UIL

UIL(file formats)                                            UIL(file formats)



NAME
       UIL — The user interface language file format

SYNOPSIS
       MODULE module_name
       [ NAMES = CASE_INSENSITIVE | CASE_SENSITIVE ]
       [ CHARACTER_SET = character_set ]
       [ OBJECTS = { widget_name = GADGET | WIDGET; [...] } ]
       { [
       [ value_section ] |
       [ procedure_section ] |
       [ list_section ] |
       [ object_section ] |
       [ identifier_section ]
       [ ... ]
       ] }
       END MODULE;

DESCRIPTION
       The UIL language is used for describing the initial state of a user
       interface for a widget based application. UIL describes the widgets
       used in the interface, the resources of those widgets, and the
       callbacks of those widgets. The UIL file is compiled into a UID file
       using the command uil or by the callable compiler Uil(). The contents
       of the compiled UID file can then be accessed by the various Motif
       Resource Management (MRM) functions from within an application program.

       The UID file is independent of the platform on which the Motif program
       will eventually be run. In other words, the same UID file can be used
       on any system that can run Motif.

   File
       A UIL file consists of a single complete module, described in the
       syntax description above, or, if the file is to be included in a larger
       UIL file, one complete "section," as described below. UIL uses five
       different kinds of sections: value, procedure, list, object, and
       identifier.

       UIL is a free-form language. This means that high-level constructs such
       as object and value declarations do not need to begin in any particular
       column and can span any number of lines. Low-level constructs such as
       keywords and punctuation characters can also begin in any column;
       however, except for string literals and comments, they cannot span
       lines.

       The UIL compiler accepts input lines up to 132 characters in length.

       MODULE module_name
                 The name by which the UIL module is known in the UID file.
                 This name is stored in the UID file for later use in the
                 retrieval of resources by the MRM.  This name is always
                 stored in uppercase in the UID file.

       NAMES = CASE_INSENSITIVE | CASE_SENSITIVE

                 Indicates whether names should be treated as case sensitive
                 or case insensitive. The default is case sensitive.  The
                 case-sensitivity clause should be the first clause in the
                 module header, and in any case must precede any statement
                 that contains a name.  If names are case sensitive in a UIL
                 module, UIL keywords in that module must be in lowercase.
                 Each name is stored in the UIL file in the same case as it
                 appears in the UIL module.  If names are case insensitive,
                 then keywords can be in uppercase, lowercase, or mixed case,
                 and the uppercase equivalent of each name is stored in the
                 UID file.

       CHARACTER_SET = character_set

                 Specifies the default character set for string literals in
                 the module that do not explicitly set their character set.
                 The default character set, in the absence of this clause is
                 the codeset component of the LANG environment variable, or
                 the value of XmFALLBACK_CHARSET if LANG is not set or has no
                 codeset component.  The value of XmFALLBACK_CHARSET is
                 defined by the UIL supplier, but is usually ISO8859-1
                 (equivalent to ISO_LATIN1).  Use of this clause turns off all
                 localized string literal processing turned on by the compiler
                 flag -s or the Uil_command_type data structure element
                 use_setlocale_flag.

       OBJECTS = { widget_name = GADGET | WIDGET; }

                 Indicates whether the widget or gadget form of the control
                 specified by widget_name is used by default.  By default the
                 widget form is used, so the gadget keyword is usually the
                 only one used.  The specified control should be one that has
                 both a widget and gadget version: XmCascadeButton, XmLabel,
                 XmPushButton, XmSeparator, and XmToggleButton.  The form of
                 more than one control can be specified by delimiting them
                 with semicolons.  The gadget or widget form of an instance of
                 a control can be specified with the GADGET and WIDGET
                 keywords in a particular object declaration.

       value_section
                 Provides a way to name a value expression or literal.  The
                 value name can then be referred to by declarations that occur
                 elsewhere in the UIL module in any context where a value can
                 be used.  Values can be forward referenced.  Value sections
                 are described in more detail later in the reference page.

       procedure_section
                 Defines the callback routines used by a widget and the
                 creation routines for user-defined widgets. These definitions
                 are used for error checking.  Procedure sections are
                 described in more detail later in the reference page.

       list_section
                 Provides a way to group together a set of arguments, controls
                 (children), callbacks, or procedures for later use in the UIL
                 module.  Lists can contain other lists, so that you can set
                 up a hierarchy to clearly show which arguments, controls,
                 callbacks, and procedures are common to which widgets.  List
                 sections are described in more detail later in the reference
                 page.

       object_section
                 Defines the objects that make up the user interface of the
                 application.  You can reference the object names in
                 declarations that occur elsewhere in the UIL module in any
                 context where an object name can be used (for example, in a
                 controls list, as a symbolic reference to a widget ID, or as
                 the tag_value argument for a callback procedure).  Objects
                 can be forward referenced.  Object sections are described in
                 more detail later in the reference page.

       identifier_section
                 Defines a run-time binding of data to names that appear in
                 the UIL module.  Identifier sections are described in more
                 detail later in the reference page.

       The UIL file can also contain comments and include directives, which
       are described along with the main elements of the UIL file format in
       the following sections.

   Comments
       Comments can take one of two forms, as follows:

          ·  The comment is introduced with the sequence /* followed by the
             text of the comment and terminated with the sequence */.  This
             form of comment can span multiple source lines.

          ·  The comment is introduced with an ! (exclamation point), followed
             by the text of the comment and terminated by the end of the
             source line.

       Neither form of comment can be nested.

   Value sections
       A value section consists of the keyword VALUE followed by a sequence of
       value declarations. It has the following syntax:

       VALUE value_name : [ EXPORTED | PRIVATE ] value_expression | IMPORTED
       value_type ;

       Where value_expression is assigned to value_name or a value_type is
       assigned to an imported value name.  A value declaration provides a way
       to name a value expression or literal.  The value name can be referred
       to by declarations that occur later in the UIL module in any context
       where a value can be used.  Values can be forward referenced.

       EXPORTED  A value that you define as exported is stored in the UID file
                 as a named resource, and therefore can be referenced by name
                 in other UID files. When you define a value as exported, MRM
                 looks outside the module in which the exported value is
                 declared to get its value at run time.

       PRIVATE   A private value is a value that is not imported or exported.
                 A value that you define as private is not stored as a
                 distinct resource in the UID file.  You can reference a
                 private value only in the UIL module containing the value
                 declaration. The value or object is directly incorporated
                 into anything in the UIL module that references the
                 declaration.

       IMPORTED  A value that you define as imported is one that is defined as
                 a named resource in a UID file. MRM resolves this declaration
                 with the corresponding exported declaration at application
                 run time.

       By default, values and objects are private.  The following is a list of
       the supported value types in UIL:

          ·  ANY

          ·  ARGUMENT

          ·  BOOLEAN

          ·  COLOR

          ·  COLOR_TABLE

          ·  COMPOUND_STRING

          ·  FLOAT

          ·  FONT

          ·  FONT_TABLE

          ·  FONTSET

          ·  ICON

          ·  INTEGER

          ·  INTEGER_TABLE

          ·  KEYSYM

          ·  REASON

          ·  SINGLE_FLOAT

          ·  STRING

          ·  STRING_TABLE

          ·  TRANSLATION_TABLE

          ·  WIDE_CHARACTER

          ·  WIDGET

   Procedure sections
       A procedure section consists of the keyword PROCEDURE followed by a
       sequence of procedure declarations. It has the following syntax:

       PROCEDURE
            procedure_name [ ( [ value_type ]) ];

       Use a procedure declaration to declare

          ·  A routine that can be used as a callback routine for a widget

          ·  The creation function for a user-defined widget

       You can reference a procedure name in declarations that occur later in
       the UIL module in any context where a procedure can be used. Procedures
       can be forward referenced.  You cannot use a name you used in another
       context as a procedure name.

       In a procedure declaration, you have the option of specifying that a
       parameter will be passed to the corresponding callback routine at run
       time. This parameter is called the callback tag. You can specify the
       data type of the callback tag by putting the data type in parentheses
       following the procedure name. When you compile the module, the UIL
       compiler checks that the argument you specify in references to the
       procedure is of this type. Note that the data type of the callback tag
       must be one of the valid UIL data types.  You can use a widget as a
       callback tag, as long as the widget is defined in the same widget
       hierarchy as the callback, that is they have a common ancestor that is
       in the same UIL hierarchy.

       The following list summarizes how the UIL compiler checks argument type
       and argument count, depending on the procedure declaration.

       No parameters
                 No argument type or argument count checking occurs.  You can
                 supply either 0 or one arguments in the procedure reference.

       ( )       Checks that the argument count is 0 (zero).

       (ANY)     Checks that the argument count is 1. Does not check the
                 argument type. Use the ANY type to prevent type checking on
                 procedure tags.

       (type)    Checks for one argument of the specified type.

       (class_name)
                 Checks for one widget argument of the specified widget class.

       While it is possible to use any UIL data type to specify the type of a
       tag in a procedure declaration, you must be able to represent that data
       type in the programming language you are using. Some data types (such
       as integer, Boolean, and string) are common data types recognized by
       most programming languages.  Other UIL data types (such as string
       tables) are more complicated and may require that you set up an
       appropriate corresponding data structure in the application in order to
       pass a tag of that type to a callback routine.

       You can also use a procedure declaration to specify the creation
       function for a user-defined widget. In this case, you specify no formal
       parameters.  The procedure is invoked with the standard three arguments
       passed to all widget creation functions.  (See the Motif Toolkit
       documentation for more information about widget creation functions.)

   List sections
       A list section consists of the keyword LIST followed by a sequence of
       list declarations. It has the following syntax:

       LIST
            list_name: { list_item; [...] }
            [...]

       You can also use list sections to group together a set of arguments,
       controls (children), callbacks, or procedures for later use in the UIL
       module. Lists can contain other lists, so that you can set up a
       hierarchy to clearly show which arguments, controls, callbacks, and
       procedures are common to which widgets.  You cannot mix the different
       types of lists; a list of a particular type cannot contain entries of a
       different list type or reference the name of a different list type.  A
       list name is always private to the UIL module in which you declare the
       list and cannot be stored as a named resource in a UID file.

       The additional list types are described in the following sections.

       Arguments List Structure

       An arguments list defines which arguments are to be specified in the
       arguments list parameter when the creation routine for a particular
       object is called at run time.  An arguments list also specifies the
       values for those arguments.  Argument lists have the following syntax:

       LIST
            list_name: ARGUMENTS {
                 argument_name = value_expression;
                 [...] }
       [...]

       The argument name must be either a built-in argument name or a user-
       defined argument name that is specified with the ARGUMENT function.

       If you use a built-in argument name as an arguments list entry in an
       object definition, the UIL compiler checks the argument name to be sure
       that it is supported by the type of object that you are defining. If
       the same argument name appears more than once in a given arguments
       list, the last entry that uses that argument name supersedes all
       previous entries with that name, and the compiler issues a message.

       Some arguments, such as XmNitems and XmNitemCount, are coupled by the
       UIL compiler.  When you specify one of the arguments, the compiler also
       sets the other. The coupled argument is not available to you.

       The Motif Toolkit and the X Toolkit (intrinsics) support constraint
       arguments.  A constraint argument is one that is passed to children of
       an object, beyond those arguments normally available.  For example, the
       Form widget grants a set of constraint arguments to its children.
       These arguments control the position of the children within the Form.

       Unlike the arguments used to define the attributes of a particular
       widget, constraint arguments are used exclusively to define additional
       attributes of the children of a particular widget.  These attributes
       affect the behavior of the children within their parent.  To supply
       constraint arguments to the children, you include the arguments in the
       arguments list for the child.

       See Appendix B for information about which arguments are supported by
       which widgets. See Appendix C for information about what the valid
       value type is for each built-in argument.

       Callbacks List Structure

       Use a callbacks list to define which callback reasons are to be
       processed by a particular widget at run time.  Callback lists have the
       following syntax:

       LIST list_name : CALLBACKS { reason_name = PROCEDURE procedure_name [ (
       [ value_expression ] ) ]; | reason_name = procedure_list ; [...] }
       [...]

       For Motif Toolkit widgets, the reason name must be a built-in reason
       name. For a user-defined widget, you can use a reason name that you
       previously specified using the REASON function.  If you use a built-in
       reason in an object definition, the UIL compiler ensures that reason is
       supported by the type of object you are defining. Appendix B shows
       which reasons each object supports.

       If the same reason appears more than once in a callbacks list, the last
       entry referring to that name supersedes all previous entries using the
       same reason, and the UIL compiler issues a diagnostic message.

       If you specify a named value for the procedure argument (callback tag),
       the data type of the value must match the type specified for the
       callback tag in the corresponding procedure declaration.  When
       specifying a widget name as a procedure value expression you must also
       specify the type of the widget and a space before the name of the
       widget.

       Because the UIL compiler produces a UID file rather than an object
       module (.o), the binding of the UIL name to the address of the entry
       point to the procedure is not done by the loader, but is established at
       run time with the MRM function MrmRegisterNames.  You call this
       function before fetching any objects, giving it both the UIL names and
       the procedure addresses of each callback. The name you register with
       MRM in the application program must match the name you specified for
       the procedure in the UIL module.

       Each callback procedure receives three arguments. The first two
       arguments have the same form for each callback. The form of the third
       argument varies from object to object.

       The first argument is the address of the data structure maintained by
       the Motif Toolkit for this object instance. This address is called the
       widget ID for this object.

       The second argument is the address of the value you specified in the
       callbacks list for this procedure. If you do not specify an argument,
       the address is NULL.  Note that, in the case where the value you
       specified is a string or an XmString, the value specified in the
       callbacks list already represents an address rather than an actual
       value. In the case of a simple string, for example, the value is the
       address of the first character of that string. In these cases, UIL does
       not add a level of indirection, and the second argument to the callback
       procedure is simply the value as specified in the callbacks list.

       The third argument is the reason name you specified in the callbacks
       list.

       Controls List Structure

       A controls list defines which objects are children of, or controlled
       by, a particular object.  Each entry in a controls list has the
       following syntax:

       LIST
            list_name: CONTROLS {
                 [child_name: ] [MANAGED | UNMANAGED] object_definition;
                 [...] }
            [...]

       If you specify the keyword MANAGED at run time, the object is created
       and managed; if you specify UNMANAGED at run time, the object is only
       created.  Objects are managed by default.

       You can use child_name to specify resources for the automatically
       created children of a particular control. Names for automatically
       created children are formed by appending Xm_ to the name of the child
       widget.  This name is specified in the documentation for the parent
       widget.

       Unlike the arguments list and the callbacks list, a controls list entry
       that is identical to a previous entry does not supersede the previous
       entry. At run time, each controls list entry causes a child to be
       created when the parent is created. If the same object definition is
       used for multiple children, multiple instances of the child are created
       at run time.  See Appendix B for a list of which widget types can be
       controlled by which other widget types.

       Procedures List Structure

       You can specify multiple procedures for a callback reason in UIL by
       defining a procedures list. Just as with other list types, procedures
       lists can be defined in-line or in a list section and referenced by
       name.

       If you define a reason more than once (for example, when the reason is
       defined both in a referenced procedures list and in the callbacks list
       for the object), previous definitions are overridden by the latest
       definition.  The syntax for a procedures list is as follows:

       LIST
            list_name: PROCEDURES {
                 procedure_name [ ( [ value_expression ]) ];
                 [...] }
            [...]

       When specifying a widget name as a procedure value expression you must
       also specify the type of the widget and a space before the name of the
       widget.

   Object Sections
       An object section consists of the keyword OBJECT followed by a sequence
       of object declarations. It has the following syntax:

       OBJECT object_name:
            [ EXPORTED | PRIVATE | IMPORTED ] object_type
                 [ PROCEDURE creation_function ]
                 [ object_name [ WIDGET | GADGET ] | {list_definitions } ]

       Use an object declaration to define the objects that are to be stored
       in the UID file. You can reference the object name in declarations that
       occur elsewhere in the UIL module in any context where an object name
       can be used (for example, in a controls list, as a symbolic reference
       to a widget ID, or as the tag_value argument for a callback procedure).
       Objects can be forward referenced; that is, you can declare an object
       name after you reference it. All references to an object name must be
       consistent with the type of the object, as specified in the object
       declaration.  You can specify an object as exported, imported, or
       private.

       The object definition can contain a sequence of lists that define the
       arguments, hierarchy, and callbacks for the widget.  You can specify
       only one list of each type for an object.  When you declare a user-
       defined widget, you must include a reference to the widget creation
       function for the user-defined widget.

       Note: Several widgets in the Motif Toolkit actually consist of two
       linked widgets. For example, XmScrolledText and XmScrolledList each
       consist of children XmText and XmList widgets under a XmScrolledWindow
       widget. When such a widget is created, its resources are available to
       both of the underlying widgets. This can occasionally cause problems,
       as when the programmer wants a XmNdestroyCallback routine named to act
       when the widget is destroyed. In this case, the callback resource will
       be available to both sub-widgets, and will cause an error when the
       widget is destroyed. To avoid these problems, the programmer should
       separately create the parent and child widgets, rather than relying on
       these linked widgets.

       Use the GADGET or WIDGET keyword to specify the object type or to
       override the default variant for this object type.  You can use the
       Motif Toolkit name of an object type that has a gadget variant (for
       example, XmLabelGadget) as an attribute of an object declaration.  The
       object_type can be any object type, including gadgets.  You need to
       specify the GADGET or WIDGET keyword only in the declaration of an
       object, not when you reference the object. You cannot specify the
       GADGET or WIDGET keyword for a user-defined object; user-defined
       objects are always widgets.

   Identifier sections
       The identifier section allows you to define an identifier, a mechanism
       that achieves run-time binding of data to names that appear in a UIL
       module.  The identifier section consists of the reserved keyword
       IDENTIFIER, followed by a list of names, each name followed by a
       semicolon.

       IDENTIFIER identifier_name; [...;]

       You can later use these names in the UIL module as either the value of
       an argument to a widget or the tag value to a callback procedure. At
       run time, you use the MRM functions MrmRegisterNames and
       MrmRegisterNamesInHierarchy to bind the identifier name with the data
       (or, in the case of callbacks, with the address of the data) associated
       with the identifier.

       Each UIL module has a single name space; therefore, you cannot use a
       name you used for a value, object, or procedure as an identifier name
       in the same module.

       The UIL compiler does not do any type checking on the use of
       identifiers in a UIL module. Unlike a UIL value, an identifier does not
       have a UIL type associated with it. Regardless of what particular type
       a widget argument or callback procedure tag is defined to be, you can
       use an identifier in that context instead of a value of the
       corresponding type.

       To reference these identifier names in a UIL module, you use the name
       of the identifier wherever you want its value to be used.

   Include directives
       The include directive incorporates the contents of a specified file
       into a UIL module. This mechanism allows several UIL modules to share
       common definitions. The syntax for the include directive is as follows:

       INCLUDE FILE file_name;

       The UIL compiler replaces the include directive with the contents of
       the include file and processes it as if these contents had appeared in
       the current UIL source file.

       You can nest include files; that is, an include file can contain
       include directives.  The UIL compiler can process up to 100 references
       (including the file containing the UIL module). Therefore, you can
       include up to 99 files in a single UIL module, including nested files.
       Each time a file is opened counts as a reference, so including the same
       file twice counts as two references.

       The file_name is a simple string containing a file specification that
       identifies the file to be included. The rules for finding the specified
       file are similar to the rules for finding header, or .h files using the
       include directive, #include, with a quoted string in C. The UIL uses
       the -I option for specifying a search directory for include files.

          ·  If you do not supply a directory, the UIL compiler searches for
             the include file in the directory of the main source file.

          ·  If the compiler does not find the include file there, the
             compiler looks in the same directory as the source file.

          ·  If you supply a directory, the UIL compiler searches only that
             directory for the file.

   Names and Strings
       Names can consist of any of the characters A to Z, a to z, 0 to 9, $
       (dollar sign), and _ (underscore). Names cannot begin with a digit (0
       to 9). The maximum length of a name is 31 characters.

       UIL gives you a choice of either case-sensitive or case-insensitive
       names through a clause in the MODULE header.  For example, if names are
       case sensitive, the names "sample" and "Sample" are distinct from each
       other. If names are case insensitive, these names are treated as the
       same name and can be used interchangeably. By default, UIL assumes
       names are case sensitive.

       In CASE-INSENSITIVE mode, the compiler outputs all names in the UID
       file in uppercase form.  In CASE-SENSITIVE mode, names appear in the
       UIL file exactly as they appear in the source.

       The following table lists the reserved keywords, which are not
       available for defining programmer defined names.

       ┌───────────────────────────────────────────────┐
       │              Reserved Keywords                │
       ├───────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │ARGUMENTS    CALLBACKS   CONTROLS   END        │
       │EXPORTED     FALSE       GADGET     IDENTIFIER │
       │INCLUDE      LIST        MODULE     OFF        │
       │ON           OBJECT      PRIVATE    PROCEDURE  │
       │PROCEDURES   TRUE        VALUE      WIDGET     │
       └───────────────────────────────────────────────┘
       The UIL unreserved keywords are described in the following list and
       table.  These keywords can be used as programmer defined names,
       however, if you use any keyword as a name, you cannot use the UIL-
       supplied usage of that keyword.

          ·  Built-in argument names (for example, XmNx, XmNheight)

          ·  Built-in reason names (for example, XmNactivateCallback,
             XmNhelpCallback)

          ·  Character set names (for example, ISO_LATIN1, ISO_HEBREW_LR)

          ·  Constant value names (for example, XmMENU_OPTION,
             XmBROWSE_SELECT)

          ·  Object types (for example, XmPushButton, XmBulletinBoard)

             ┌───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
             │                         Unreserved Keywords                           │
             ├───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
             │ANY                         ARGUMENT                ASCIZ_STRING_TABLE │
             │ASCIZ_TABLE                 BACKGROUND              BOOLEAN            │
             │CASE_INSENSITIVE            CASE_SENSITIVE          CHARACTER_SET      │
             │COLOR                       COLOR_TABLE             COMPOUND_STRING    │
             │COMPOUND_STRING_COMPONENT   COMPOUND_STRING_TABLE   FILE               │
             │FLOAT                       FONT                    FONT_TABLE         │
             │FONTSET                     FOREGROUND              ICON               │
             │IMPORTED                    INTEGER                 INTEGER_TABLE      │
             │KEYSYM                      MANAGED                 NAMES              │
             │OBJECTS                     REASON                  RGB                │
             │RIGHT_TO_LEFT               SINGLE_FLOAT            STRING             │
             │STRING_TABLE                TRANSLATION_TABLE       UNMANAGED          │
             │USER_DEFINED                VERSION                 WIDE_CHARACTER     │
             │WIDGET                      XBITMAPFILE                                │
             └───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
       String literals can be composed of the uppercase and lowercase letters,
       digits, and punctuation characters.  Spaces, tabs, and comments are
       special elements in the language. They are a means of delimiting other
       elements, such as two names. One or more of these elements can appear
       before or after any other element in the language.  However, spaces,
       tabs, and comments that appear in string literals are treated as
       character sequences rather than delimiters.

   Data Types
       UIL provides literals for several of the value types it supports. Some
       of the value types are not supported as literals (for example, pixmaps
       and string tables). You can specify values for these types by using
       functions described in the Functions section.  UIL directly supports
       the following literal types:

          ·  String literal

          ·  Integer literal

          ·  Boolean literal

          ·  Floating-point literal

       UIL also includes the data type ANY, which is used to turn off compile
       time checking of data types.

   String Literals
       A string literal is a sequence of zero or more 8-bit or 16-bit
       characters or a combination delimited by ' (single quotation marks) or
       " (double quotation marks).  String literals can also contain multibyte
       characters delimited with double quotation marks.  String literals can
       be no more than 2000 characters long.

       A single-quoted string literal can span multiple source lines. To
       continue a single-quoted string literal, terminate the continued line
       with a \ (backslash). The literal continues with the first character on
       the next line.

       Double-quoted string literals cannot span multiple source lines.
       (Because double-quoted strings can contain escape sequences and other
       special characters, you cannot use the backslash character to designate
       continuation of the string.) To build a string value that must span
       multiple source lines, use the concatenation operator described later
       in this section.

       The syntax of a string literal is one of the following:

       '[character_string]'
       [#char_set]"[character_string]"

       Both string forms associate a character set with a string value.  UIL
       uses the following rules to determine the character set and storage
       format for string literals:

          ·  A string declared as 'string' is equivalent to
             #cur_charset"string", where cur_charset will be the codeset
             portion of the value of the LANG environment variable if it is
             set or the value of XmFALLBACK_CHARSET if LANG is not set or has
             no codeset component.  By default, XmFALLBACK_CHARSET is
             ISO8859-1 (equivalent to ISO_LATIN1), but vendors may define a
             different default.

          ·  A string declared as "string" is equivalent to #char_set"string"
             if you specified char_set as the default character set for the
             module.  If no default character set has been specified for the
             module, then if the -s option is provided to the uil command or
             the use_setlocale_flag is set for the callable compiler, Uil(),
             the string will be interpreted to be a string in the current
             locale. This means that the string is parsed in the locale of the
             user by calling setlocale, its charset is XmFONTLIST_DEFAULT_TAG,
             and that if the string is converted to a compound string, it is
             stored as a locale encoded text segment.  Otherwise, "string" is
             equivalent to #cur_charset"string", where cur_charset is
             interpreted as described for single quoted strings.

          ·  A string of the form "string" or #char_set"string" is stored as a
             null-terminated string.

       If the char_set in a string specified in the form above is not a built-
       in charset, and is not a user-defined charset, the charset of the
       string will be set to XmFONTLIST_DEFAULT_TAG, and an informational
       message will be issued to the user to note that this substitution has
       been made.

       The following table lists the character sets supported by the UIL
       compiler for string literals.  Note that several UIL names map to the
       same character set. In some cases, the UIL name influences how string
       literals are read. For example, strings identified by a UIL character
       set name ending in _LR are read left-to-right.  Names that end in a
       different number reflect different fonts (for example, ISO_LATIN1 or
       ISO_LATIN6).  All character sets in this table are represented by 8
       bits.

       ┌──────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
       │            Supported Character Sets              │
       ├──────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │UIL Name        Description                       │
       ├──────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │ISO_LATIN1      GL: ASCII, GR: Latin-1 Supplement │
       │ISO_LATIN2      GL: ASCII, GR: Latin-2 Supplement │
       │ISO_ARABIC      GL: ASCII, GR: Latin-Arabic       │
       │                Supplement                        │
       │ISO_LATIN6      GL: ASCII, GR: Latin-Arabic       │
       │                Supplement                        │
       │ISO_GREEK       GL: ASCII, GR: Latin-Greek        │
       │                Supplement                        │
       │ISO_LATIN7      GL: ASCII, GR: Latin-Greek        │
       │                Supplement                        │
       │ISO_HEBREW      GL: ASCII, GR: Latin-Hebrew       │
       │                Supplement                        │
       │ISO_LATIN8      GL: ASCII, GR: Latin-Hebrew       │
       │                Supplement                        │
       │ISO_HEBREW_LR   GL: ASCII, GR: Latin-Hebrew       │
       │                Supplement                        │
       │ISO_LATIN8_LR   GL: ASCII, GR: Latin-Hebrew       │
       │                Supplement                        │
       │JIS_KATAKANA    GL: JIS Roman, GR: JIS Katakana   │
       └──────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
       Following are the parsing rules for each of the character sets:

       All character sets
                 Character codes in the range 00...1F, 7F, and 80...9F are
                 control characters including both bytes of 16-bit characters.
                 The compiler flags these as illegal characters.

       ISO_LATIN1 ISO_LATIN2 ISO_LATIN3 ISO_GREEK ISO_LATIN4
                 These sets are parsed from left to right.  The escape
                 sequences for null-terminated strings are also supported by
                 these character sets.

       ISO_HEBREW ISO_ARABIC ISO_LATIN8
                 These sets are parsed from right to left. For example, the
                 string #ISO_HEBREW"012345" will generate a primitive string
                 of "543210" with character set ISO_HEBREW. The string
                 direction for such a string would be right-to-left, so when
                 rendered, the string will appear as "012345." The escape
                 sequences for null-terminated strings are also supported by
                 these character sets, and the characters that compose the
                 escape sequences are in left-to-right order. For example, you
                 would enter \n, not n\.

       ISO_HEBREW_LR ISO_ARABIC_LR ISO_LATIN8_LR
                 These sets are parsed from left to right. For example, the
                 string #ISO_HEBREW_LR"012345" generates a primitive string
                 "012345" with character set ISO_HEBREW. The string direction
                 for such a string would still be right-to-left, however, so
                 when rendered, it will appear as "543210." In other words,
                 the characters were originally typed in the same order in
                 which they would have been typed in Hebrew (although in
                 Hebrew, the typist would have been using a text editor that
                 went from right to left). The escape sequences for null-
                 terminated strings are also supported by these character
                 sets.

       JIS_KATAKANA
                 This set is parsed from left to right. The escape sequences
                 for null-terminated strings are also supported by this
                 character set. Note that the \ (backslash) may be displayed
                 as a yen symbol.

       In addition to designating parsing rules for strings, character set
       information remains an attribute of a compound string.  If the string
       is included in a string consisting of several concatenated segments,
       the character set information is included with that string segment.
       This gives the Motif Toolkit the information it needs to decipher the
       compound string and choose a font to display the string.

       For an application interface displayed only in English, UIL lets you
       ignore the distinctions between the two uses of strings.  The compiler
       recognizes by context when a string must be passed as a null-terminated
       string or as a compound string.

       The UIL compiler recognizes enough about the various character sets to
       correctly parse string literals.  The compiler also issues errors if
       you use a compound string in a context that supports only null-
       terminated strings.

       Since the character set names are keywords, you must put them in
       lowercase if case-sensitive names are in force.  If names are case
       insensitive, character set names can be uppercase, lowercase, or mixed
       case.

       In addition to the built-in character sets recognized by UIL, you can
       define your own character sets with the CHARACTER_SET function. You can
       use the CHARACTER_SET function anywhere a character set can be
       specified.

       String literals can contain characters with the eighth (high-order) bit
       set. You cannot type control characters (00-1F, 7F, and 80-9F) directly
       in a single-quoted string literal. However, you can represent these
       characters with escape sequences. The following list shows the escape
       sequences for special characters.

       \b        Backspace

       \f        Form-feed

       \n        Newline

       \r        Carriage return

       \t        Horizontal tab

       \v        Vertical tab

       \'        Single quotation mark

       \"        Double quotation mark

       \\        Backslash

       \integer\ Character whose internal representation is given by integer
                 (in the range 0 to 255 decimal)

       Note that escape sequences are processed literally in strings that are
       parsed in the current locale (localized strings).

       The UIL compiler does not process newline characters in compound
       strings.  The effect of a newline character in a compound string
       depends only on the character set of the string, and the result is not
       guaranteed to be a multiline string.

       Compound String Literals

       A compound string consists of a string of 8-bit, 16-bit, or multibyte
       characters, a named character set, and a writing direction. Its UIL
       data type is compound_string.

       The writing direction of a compound string is implied by the character
       set specified for the string. You can explicitly set the writing
       direction for a compound string by using the COMPOUND_STRING function.

       A compound string can consist of a sequence of concatenated compound
       strings, null-terminated strings, or a combination of both, each of
       which can have a different character set property and writing
       direction. Use the concatenation operator & (ampersand) to create a
       sequence of compound strings.

       Each string in the sequence is stored, including the character set and
       writing direction information.

       Generally, a string literal is stored in the UID file as a compound
       string when the literal consists of concatenated strings having
       different character sets or writing directions, or when you use the
       string to specify a value for an argument that requires a compound
       string value. If you want to guarantee that a string literal is stored
       as a compound string, you must use the COMPOUND_STRING function.

       Data Storage Consumption for String Literals

       The way a string literal is stored in the UID file depends on how you
       declare and use the string. The UIL compiler automatically converts a
       null-terminated string to a compound string if you use the string to
       specify the value of an argument that requires a compound string.
       However, this conversion is costly in terms of storage consumption.

       PRIVATE, EXPORTED, and IMPORTED string literals require storage for a
       single allocation when the literal is declared; thereafter, storage is
       required for each reference to the literal. Literals declared in-line
       require storage for both an allocation and a reference.

       The following table summarizes data storage consumption for string
       literals. The storage requirement for an allocation consists of a fixed
       portion and a variable portion. The fixed portion of an allocation is
       roughly the same as the storage requirement for a reference (a few
       bytes).  The storage consumed by the variable portion depends on the
       size of the literal value (that is, the length of the string). To
       conserve storage space, avoid making string literal declarations that
       result in an allocation per use.

       ┌─────────────────────────────────────────────┐
       │Data Storage Consumption for String Literals │
       ├──────────┼───────────┼───────────┼──────────┤
       │          │           │           │          │
       │          │           │           │          │
       │          │           │           │          │
       │          │           │           │          │
       │          │           │           │          │
       │          │           │           │          │
       ├──────────┼───────────┼───────────┼──────────┤
       │          │           │           │          │
       │          │           │           │          │
       │          │           │           │          │
       │          │           │           │          │
       │          │           │           │          │
       │          │           │           │          │
       └──────────┴───────────┴───────────┴──────────┘
   Integer Literals
       An integer literal represents the value of a whole number.  Integer
       literals have the form of an optional sign followed by one or more
       decimal digits.  An integer literal must not contain embedded spaces or
       commas.

       Integer literals are stored in the UID file as 32-bit integers.
       Exported and imported integer literals require a single allocation when
       the literal is declared; thereafter, a few bytes of storage are
       required for each reference to the literal. Private integer literals
       and those declared in-line require allocation and reference storage per
       use. To conserve storage space, avoid making integer literal
       declarations that result in an allocation per use.

       The following table shows data storage consumption for integer
       literals.

       ┌──────────────────────────────────────────────┐
       │Data Storage Consumption for Integer Literals │
       ├──────────────┬───────────────────────────────┤
       │Declaration   Storage Requirements Per Use   │
       ├──────────────┼───────────────────────────────┤
       │In-line       │An allocation and a            │
       │              │reference (within the          │
       │              │module)                        │
       │Private       │An allocation and a            │
       │              │reference (within the          │
       │              │module)                        │
       │Exported      │A reference (within the UID    │
       │              │hierarchy)                     │
       │Imported      │A reference (within the UID    │
       │              │hierarchy)                     │
       └──────────────┴───────────────────────────────┘
   Boolean Literal
       A Boolean literal represents the value True (reserved keyword TRUE or
       On) or False (reserved keyword FALSE or Off).  These keywords are
       subject to case-sensitivity rules.

       In a UID file, TRUE is represented by the integer value 1 and FALSE is
       represented by the integer value 0 (zero).

       Data storage consumption for Boolean literals is the same as that for
       integer literals.

   Floating-Point Literal
       A floating-point literal represents the value of a real (or float)
       number.  Floating-point literals have the following form:

       [+|-][integer].integer[E|e[+|-]exponent]

       For maximum portability, a floating-point literal can represent values
       in the range 1.0E-37 to 1.0E+37 with at least 6 significant digits.  On
       many machines this range will be wider, with more significant digits.
       A floating-point literal must not contain embedded spaces or commas.

       Floating-point literals are stored in the UID file as double-precision,
       floating-point numbers.  The following table gives examples of valid
       and invalid floating-point notation for the UIL compiler.

       ┌────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
       │                    Floating Point Literals                     │
       ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │Valid Floating-Point Literals   Invalid Floating-Point Literals │
       ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
       │1.0                             1e1 (no decimal point)          │
       │3.1415E-2 (equals .031415)      2.87 e6 (embedded blanks)       │
       │-6.29e7 (equals -62900000)      2.0e100 (out of range)          │
       └────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
       Data storage consumption for floating-point literals is the same as
       that for integer literals.

       The purpose of the ANY data type is to shut off the data-type checking
       feature of the UIL compiler.  You can use the ANY data type for the
       following:

          ·  Specifying the type of a callback procedure tag

          ·  Specifying the type of a user-defined argument

       You can use the ANY data type when you need to use a type not supported
       by the UIL compiler or when you want the data-type restrictions imposed
       by the compiler to be relaxed.  For example, you might want to define a
       widget having an argument that can accept different types of values,
       depending on run-time circumstances.

       If you specify that an argument takes an ANY value, the compiler does
       not check the type of the value specified for that argument; therefore,
       you need to take care when specifying a value for an argument of type
       ANY.  You could get unexpected results at run time if you pass a value
       having a data type that the widget does not support for that argument.

   Expressions
       UIL includes compile-time value expressions. These expressions can
       contain references to other UIL values, but cannot be forward
       referenced.

       The following table lists the set of operators in UIL that allow you to
       create integer, real, and Boolean values based on other values defined
       with the UIL module. In the table, a precedence of 1 is the highest.

       ┌───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
       │Valid Operators                                            │
       ├─────────┬─────────────────┬──────────────────┬────────────┤
       │Operator Operand Types   Meaning          Precedence │
       ├─────────┼─────────────────┼──────────────────┼────────────┤
       │   ~     │ Boolean         │ NOT              │     1      │
       │         │ integer         │ One's complement │            │
       │   -     │ float           │ Negate           │     1      │
       │         │ integer         │ Negate           │            │
       │   +     │ float           │ NOP              │     1      │
       │         │ integer         │ NOP              │            │
       │   *     │ float,float     │ Multiply         │     2      │
       │         │ integer,integer │ Multiply         │            │
       │   /     │ float,float     │ Divide           │     2      │
       │         │ integer,integer │ Divide           │            │
       │   +     │ float,float     │ Add              │     3      │
       │         │ integer,integer │ Add              │            │
       │   -     │ float,float     │ Subtract         │     3      │
       │         │ integer,integer │ Subtract         │            │
       │   >>    │ integer,integer │ Shift right      │     4      │
       │   <<    │ integer,integer │ Shift left       │     4      │
       │   &     │ Boolean,Boolean │ AND              │     5      │
       │         │ integer,integer │ Bitwise AND      │            │
       │         │ string,string   │ Concatenate      │            │
       │   |     │ Boolean,Boolean │ OR               │     6      │
       │         │ integer,integer │ Bitwise OR       │            │
       │   ^     │ Boolean,Boolean │ XOR              │     6      │
       │         │ integer,integer │ Bitwise XOR      │            │
       └─────────┴─────────────────┴──────────────────┴────────────┘
       A string can be either a single compound string or a sequence of
       compound strings. If the two concatenated strings have different
       properties (such as writing direction or character set), the result of
       the concatenation is a multisegment compound string.

       The string resulting from the concatenation is a null-terminated string
       unless one or more of the following conditions exists:

          ·  One of the operands is a compound string

          ·  The operands have different character set properties

          ·  The operands have different writing directions

       Then the resulting string is a compound string.  You cannot use
       imported or exported values as operands of the concatenation operator.

       The result of each operator has the same type as its operands.  You
       cannot mix types in an expression without using conversion routines.

       You can use parentheses to override the normal precedence of operators.
       In a sequence of unary operators, the operations are performed in
       right-to-left order. For example, - + -A is equivalent to -(+(-A)).  In
       a sequence of binary operators of the same precedence, the operations
       are performed in left-to-right order. For example, A*B/C*D is
       equivalent to ((A*B)/C)*D.

       A value declaration gives a value a name. You cannot redefine the value
       of that name in a subsequent value declaration.  You can use a value
       containing operators and functions anywhere you can use a value in a
       UIL module.  You cannot use imported values as operands in expressions.

       Several of the binary operators are defined for multiple data types.
       For example, the operator for multiplication (*) is defined for both
       floating-point and integer operands.

       For the UIL compiler to perform these binary operations, both operands
       must be of the same type.  If you supply operands of different data
       types, the UIL compiler automatically converts one of the operands to
       the type of the other according to the following conversions rules:

          ·  If the operands are an integer and a Boolean, the Boolean is
             converted to an integer.

          ·  If the operands are an integer and a floating-point, the integer
             is converted to an floating-point.

          ·  If the operands are a floating-point and a Boolean, the Boolean
             is converted to a floating-point.

       You can also explicitly convert the data type of a value by using one
       of the conversion functions INTEGER, FLOAT or SINGLE_FLOAT.

   Functions
       UIL provides functions to generate the following types of values:

          ·  Character sets

          ·  Keysyms

          ·  Colors

          ·  Pixmaps

          ·  Single-precision, floating-point numbers

          ·  Double-precision, floating-point numbers

          ·  Fonts

          ·  Fontsets

          ·  Font tables

          ·  Compound strings

          ·  Compound string tables

          ·  ASCIZ (null-terminated) string tables

          ·  Wide character strings

          ·  Widget class names

          ·  Integer tables

          ·  Arguments

          ·  Reasons

          ·  Translation tables

       Remember that all examples in the following sections assume case-
       insensitive mode. Keywords are shown in uppercase letters to
       distinguish them from user-specified names, which are shown in
       lowercase letters.  This use of uppercase letters is not required in
       case-insensitive mode. In case-sensitive mode, keywords must be in
       lowercase letters.

       CHARACTER_SET(string_expression[, property[, ...]])

                 You can define your own character sets with the CHARACTER_SET
                 function. You can use the CHARACTER_SET function anywhere a
                 character set can be specified.

                 The result of the CHARACTER_SET function is a character set
                 with the name string_expression and the properties you
                 specify.  string_expression must be a null-terminated string.
                 You can optionally include one or both of the following
                 clauses to specify properties for the resulting character
                 set:

       RIGHT_TO_LEFT = boolean_expression
       SIXTEEN_BIT = boolean_expression

                 The RIGHT_TO_LEFT clause sets the default writing direction
                 of the string from right to left if boolean_expression is
                 True, and right to left otherwise.

                 The SIXTEEN_BIT clause allows the strings associated with
                 this character set to be interpreted as 16-bit characters if
                 boolean_expression is True, and 8-bit characters otherwise.

       KEYSYM(string_literal)

                 The KEYSYM function is used to specify a keysym for a
                 mnemonic resource.  string_literal must contain a valid
                 KeySym name.  (See XStringToKeysym(3 X11) for more
                 information.)

       COLOR(string_expression[,FOREGROUND|BACKGROUND])

                 The COLOR function supports the definition of colors.  Using
                 the COLOR function, you can designate a value to specify a
                 color and then use that value for arguments requiring a color
                 value.  The string expression names the color you want to
                 define; the optional keywords FOREGROUND and BACKGROUND
                 identify how the color is to be displayed on a monochrome
                 device when the color is used in the definition of a color
                 table.

                 The UIL compiler does not have built-in color names. Colors
                 are a server-dependent attribute of an object. Colors are
                 defined on each server and may have different red-green-blue
                 (RGB) values on each server. The string you specify as the
                 color argument must be recognized by the server on which your
                 application runs.

                 In a UID file, UIL represents a color as a character string.
                 MRM calls X translation routines that convert a color string
                 to the device-specific pixel value. If you are running on a
                 monochrome server, all colors translate to black or white.
                 If you are on a color server, the color names translate to
                 their proper colors if the following conditions are met:

                    ·  The color is defined.

                    ·  The color map is not yet full.

                 If the color map is full, even valid colors translate to
                 black or white (foreground or background).

                 Interfaces do not, in general, specify colors for widgets, so
                 that the selection of colors can be controlled by the user
                 through the .Xdefaults file.

                 To write an application that runs on both monochrome and
                 color devices, you need to specify which colors in a color
                 table (defined with the COLOR_TABLE function) map to the
                 background and which colors map to the foreground.  UIL lets
                 you use the COLOR function to designate this mapping in the
                 definition of the color.  The following example shows how to
                 use the COLOR function to map the color red to the background
                 color on a monochrome device:

       VALUE c: COLOR ( 'red',BACKGROUND );

                 The mapping comes into play only when the MRM is given a
                 color and the application is to be displayed on a monochrome
                 device. In this case, each color is considered to be in one
                 of the following three categories:

                    ·  The color is mapped to the background color on the
                       monochrome device.

                    ·  The color is mapped to the foreground color on the
                       monochrome device.

                    ·  Monochrome mapping is undefined for this color.

                 If the color is mapped to the foreground or background color,
                 MRM substitutes the foreground or background color,
                 respectively. If you do not specify the monochrome mapping
                 for a color, MRM passes the color string to the Motif Toolkit
                 for mapping to the foreground or background color.

       RGB(red_integer, green_integer, blue_integer)

                 The three integers define the values for the red, green, and
                 blue components of the color, in that order. The values of
                 these components can range from 0 to 65,535, inclusive.  The
                 values may be represented as integer expressions.

                 In a UID file, UIL represents an RGB value as three integers.
                 MRM calls X translation routines that convert the integers to
                 the device-specific pixel value.  If you are running on a
                 monochrome server, all colors translate to black or white.
                 If you are on a color server, RGB values translate to their
                 proper colors if the colormap is not yet full.  If the
                 colormap is full, values translate to black or white
                 (foreground or background).

       COLOR_TABLE(color_expression='character'[,...])

                 The color expression is a previously defined color, a color
                 defined in line with the COLOR function, or the phrase
                 BACKGROUND COLOR or FOREGROUND COLOR. The character can be
                 any valid UIL character.

                 The COLOR_TABLE function provides a device-independent way to
                 specify a set of colors.  The COLOR_TABLE function accepts
                 either previously defined UIL color names or in line color
                 definitions (using the COLOR function).  A color table must
                 be private because its contents must be known by the UIL
                 compiler to construct an icon. The colors within a color
                 table, however, can be imported, exported, or private.

                 The single letter associated with each color is the character
                 you use to represent that color when creating an icon.  Each
                 letter used to represent a color must be unique within the
                 color table.

       ICON([COLOR_TABLE=color_table_name,] row[,...)
                 color-table-name must refer to a previously defined color
                 table, and row is a character expression giving one row of
                 the icon.

                 The ICON function describes a rectangular icon that is x
                 pixels wide and y pixels high.  The strings surrounded by
                 single quotation marks describe the icon.  Each string
                 represents a row in the icon; each character in the string
                 represents a pixel.

                 The first row in an icon definition determines the width of
                 the icon.  All rows must have the same number of characters
                 as the first row.  The height of the icon is dictated by the
                 number of rows.  The maximum number of rows is 999.

                 The first argument of the ICON function (the color table
                 specification) is optional and identifies the colors that are
                 available in this icon.  By using the single letter
                 associated with each color, you can specify the color of each
                 pixel in the icon.  The icon must be constructed of
                 characters defined in the specified color table.

                 A default color table is used if you omit the argument
                 specifying the color table. To make use of the default color
                 table, the rows of your icon must contain only spaces and
                 asterisks.  The default color table is defined as follows:

       COLOR_TABLE( BACKGROUND COLOR = ' ', FOREGROUND COLOR = '*')

                 You can define other characters to represent the background
                 color and foreground color by replacing the space and
                 asterisk in the BACKGROUND COLOR and FOREGROUND COLOR clauses
                 shown in the previous statement.  You can specify icons as
                 private, imported, or exported.  Use the MRM function
                 MrmFetchIconLiteral to retrieve an exported icon at run time.

       XBITMAPFILE(string_expression)
                 The XBITMAPFILE function is similar to the ICON function in
                 that both describe a rectangular icon that is x pixels wide
                 and y pixels high.  However, XBITMAPFILE allows you to
                 specify an external file containing the definition of an X
                 bitmap, whereas all ICON function definitions must be coded
                 directly within UIL. X bitmap files can be generated by many
                 different X applications.  UIL reads these files through the
                 XBITMAPFILE function, but does not support creation of these
                 files.  The X bitmap file specified as the argument to the
                 XBITMAPFILE function is read at application run time by MRM.

                 The XBITMAPFILE function returns a value of type pixmap and
                 can be used anywhere a pixmap data type is expected.

       SINGLE_FLOAT(real_number_literal)

                 The SINGLE_FLOAT function lets you store floating-point
                 literals in UIL files as single-precision, floating-point
                 numbers.  Single-precision floating-point numbers can often
                 be stored using less memory than double-precision, floating-
                 point numbers.  The real_number_literal can be either an
                 integer literal or a floating-point literal.

       FLOAT(real_number_literal)

                 The FLOAT function lets you store floating-point literals in
                 UIL files as double-precision, floating-point numbers.  The
                 real_number_literal can be either an integer literal or a
                 floating-point literal.

       FONT(string_expression[, CHARACTER_SET=char_set])

                 You define fonts with the FONT function.  Using the FONT
                 function, you designate a value to specify a font and then
                 use that value for arguments that require a font value.  The
                 UIL compiler has no built-in fonts.

                 Each font makes sense only in the context of a character set.
                 The FONT function has an additional parameter to let you
                 specify the character set for the font.  This parameter is
                 optional; if you omit it, the default character set depends
                 on the value of the LANG environment variable if it is set,
                 or on the value of XmFALLBACK_CHARSET if LANG is not set.

                 string_expression specifies the name of the font and the
                 clause CHARACTER_SET = char_set specifies the character set
                 for the font.  The string expression used in the FONT
                 function cannot be a compound string.

       FONTSET(string_expression[,...][, CHARACTER_SET=charset])

                 You define fontsets with the FONTSET function.  Using the
                 FONTSET function, you designate a set of values to specify
                 fonts and then use those values for arguments that require a
                 fontset.  The UIL compiler has no built-in fonts.

                 Each font makes sense only in the context of a character set.
                 The FONTSET function has an additional parameter to let you
                 specify the character set for the font.  This parameter is
                 optional; if you omit it, the default character set depends
                 on the value of the LANG environment variable if it is set,
                 or on the value of XmFALLBACK_CHARSET if LANG is not set.

                 The string expression specifies the name of the font and the
                 clause CHARACTER_SET = char_set specifies the character set
                 for the font.  The string expression used in the FONTSET
                 function cannot be a compound string.

       FONT_TABLE(font_expression[,...])

                 A font table is a sequence of pairs of fonts and character
                 sets. At run time, when an object needs to display a string,
                 the object scans the font table for the character set that
                 matches the character set of the string to be displayed.  UIL
                 provides the FONT_TABLE function to let you supply such an
                 argument.  font_expression is created with the FONT and
                 FONTSET functions.

                 If you specify a single font value to specify an argument
                 that requires a font table, the UIL compiler automatically
                 converts a font value to a font table.

       COMPOUND_STRING(string_expression[,property[,...]])
                 Use the COMPOUND_STRING function to set properties of a null-
                 terminated string and to convert it into a compound string.
                 The properties you can set are the writing direction and
                 separator.

                 The result of the COMPOUND_STRING function is a compound
                 string with the string expression as its value. You can
                 optionally include one or more of the following clauses to
                 specify properties for the resulting compound string:

                 RIGHT_TO_LEFT = boolean_expression SEPARATE =
                 boolean_expression

                 The RIGHT_TO_LEFT clause sets the writing direction of the
                 string from right to left if boolean_expression is True, and
                 left to right otherwise.  Specifying this argument does not
                 cause the value of the string expression to change.  If you
                 omit the RIGHT_TO_LEFT argument, the resulting string has the
                 same writing direction as string_expression.

                 The SEPARATE clause appends a separator to the end of the
                 compound string if boolean_expression is True. If you omit
                 the SEPARATE clause, the resulting string does not have a
                 separator.

                 You cannot use imported or exported values as the operands of
                 the COMPOUND_STRING function.

       COMPOUND_STRING_COMPONENT(component_type [, {string | enumval}])
                 Use the COMPOUND_STRING_COMPONENT function to create compound
                 strings in UIL consisting of single components.  This
                 function is analagous to XmStringComponentCreate.  This
                 function lets you create simple compound strings containing
                 components such as XmSTRING_COMPONENT_TAB and
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_RENDITION_BEGIN which are not produced by
                 the COMPOUND_STRING function. These components can then be
                 concatenated to other compound strings to build more complex
                 compound strings.

                 The first argument must be an XmStringComponentType
                 enumerated constant.  The type and interpretation of the
                 second argument depends on the first argument.  For example,
                 if you specify any of the following enumerated constants for
                 the first argument, then you should not specify a second
                 argument: XmSTRING_COMPONENT_SEPARATOR,
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_LAYOUT_POP, XmSTRING_COMPONENT_TAB, and
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_LOCALE.  However, if you specify an
                 enumerated constant from the following group, then you must
                 supply a string as the second argument:
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_CHARSET, XmSTRING_COMPONENT_TEXT,
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_LOCALE_TEXT,
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_WIDECHAR_TEXT,
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_RENDITION_BEGIN, and
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_RENDITION_END.  If you specify
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_DIRECTION as the first argument, then you
                 must specify an XmStringDirection enumerated constant as the
                 second argument.  Finally, if you specify
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_LAYOUT_PUSH as the first argument, then
                 you must specify an XmDirection enumerated constant as the
                 second argument.

                 The compound string components
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_RENDITION_BEGIN, and
                 XmSTRING_COMPONENT_RENDITION_END take, for their argument,
                 the "tag," or name, of a rendition from the current render
                 table. See the following section for more information about
                 how to specify a render table.

       COMPOUND_STRING_TABLE(string_expression[,...])
                 A compound string table is an array of compound strings.
                 Objects requiring a list of string values, such as the
                 XmNitems and XmNselectedItems arguments for the list widget,
                 use string table values. The COMPOUND_STRING_TABLE function
                 builds the values for these two arguments of the list widget.
                 The COMPOUND_STRING_TABLE function generates a value of type
                 string_table.  The name STRING_TABLE is a synonym for
                 COMPOUND_STRING_TABLE.

                 The strings inside the string table must be simple strings,
                 which the UIL compiler automatically converts to compound
                 strings.

       ASCIZ_STRING_TABLE(string_expression[,...])
                 An ASCIZ string table is an array of ASCIZ (null-terminated)
                 string values separated by commas. This function allows you
                 to pass more than one ASCIZ string as a callback tag value.
                 The ASCIZ_STRING_TABLE function generates a value of type
                 asciz_table.  The name ASCIZ_TABLE is a synonym for
                 ASCIZ_STRING_TABLE.

       WIDE_CHARACTER(string_expression)

                 Use the WIDE_CHARACTER function to generate a wide character
                 string from null-terminated string in the current locale.

       CLASS_REC_NAME(string_expression)

                 Use the CLASS_REC_NAME function to generate a widget class
                 name.  For a widget class defined by the toolkit, the string
                 argument is the name of the class.  For a user-defined
                 widget, the string argument is the name of the creation
                 routine for the widget.

       INTEGER_TABLE(integer_expression[,...])
                 An integer table is an array of integer values separated by
                 commas.  This function allows you to pass more than one
                 integer per callback tag value.  The INTEGER_TABLE function
                 generates a value of type integer_table.

       ARGUMENT(string_expression[, argument_type])

                 The ARGUMENT function defines the arguments to a user-defined
                 widget.  Each of the objects that can be described by UIL
                 permits a set of arguments, listed in Appendix B. For
                 example, XmNheight is an argument to most objects and has an
                 integer data type. To specify height for a user-defined
                 widget, you can use the built-in argument name XmNheight, and
                 specify an integer value when you declare the user-defined
                 widget.  You do not use the ARGUMENT function to specify
                 arguments that are built into the UIL compiler.

                 The string_expression name is the name the UIL compiler uses
                 for the argument in the UID file.  argument_type is the type
                 of value that can be associated with the argument. If you
                 omit the second argument, the default type is ANY and no
                 value type checking occurs. Use one of the following keywords
                 to specify the argument type:

                    ·  ANY

                    ·  ASCIZ_TABLE

                    ·  BOOLEAN

                    ·  COLOR

                    ·  COMPOUND_STRING

                    ·  FLOAT

                    ·  FONT

                    ·  FONT_TABLE

                    ·  FONTSET

                    ·  ICON

                    ·  INTEGER

                    ·  INTEGER_TABLE

                    ·  KEYSYM

                    ·  PIXMAP

                    ·  REASON

                    ·  SINGLE_FLOAT

                    ·  STRING

                    ·  STRING_TABLE

                    ·  TRANSLATION_TABLE

                    ·  WIDE_CHARACTER

                    ·  WIDGET

                 You can use the ARGUMENT function to allow the UIL compiler
                 to recognize extensions to the Motif Toolkit. For example, an
                 existing widget may accept a new argument. Using the ARGUMENT
                 function, you can make this new argument available to the UIL
                 compiler before the updated version of the compiler is
                 released.

       REASON(string_expression)

                 The REASON function is useful for defining new reasons for
                 user-defined widgets.

                 Each of the objects in the Motif Toolkit defines a set of
                 conditions under which it calls a user-defined function.
                 These conditions are known as callback reasons.  The user-
                 defined functions are termed callback procedures. In a UIL
                 module, you use a callbacks list to specify which user-
                 defined functions are to be called for which reasons.

                 Appendix B lists the callback reasons supported by the Motif
                 Toolkit objects.

                 When you declare a user-defined widget, you can define
                 callback reasons for that widget using the REASON function.
                 The string expression specifies the argument name stored in
                 the UID file for the reason. This reason name is supplied to
                 the widget creation routine at run time.

       TRANSLATION_TABLE(string_expression[,...])

                 Each of the Motif Toolkit widgets has a translation table
                 that maps X events (for example, mouse button 1 being
                 pressed) to a sequence of actions. Through widget arguments,
                 such as the common translations argument, you can specify an
                 alternate set of events or actions for a particular widget.
                 The TRANSLATION_TABLE function creates a translation table
                 that can be used as the value of an argument that is of the
                 data type translation_table.

                 You can use one of the following translation table directives
                 with the TRANSLATION_TABLE function: #override, #augment, or
                 #replace.  The default is #replace.  If you specify one of
                 these directives, it must be the first entry in the
                 translation table.

                 The #override directive causes any duplicate translations to
                 be ignored.  For example, if a translation for <Btn1Down> is
                 already defined in the current translations for a PushButton,
                 the translation defined by new_translations overrides the
                 current definition.  If the #augment directive is specified,
                 the current definition takes precedence.  The #replace
                 directive replaces all current translations with those
                 specified in the XmNtranslations resource.

   Renditions and Render Tables
       In addition to the string direction, each compound string carries a
       great deal of information about how its text is to be rendered. Each
       compound string contains a "tag," identifying the "rendition" to be
       used to draw that string. The rendition contains such information as
       the font, the size, the color, whether the text is to be underlined or
       crossed out, and the position and style of any tab stops. Many
       renditions are combined into a "render table," which is specified to
       any widget with the XmNrenderTable resource, and in the widget's
       controls list.

       UIL implements render tables, renditions, tab lists, and tab stops as a
       special class of objects, in a form similar to the widget class. These
       objects are not themselves widgets or gadgets, but the format used by
       UIL to specify widget resources provides a convenient way to specify
       the qualities and dependencies of these objects.

       For example, a render table, included in some widget's controls list,
       must also have a controls list in its specification, containing the
       names of its member renditions. Each rendition, in its specification,
       will contain an arguments list specifying such qualities as the font,
       the color, and whether the text is to be underlined. Any of the
       renditions may also control a tablist, which will itself control one or
       more tab stops.

       Please refer to the Motif Programmer's Guide for a complete description
       of renditions and render tables, and for an example of how to use them
       in UIL.

RELATED INFORMATION
       uil(1), Uil(3)



                                                             UIL(file formats)