole Cygwin/MySQL thingy into a location not normally in
       your PATH, so that you continue to use already installed Windows
       binaries. The --without-server parameter tells configure to only build
       the clients.


       This builds all MySQL client parts ... be patient. It should finish
       finally without any error.

         make install

       This installs the compiled client files under /usr/local/mysql/.
       Remember, you don't need anything except the library under
       /usr/local/mysql/lib and the headers under /usr/local/mysql/include!

       Essentially you are now done with this part. If you want, you may try
       your compiled binaries shortly; for that, do:

         cd /usr/local/mysql/bin
         ./mysql -h

       The host (-h) parameter targets the local host, but forces
       the mysql client to use a TCP/IP connection. The default would be a
       pipe/socket connection (even if you say '-h localhost') and this
       doesn't work between Cygwin and Windows (as far as I know).

       If you have your MySQL server running on some other box, then please
       substitute '' with the name or IP-number of that box.

       Please note, in my environment the 'mysql' client did not accept a
       simple RETURN, I had to use CTRL-RETURN to send commands ... strange,
       but I didn't attempt to fix that, as we are only interested in the
       built lib and headers.

       At the 'mysql>' prompt do a quick check:

         mysql> use mysql
         mysql> show tables;
         mysql> select * from db;
         mysql> exit

       You are now ready to build DBD::mysql!

       compile DBD::mysql

       download and extract DBD-mysql-<version>.tar.gz from CPAN

       cd into unpacked dir DBD-mysql-<version> you probably did that already,
       if you are reading this!

         cp /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config .

       This copies the executable script mentioned in the DBD::mysql docs from
       your just built Cywin/MySQL client directory; it knows about your
       Cygwin installation, especially about the right libraries to link with.

         perl Makefile.PL --testhost=

       The --testhost= parameter again forces a TCP/IP connection to
       the MySQL server on the local host instead of a pipe/socket connection
       for the 'make test' phase.


       This should run without error

         make test
         make install

       This installs DBD::mysql into the Perl hierarchy.

   no gzip on your system
       Some Linux distributions don't come with a gzip library by default.
       Running "make" terminates with an error message like

         LD_RUN_PATH="/usr/lib/mysql:/lib:/usr/lib" gcc
           -o blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so  -shared
           -L/usr/local/lib dbdimp.o mysql.o -L/usr/lib/mysql
           -lmysqlclient -lm -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96
           -lgcc -lz
         /usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lz
         collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
         make: *** [blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so] Error 1

       If this is the case for you, install an RPM archive like libz-devel,
       libgz-devel, zlib-devel or gzlib-devel or something similar.

   different compiler for mysql and perl
       If Perl was compiled with gcc or egcs, but MySQL was compiled with
       another compiler or on another system, an error message like this is
       very likely when running "Make test":

         t/00base............install_driver(mysql) failed: Can't load
         '../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so' for module DBD::mysql:
         ../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so: undefined symbol: _umoddi3
         at /usr/local/perl-5.005/lib/5.005/i586-linux-thread/DynaLoader.pm
         line 168.

       This means, that your linker doesn't include libgcc.a. You have the
       following options:

       The solution is telling the linker to use libgcc. Run

         gcc --print-libgcc-file

       to determine the exact location of libgcc.a or for older versions of

         gcc -v

       to determine the directory. If you know the directory, add a

         -L<directory> -lgcc

       to the list of C compiler flags. "Configuration". "Linker flags".

       Finally, if everything else fails, you are not alone. First of all, for
       an immediate answer, you should look into the archives of the dbi-users
       mailing list, which is available at

       To subscribe to this list, send and email to


       If you don't find an appropriate posting and reply in the mailing list,
       please post a question. Typically a reply will be seen within one or
       two days.

perl v5.30.0                      2019-06-01            DBD::mysql::INSTALL(3)