VirtualBindings(library call)                    VirtualBindings(library call)

       VirtualBindings — Bindings for virtual mouse and key events

       The Motif reference pages describe key translations in terms of virtual
       bindings, based on those described in the Motif Style Guide.

   Bindings for osf Keysyms
       Keysym strings that begin with <osf> are not part of the X server's
       keyboard mapping.  Instead, these keysyms are produced on the client
       side at run time.  They are interpreted by the routine XmTranslateKey,
       and are used by the translation manager when the server delivers an
       actual key event.  For each application, a mapping is maintained
       between <osf> keysyms and keysyms that correspond to actual keys.  This
       mapping is based on information obtained at application startup from
       one of the following sources, listed in order of precedence:

          •  The XmNdefaultVirtualBindings resource from Display.

          •  A property on the root window, which can be set by mwm on
             startup, or by the xmbind client, or on prior startup of a Motif

          •  The file .motifbind in the user's home directory.

          •  A set of bindings based on the vendor string and optionally the
             vendor release of the X server.  Motif searches for these
             bindings in the following steps:

                0. If the file xmbind.alias exists in the user's home
                   directory, Motif searches this file for a pathname
                   associated with the vendor string or with the vendor string
                   and vendor release.  If it finds such a pathname and if
                   that file exists, Motif loads the bindings contained in
                   that file.

                1. If it has found no bindings, Motif next looks for the file
                   xmbind.alias in the directory specified by the environment
                   variable XMBINDDIR, if XMBINDDIR is set, or in the
                   directory /usr/share/X11/bindings if XMBINDDIR is not set.
                   If this file exists Motif searches it for a pathname
                   associated with the vendor string or with the vendor string
                   and vendor release.  If it finds such a pathname and if
                   that file exists, Motif loads the bindings contained in
                   that file.

                2. If it still has found no bindings, Motif loads a set of
                   hard-coded fallback bindings.

       The xmbind.alias file contains zero or more lines of the following

       "vendor_string[ vendor_release]"    bindings_file

       where vendor_string is the X server vendor name as returned by the X
       client xdpyinfo or the Xlib function XServerVendor, and must appear in
       double quotes.  If vendor_release is included, it is the X server
       vendor release number as returned by the X client xdpyinfo or the Xlib
       function XVendorRelease, and must also be contained within the double
       quotes separated by one space from vendor_string.  The vendor_release
       argument is provided to allow support of changes in keyboard hardware
       from a vendor, assuming that the vendor increments the release number
       to flag such changes.  Alternatively, the vendor may simply use a
       unique vendor string for each different keyboard.

       The bindings_file argument is the pathname of the file containing the
       bindings themselves.  It can be a relative or absolute pathname.  If it
       it is a relative pathname, it is relative to the location of the
       xmbind.alias file.

       Comment lines in the xmbind.alias file begin with ! (exclamation

       The bindings found in either the .motifbind file or the vendor mapping
       are placed in a property on the root window.  This property is used to
       determine the bindings for subsequent Motif applications.

       On startup mwm attempts to load the file .motifbind in the user's home
       directory.  If this is unsuccessful, it loads the vendor bindings as
       described previously.  It places the bindings it loads in a property on
       the root window for use by subsequent Motif applications.

       The xmbind function loads bindings from a file if that file is
       specified on the command line.  If no file is specified on the command
       line, it attempts to load the file .motifbind in the user's home
       directory.  If this fails, it loads the vendor bindings as described
       previously.  It places the bindings it loads in a property on the root
       window for use by subsequent Motif applications.

       The format of the specification for mapping <osf> keysyms to actual
       keysyms is similar to that of a specification for an event translation.
       (See below) The syntax is specified (and below) here in EBNF notation
       using the following conventions:

       [a]    Means either nothing or a
       {a}    Means zero or more occurrences of a
       (a|b)    Means either a or b.

       Terminals are enclosed in double quotation marks.

       The syntax of an <osf> keysym binding specification is as follows:

       binding_spec    =       {line "\n"} [line]
       line            =       virtual_keysym ":" list_of_key_event
       list_of_key_event=      key_event { "," key_event}
       key_event       =       {modifier_name} "<Key>" actual_keysym
       virtual_keysym  =       keysym
       actual_keysym   =       keysym
       keysym          =       A valid X11 keysym name that is
                               mapped by XStringToKeysym

       As with event translations, more specific event descriptions must
       precede less specific descriptions.  For example, an event description
       for a key with a modifier must precede a description for the same key
       without the same modifier.

       Following is an example of a specification for the
       defaultVirtualBindings resource in a resource file:

       *defaultVirtualBindings: \
               osfBackSpace:       <Key>BackSpace       \n\
               osfInsert:       <Key>InsertChar      \n\
               osfDelete:       <Key>DeleteChar      \n\
               osfLeft:       <Key>left, Ctrl<Key>H

       The format of a .motifbind file or of a file containing vendor bindings
       is the same, except that the binding specification for each keysym is
       placed on a separate line.  The previous example specification appears
       as follows in a .motifbind or vendor bindings file:

       osfBackSpace:       <Key>BackSpace
       osfInsert:       <Key>InsertChar
       osfDelete:       <Key>DeleteChar
       osfLeft:       <Key>left, Ctrl<Key>H

       The following table lists the fixed fallback default bindings for <osf>

       │       Fallback Default Bindings for osf Keysyms         │
       │<osf Keysym>          Fallback Default Binding         │
       │<osfActivate>:        <Key>KP_Enter, <Key>Execute      │
       │<osfAddMode>:         Shift<Key>F8                     │
       │<osfBackSpace>:       <Key>BackSpace                   │
       │<osfBeginLine>:       <Key>Home, <Key>Begin            │
       │<osfCancel>:          <Key>Escape, <Key>Cancel         │
       │<osfClear>:           <Key>Clear                       │
       │<osfCopy>:            unbound                          │
       │<osfCut>:             unbound                          │
       │<osfDelete>:          <Key>Delete                      │
       │<osfDeselectAll>:     unbound                          │
       │<osfDown>:            <Key>Down                        │
       │<osfEndLine>:         <Key>End                         │
       │<osfHelp>:            <Key>F1, <Key>Help               │
       │<osfInsert>:          <Key>Insert                      │
       │<osfLeft>:            <Key>Left                        │
       │<osfLeftLine>:        unbound                          │
       │<osfMenu>:            Shift<Key>F10, <Key>Menu         │
       │<osfMenuBar>:         <Key>F10, Shift<Key>Menu         │
       │<osfNextMinor>:       unbound                          │
       │<osfPageDown>:        <Key>Next                        │
       │<osfPageLeft>:        unbound                          │
       │<osfPageRight>:       unbound                          │
       │<osfPageUp>:          <Key>Prior                       │
       │<osfPaste>:           unbound                          │
       │<osfPrimaryPaste>:    unbound                          │
       │<osfPriorMinor>:      unbound                          │
       │<osfReselect>:        unbound                          │
       │<osfRestore>:         unbound                          │
       │<osfRight>:           <Key>Right                       │
       │<osfRightLine>:       unbound                          │
       │<osfSelect>:          <Key>Select                      │
       │<osfSelectAll>:       unbound                          │
       │<osfSwitchDirection>: Alt<Key>Return, Alt<Key>KP_Enter │
       │<osfUndo>:            <Key>Undo                        │
       │<osfUp>:              <Key>Up                          │
   Changes in the Handling of Shifted Keys
       In conjunction with MIT X11R5 Patch 24, this version of Motif
       introduces a change in the way that keys involving the <Shift> modifier
       are processed. This change allows the numeric keypad to be used to
       generate numbers using the standard X mechanisms. Since the default
       behavior is now to honor the xmodmap keymap bindings, translations and
       virtual key bindings that use <Shift> may behave differently. A common
       symptom is that unshifted keypad and function keys (with or without
       other modifiers) produce the expected results, but shifted ones do not.

       To obtain the old behavior you can remove the shifted interpretation
       from problematic keys using the xmodmap utility. Each entry in a
       xmodmap keymap table contains up to four keysym bindings. The second
       and fourth keysyms are for shifted keys. If an expression contains only
       two keysyms, simply remove the second keysym. If an entry contains
       three or more keysyms, replace the second keysym with NoSymbol and
       remove the fourth keysym.

   Action Translations
       The translation table syntax used by Motif is completely specified in
       the X11R5 Toolkit Intrinsics Documentation. For the complete syntax
       description, and for general instructions about writing or modifying a
       translation table, please refer to this document. A brief summary of
       the translation table format, however, is included below.

       The syntax is defined as in the binding syntax specification above.
       Informal descriptions are contained in angle brackets (<>).

       TranslationTable=       [ directive ] { production }
       directive       =       ( "#replace" | "#override" | "#augment") "\n"
       production      =       lhs ":" rhs "\n"
       lhs             =       ( event | keyseq) {"," ( event | keyseq) }
       keyseq          =       """ keychar { keychar } """
       keychar         =       ( "^" | "$" | "\\") <ISO Latin 1 character>
       event           =       [ modifier_list ] "<" event_type ">" [ count ] {detail}
       modifier_list   =       ( ["!"][":"] { modifier } | "None")
       modifier        =       [ "~" ] ( "@" <keysym> | <name from table below>)
       count           =       "(" <positive integer> [ "+" ] ")"
       rhs             =       { action_name "(" [params] ")" }
       params          =       string { "," string }

       The string field need not be quoted unless it includes a space or tab
       character, or any comma, newline, or parenthesis. The entire list of
       string values making up the params field will ba passed to the named
       action routine.

       The details field may be used to specify a keysym that will identify a
       particular key event. For example, <Key> is the name of a type of
       event, but it must be modified by the details field to name a specific
       event, such as <Key>A.

       Modifier Names The modifier list, which may be empty, consists of a
       list of modifier keys that must be pressed with the key sequence. The
       modifier keys may abbreviated with single letters, as in the following
       list of the familiar modifiers:

       s         Shift

       c or ^    Ctrl (Control)

       m or $    Meta

       a         Alt

       Other modifiers are available, such as "Mod5" and "Button2." These have
       no abbreviation (although the "Button" modifiers may be abbreviated in
       combination with events, as outlined below). If a modifier list has no
       entries, and is not "None", it means the position of the modifier keys
       is irrelevant. If modifiers are listed, the designated keys must be in
       the specified position, but the unlisted modifier keys are irrelevant.
       If the list begins with an exclamation point (!), however, the unlisted
       modifiers may not be asserted. In addition, if a modifier name is
       preceded by a tilde (~), the corresponding key must not be pressed.

       If a modifier list begins with a colon (:), X tries to use the standard
       modifiers (Shift and Lock), if present, to map the key event code into
       a recognized keysym.

       Event Types These are a few of the recognized event types.

       Key or KeyDown
                 A keyboard key was pressed.

       KeyUp     A keyboard key was released.

       BtnDown   A mouse button was pressed.

       BtnUp     A mouse button was released.

       Motion    The mouse pointer moved.

       Enter     The pointer entered the widget's window.

       Leave     The pointer left the widget's window.

       FocusIn   The widget has received focus.

       FocusOut  The widget has lost focus.

       There are some event abbreviations available. For example, <Btn1Motion>
       is actually a "Motion" event, modified with the "Button1" modifier
       (Button1<Motion>). Similarly, <Btn3Up> is actually a "BtnUp" event with
       the "Button3" modifier. These abbreviations are used extensively in the
       Motif translation tables.


                                                 VirtualBindings(library call)