Error(3)              User Contributed Perl Documentation             Error(3)

       Error - Error/exception handling in an OO-ish way

           use Error qw(:try);

           throw Error::Simple( "A simple error");

           sub xyz {
               record Error::Simple("A simple error")
                   and return;

           unlink($file) or throw Error::Simple("$file: $!",$!);

           try {
               die "error!" if $condition;
               throw Error::Simple -text => "Oops!" if $other_condition;
           catch Error::IO with {
               my $E = shift;
               print STDERR "File ", $E->{'-file'}, " had a problem\n";
           except {
               my $E = shift;
               my $general_handler=sub {send_message $E->{-description}};
               return {
                   UserException1 => $general_handler,
                   UserException2 => $general_handler
           otherwise {
               print STDERR "Well I don't know what to say\n";
           finally {
               close_the_garage_door_already(); # Should be reliable
           }; # Don't forget the trailing ; or you might be surprised

       The Error package provides two interfaces. Firstly Error provides a
       procedural interface to exception handling. Secondly Error is a base
       class for errors/exceptions that can either be thrown, for subsequent
       catch, or can simply be recorded.

       Errors in the class Error should not be thrown directly, but the user
       should throw errors from a sub-class of Error.

       Error exports subroutines to perform exception handling. These will be
       exported if the :try tag is used in the use line.

       try BLOCK CLAUSES
           try is the main subroutine called by the user. All other
           subroutines exported are clauses to the try subroutine.

           The BLOCK will be evaluated and, if no error is throw, try will
           return the result of the block.

           CLAUSES are the subroutines below, which describe what to do in the
           event of an error being thrown within BLOCK.

       catch CLASS with BLOCK
           This clauses will cause all errors that satisfy $err->isa(CLASS) to
           be caught and handled by evaluating BLOCK.

           BLOCK will be passed two arguments. The first will be the error
           being thrown. The second is a reference to a scalar variable. If
           this variable is set by the catch block then, on return from the
           catch block, try will continue processing as if the catch block was
           never found.

           To propagate the error the catch block may call $err->throw

           If the scalar reference by the second argument is not set, and the
           error is not thrown. Then the current try block will return with
           the result from the catch block.

       except BLOCK
           When try is looking for a handler, if an except clause is found
           BLOCK is evaluated. The return value from this block should be a
           HASHREF or a list of key-value pairs, where the keys are class
           names and the values are CODE references for the handler of errors
           of that type.

       otherwise BLOCK
           Catch any error by executing the code in BLOCK

           When evaluated BLOCK will be passed one argument, which will be the
           error being processed.

           Only one otherwise block may be specified per try block

       finally BLOCK
           Execute the code in BLOCK either after the code in the try block
           has successfully completed, or if the try block throws an error
           then BLOCK will be executed after the handler has completed.

           If the handler throws an error then the error will be caught, the
           finally block will be executed and the error will be re-thrown.

           Only one finally block may be specified per try block


       The Error object is implemented as a HASH. This HASH is initialized
       with the arguments that are passed to it's constructor. The elements
       that are used by, or are retrievable by the Error class are listed
       below, other classes may add to these.


       If -file or -line are not specified in the constructor arguments then
       these will be initialized with the file name and line number where the
       constructor was called from.

       If the error is associated with an object then the object should be
       passed as the -object argument. This will allow the Error package to
       associate the error with the object.

       The Error package remembers the last error created, and also the last
       error associated with a package. This could either be the last error
       created by a sub in that package, or the last error which passed an
       object blessed into that package as the -object argument.

       throw ( [ ARGS ] )
           Create a new Error object and throw an error, which will be caught
           by a surrounding try block, if there is one. Otherwise it will
           cause the program to exit.

           throw may also be called on an existing error to re-throw it.

       with ( [ ARGS ] )
           Create a new Error object and returns it. This is defined for
           syntactic sugar, eg

               die with Some::Error ( ... );

       record ( [ ARGS ] )
           Create a new Error object and returns it. This is defined for
           syntactic sugar, eg

               record Some::Error ( ... )
                   and return;


       prior ( [ PACKAGE ] )
           Return the last error created, or the last error associated with


           If the variable $Error::Debug was non-zero when the error was
           created, then stacktrace returns a string created by calling
           Carp::longmess. If the variable was zero the stacktrace returns the
           text of the error appended with the filename and line number of
           where the error was created, providing the text does not end with a

           The object this error was associated with

           The file where the constructor of this error was called from

           The line where the constructor of this error was called from

           The text of the error


           A method that converts the object into a string. This method may
           simply return the same as the text method, or it may append more
           information. For example the file name and line number.

           By default this method returns the -text argument that was passed
           to the constructor, or the string "Died" if none was given.

           A method that will return a value that can be associated with the
           error. For example if an error was created due to the failure of a
           system call, then this may return the numeric value of $! at the

           By default this method returns the -value argument that was passed
           to the constructor.

           This class can be used to hold simple error strings and values.
           It's constructor takes two arguments. The first is a text value,
           the second is a numeric value. These values are what will be
           returned by the overload methods.

           If the text value ends with at file line 1 as $@ strings do, then
           this infomation will be used to set the -file and -line arguments
           of the error object.

           This class is used internally if an eval'd block die's with an
           error that is a plain string.

       None, but that does not mean there are not any.

       Graham Barr <>

       The code that inspired me to write this was originally written by Peter
       Seibel <> and adapted by Jesse Glick

       Arun Kumar U <>

3rd Berkeley Distribution    perl 5.005, patch 03                     Error(3)