X(7)                   Miscellaneous Information Manual                   X(7)

       X - a portable, network-transparent window system

       The X Window System is a network transparent window system which runs
       on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.  It should be
       relatively straightforward to build the X.Org Foundation software
       distribution on most ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.  Commercial
       implementations are also available for a wide range of platforms.

       The X.Org Foundation requests that the following names be used when
       referring to this software:

                                   X Window System
                                    X Version 11
                             X Window System, Version 11

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       X Window System servers run on computers with bitmap displays.  The
       server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from
       various client programs through a variety of different interprocess
       communication channels.  Although the most common case is for the
       client programs to be running on the same machine as the server,
       clients can be run transparently from other machines (including
       machines with different architectures and operating systems) as well.

       X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and text and graphics
       operations, on both monochrome and color displays.  For a full
       explanation of the functions that are available, see the Xlib - C
       Language X Interface manual, the X Window System Protocol
       specification, the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual,
       and various toolkit documents.

       The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided in
       the core X.Org Foundation distribution include: a terminal emulator,
       xterm; a window manager, twm; a display manager, xdm; a console
       redirect program, xconsole; a mail interface, xmh; a bitmap editor,
       bitmap; resource listing/manipulation tools, appres, editres; access
       control programs, xauth, xhost, and iceauth; user preference setting
       programs, xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap; clocks,
       xclock and oclock; a font displayer, xfd; utilities for listing
       information about fonts, windows, and displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo,
       xlsclients, xdpyinfo, xlsatoms, and xprop; screen image manipulation
       utilities, xwd, xwud, and xmag; a performance measurement utility,
       x11perf; a font compiler, bdftopcf; a font server and related
       utilities, xfs, fsinfo, fslsfonts, fstobdf; a display server and
       related utilities, Xserver, rgb, mkfontdir; a clipboard manager,
       xclipboard; keyboard description compiler and related utilities,
       xkbcomp, setxkbmap xkbprint, xkbbell, xkbevd, xkbvleds, and xkbwatch; a
       utility to terminate clients, xkill; a firewall security proxy, xfwp; a
       proxy manager to control them, proxymngr; a utility to find proxies,
       xfindproxy; web browser plug-ins, libxrx.so and libxrxnest.so; an RX
       MIME-type helper program, xrx; and a utility to cause part or all of
       the screen to be redrawn, xrefresh.

       Many other utilities, window managers, games, toolkits, etc. are
       included as user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation
       distribution, or are available on the Internet.  See your site
       administrator for details.

       There are two main ways of getting the X server and an initial set of
       client applications started.  The particular method used depends on
       what operating system you are running and whether or not you use other
       window systems in addition to X.

       Display Manager
               If you want to always have X running on your display, your site
               administrator can set your machine up to use a Display Manager
               such as xdm, gdm, or kdm.  This program is typically started by
               the system at boot time and takes care of keeping the server
               running and getting users logged in.  If you are running one of
               these display managers, you will normally see a window on the
               screen welcoming you to the system and asking for your login
               information.  Simply type them in as you would at a normal
               terminal.  If you make a mistake, the display manager will
               display an error message and ask you to try again.  After you
               have successfully logged in, the display manager will start up
               your X environment.  The documentation for the display manager
               you use can provide more details.

       xinit (run manually from the shell)
               Sites that support more than one window system might choose to
               use the xinit program for starting X manually.  If this is true
               for your machine, your site administrator will probably have
               provided a program named "x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will
               do site-specific initialization (such as loading convenient
               default resources, running a window manager, displaying a
               clock, and starting several terminal emulators) in a nice way.
               If not, you can build such a script using the xinit program.
               This utility simply runs one user-specified program to start
               the server, runs another to start up any desired clients, and
               then waits for either to finish.  Since either or both of the
               user-specified programs may be a shell script, this gives
               substantial flexibility at the expense of a nice interface.
               For this reason, xinit is not intended for end users.

       From the user's perspective, every X server has a display name of the


       This information is used by the application to determine how it should
       connect to the server and which screen it should use by default (on
       displays with multiple monitors):

               The hostname specifies the name of the machine to which the
               display is physically connected.  If the hostname is not given,
               the most efficient way of communicating to a server on the same
               machine will be used.

               The phrase "display" is usually used to refer to a collection
               of monitors that share a common set of input devices (keyboard,
               mouse, tablet, etc.).  Most workstations tend to only have one
               display.  Larger, multi-user systems, however, frequently have
               several displays so that more than one person can be doing
               graphics work at once.  To avoid confusion, each display on a
               machine is assigned a display number (beginning at 0) when the
               X server for that display is started.  The display number must
               always be given in a display name.

               Some displays share their input devices among two or more
               monitors.  These may be configured as a single logical screen,
               which allows windows to move across screens, or as individual
               screens, each with their own set of windows.  If configured
               such that each monitor has its own set of windows, each screen
               is assigned a screen number (beginning at 0) when the X server
               for that display is started.  If the screen number is not
               given, screen 0 will be used.

       On POSIX systems, the default display name is stored in your DISPLAY
       environment variable.  This variable is set automatically by the xterm
       terminal emulator.  However, when you log into another machine on a
       network, you may need to set DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.
       For example,

           % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
           $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY

       The ssh program can be used to start an X program on a remote machine;
       it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

       Finally, most X programs accept a command line option of -display
       displayname to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.  This is
       most commonly used to pop windows on another person's screen or as part
       of a "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to your
       display.  For example,

           % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
           % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

       X servers listen for connections on a variety of different
       communications channels (network byte streams, shared memory, etc.).
       Since there can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The
       hostname part of the display name is used to determine the type of
       channel (also called a transport layer) to be used.  X servers
       generally support the following types of connections:

               The hostname part of the display name should be the empty
               string.  For example:  :0, :1, and :0.1.  The most efficient
               local transport will be chosen.

               The hostname part of the display name should be the server
               machine's hostname or IP address.  Full Internet names,
               abbreviated names, IPv4 addresses, and IPv6 addresses are all
               allowed.  For example: x.org:0, expo:0, [::1]:0,
     , bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.

       An X server can use several types of access control.  Mechanisms
       provided in Release 7 are:

       Host Access           Simple host-based access control.
       MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1    Shared plain-text "cookies".
       XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1   Secure DES based private-keys.
       SUN-DES-1             Based on Sun's secure rpc system.
       Server Interpreted    Server-dependent methods of access control

       Xdm initializes access control for the server and also places
       authorization information in a file accessible to the user.

       Normally, the list of hosts from which connections are always accepted
       should be empty, so that only clients with are explicitly authorized
       can connect to the display.  When you add entries to the host list
       (with xhost), the server no longer performs any authorization on
       connections from those machines.  Be careful with this.

       The file from which Xlib extracts authorization data can be specified
       with the environment variable XAUTHORITY, and defaults to the file
       .Xauthority in the home directory.  Xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will
       create it or merge in authorization records if it already exists when a
       user logs in.

       If you use several machines and share a common home directory across
       all of the machines by means of a network file system, you never really
       have to worry about authorization files, the system should work
       correctly by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are
       machine-independent, you can simply copy the files to share them.  To
       manage authorization files, use xauth.  This program allows you to
       extract records and insert them into other files.  Using this, you can
       send authorization to remote machines when you login, if the remote
       machine does not share a common home directory with your local machine.
       Note that authorization information transmitted ``in the clear''
       through a network file system or using ftp or rcp can be ``stolen'' by
       a network eavesdropper, and as such may enable unauthorized access.  In
       many environments, this level of security is not a concern, but if it
       is, you need to know the exact semantics of the particular
       authorization data to know if this is actually a problem.

       For more information on access control, see the Xsecurity(7) manual

       One of the advantages of using window systems instead of hardwired
       terminals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a
       particular size or location on the screen.  Although the layout of
       windows on a display is controlled by the window manager that the user
       is running (described below), most X programs accept a command line
       argument of the form -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH,
       HEIGHT, XOFF, and YOFF are numbers) for specifying a preferred size and
       location for this application's main window.

       The WIDTH and HEIGHT parts of the geometry specification are usually
       measured in either pixels or characters, depending on the application.
       The XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in pixels and are used to specify
       the distance of the window from the left or right and top and bottom
       edges of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are measured
       from the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding edge of the
       window.  The X offset may be specified in the following ways:

       +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in from
               the left edge of the screen (i.e., the X coordinate of the
               window's origin will be XOFF).  XOFF may be negative, in which
               case the window's left edge will be off the screen.

       -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in
               from the right edge of the screen.  XOFF may be negative, in
               which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

       The Y offset has similar meanings:

       +YOFF   The top edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below the top
               edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's
               origin will be YOFF).  YOFF may be negative, in which case the
               window's top edge will be off the screen.

       -YOFF   The bottom edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels above the
               bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF may be negative, in which case
               the window's bottom edge will be off the screen.

       Offsets must be given as pairs; in other words, in order to specify
       either XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows can be placed in the
       four corners of the screen using the following specifications:

       +0+0    upper left hand corner.

       -0+0    upper right hand corner.

       -0-0    lower right hand corner.

       +0-0    lower left hand corner.

       In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed in roughly the
       center of the screen and a load average monitor, mailbox, and clock are
       placed in the upper right hand corner:

           xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
           xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
           xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
           xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &

       The layout of windows on the screen is controlled by special programs
       called window managers.  Although many window managers will honor
       geometry specifications as given, others may choose to ignore them
       (requiring the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the
       screen with the pointer, for example).

       Since window managers are regular (albeit complex) client programs, a
       variety of different user interfaces can be built.  The X.Org
       Foundation distribution comes with a window manager named twm which
       supports overlapping windows, popup menus, point-and-click or click-to-
       type input models, title bars, nice icons (and an icon manager for
       those who don't like separate icon windows).

       See the user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation distribution
       for other popular window managers.

       Collections of characters for displaying text and symbols in X are
       known as fonts.  A font typically contains images that share a common
       appearance and look nice together (for example, a single size,
       boldness, slant, and character set).  Similarly, collections of fonts
       that are based on a common type face (the variations are usually called
       roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called

       Fonts come in various sizes.  The X server supports scalable fonts,
       meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a single
       source for the font.  The server supports scaling from outline fonts
       and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces
       significantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

       An X server can obtain fonts from individual files stored in
       directories in the file system, or from one or more font servers, or
       from a mixtures of directories and font servers.  The list of places
       the server looks when trying to find a font is controlled by its font
       path.  Although most installations will choose to have the server start
       up with all of the commonly used font directories in the font path, the
       font path can be changed at any time with the xset program.  However,
       it is important to remember that the directory names are on the
       server's machine, not on the application's.

       Bitmap font files are usually created by compiling a textual font
       description into binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are
       created by running the mkfontdir program in the directory containing
       the source or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are added
       to a directory, mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find
       the new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database, reset the
       font path with the xset program.  For example, to add a font to a
       private directory, the following commands could be used:

           % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
           % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
           % xset fp rehash

       The xfontsel and xlsfonts programs can be used to browse through the
       fonts available on a server.  Font names tend to be fairly long as they
       contain all of the information needed to uniquely identify individual
       fonts.  However, the X server supports wildcarding of font names, so
       the full specification


       might be abbreviated as:


       Because the shell also has special meanings for * and ?, wildcarded
       font names should be quoted:

           % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

       The xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match a
       given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.  This
       will usually list the same font at many different sizes.  To see just
       the base scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:


       To convert one of the resulting names into a font at a specific size,
       replace one of the first two zeros with a nonzero value.  The field
       containing the first zero is for the pixel size; replace it with a
       specific height in pixels to name a font at that size.  Alternatively,
       the field containing the second zero is for the point size; replace it
       with a specific size in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the
       inch) to name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width
       field, measured in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically
       scale if this value is specified.

       One of the following forms can be used to name a font server that
       accepts TCP connections:


       The hostname specifies the name (or decimal numeric address) of the
       machine on which the font server is running.  The port is the decimal
       TCP port on which the font server is listening for connections.  The
       cataloguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a

       Examples: tcp/x.org:7100, tcp/

       Most applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through resources
       or command line arguments) the colors of various elements in the text
       and graphics they display.  A color can be specified either by an
       abstract color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The
       numerical specification can identify a color in either device-dependent
       (RGB) or device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.

       X supports the use of abstract color names, for example, "red", "blue".
       A value for this abstract name is obtained by searching one or more
       color name databases.  Xlib first searches zero or more client-side
       databases; the number, location, and content of these databases is
       implementation dependent.  If the name is not found, the color is
       looked up in the X server's database.  The text form of this database
       is commonly stored in the file usr/share/X11/rgb.txt.

       A numerical color specification consists of a color space name and a
       set of values in the following syntax:


       An RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and has
       the following syntax:


               <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
               h := single hexadecimal digits

       Note that h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the value scaled
       in 8 bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the value scaled
       in 16 bits, respectively.  These values are passed directly to the X
       server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

       The eight primary colors can be represented as:

                            black     rgb:0/0/0
                            red       rgb:ffff/0/0
                            green     rgb:0/ffff/0
                            blue      rgb:0/0/ffff
                            yellow    rgb:ffff/ffff/0
                            magenta   rgb:ffff/0/ffff
                            cyan      rgb:0/ffff/ffff
                            white     rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

       For backward compatibility, an older syntax for RGB Device is
       supported, but its continued use is not encouraged.  The syntax is an
       initial sharp sign character followed by a numeric specification, in
       one of the following formats:

                           #RGB            (4 bits each)
                           #RRGGBB         (8 bits each)
                           #RRRGGGBBB      (12 bits each)
                           #RRRRGGGGBBBB   (16 bits each)

       The R, G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.  When fewer than
       16 bits each are specified, they represent the most-significant bits of
       the value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in which values are scaled).  For
       example, #3a7 is the same as #3000a0007000.

       An RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:" and
       has the following syntax:


       The red, green, and blue are floating point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
       inclusive.  They represent linear intensity values, with 1.0 indicating
       full intensity, 0.5 half intensity, and so on.  These values will be
       gamma corrected by Xlib before being sent to the X server.  The input
       format for these values is an optional sign, a string of numbers
       possibly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field
       containing an E or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.

       The standard device-independent string specifications have the
       following syntax:

                       CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>   (none, 1, none)
                       CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>   (~.6, ~.6, 1)
                       CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>   (~.75, ~.85, 1)
                       CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>   (100, none, none)
                       CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>   (100, none, none)
                       TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>   (360, 100, 100)

       All of the values (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v, y, x) are floating
       point values.  Some of the values are constrained to be between zero
       and some upper bound; the upper bounds are given in parentheses above.
       The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of
       digits possibly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent
       field consisting of an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional '+' or '-'
       followed by a string of digits.

       For more information on device independent color, see the Xlib
       reference manual.

       The X keyboard model is broken into two layers:  server-specific codes
       (called keycodes) which represent the physical keys, and server-
       independent symbols (called keysyms) which represent the letters or
       words that appear on the keys.  Two tables are kept in the server for
       converting keycodes to keysyms:

       modifier list
               Some keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known as
               modifier and are used to select different symbols that are
               attached to a single key (such as Shift-a generates a capital
               A, and Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The server
               keeps a list of keycodes corresponding to the various modifier
               keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or released, the server
               generates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated
               key as well as a mask that specifies which of the modifier keys
               are currently pressed.  Most servers set up this list to
               initially contain the various shift, control, and shift lock
               keys on the keyboard.

       keymap table
               Applications translate event keycodes and modifier masks into
               keysyms using a keysym table which contains one row for each
               keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
               is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
               conventions.  The exact semantics of how the table is
               interpreted to produce keysyms depends on the particular
               program, libraries, and language input method used, but the
               following conventions for the first four keysyms in each row
               are generally adhered to:

       The first four elements of the list are split into two groups of
       keysyms.  Group 1 contains the first and second keysyms; Group 2
       contains the third and fourth keysyms.  Within each group, if the first
       element is alphabetic and the the second element is the special keysym
       NoSymbol, then the group is treated as equivalent to a group in which
       the first element is the lowercase letter and the second element is the
       uppercase letter.

       Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named MODE SWITCH,
       by attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that key to any one
       of the modifiers Mod1 through Mod5.  This modifier is called the
       ``group modifier.''  Group 1 is used when the group modifier is off,
       and Group 2 is used when the group modifier is on.

       Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
       first keysym is used when the Shift and Lock modifiers are off.  The
       second keysym is used when the Shift modifier is on, when the Lock
       modifier is on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when
       the Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.  Otherwise,
       when the Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as CapsLock, the state
       of the Shift modifier is applied first to select a keysym; but if that
       keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the corresponding uppercase keysym
       is used instead.

       Most X programs attempt to use the same names for command line options
       and arguments.  All applications written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics
       automatically accept the following options:

       -display display
               This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

       -geometry geometry
               This option specifies the initial size and location of the

       -bg color, -background color
               Either option specifies the color to use for the window

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
               Either option specifies the color to use for the window border.

       -bw number, -borderwidth number
               Either option specifies the width in pixels of the window

       -fg color, -foreground color
               Either option specifies the color to use for text or graphics.

       -fn font, -font font
               Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.

               This option indicates that the user would prefer that the
               application's windows initially not be visible as if the
               windows had be immediately iconified by the user.  Window
               managers may choose not to honor the application's request.

               This option specifies the name under which resources for the
               application should be found.  This option is useful in shell
               aliases to distinguish between invocations of an application,
               without resorting to creating links to alter the executable
               file name.

       -rv, -reverse
               Either option indicates that the program should simulate
               reverse video if possible, often by swapping the foreground and
               background colors.  Not all programs honor this or implement it
               correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome displays.

               This option indicates that the program should not simulate
               reverse video.  This is used to override any defaults since
               reverse video doesn't always work properly.

               This option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within which
               two communicating applications must respond to one another for
               a selection request.

               This option indicates that requests to the X server should be
               sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib
               normally buffers requests to the server, errors do not
               necessarily get reported immediately after they occur.  This
               option turns off the buffering so that the application can be
               debugged.  It should never be used with a working program.

       -title string
               This option specifies the title to be used for this window.
               This information is sometimes used by a window manager to
               provide some sort of header identifying the window.

       -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
               This option specifies the language, territory, and codeset for
               use in resolving resource and other filenames.

       -xrm resourcestring
               This option specifies a resource name and value to override any
               defaults.  It is also very useful for setting resources that
               don't have explicit command line arguments.

       To make the tailoring of applications to personal preferences easier, X
       provides a mechanism for storing default values for program resources
       (e.g. background color, window title, etc.) that is used by programs
       that use toolkits based on the X Toolkit Intrinsics library libXt.
       (Programs using the common Gtk+ and Qt toolkits use other configuration
       mechanisms.)  Resources are specified as strings that are read in from
       various places when an application is run.  Program components are
       named in a hierarchical fashion, with each node in the hierarchy
       identified by a class and an instance name.  At the top level is the
       class and instance name of the application itself.  By convention, the
       class name of the application is the same as the program name, but with
       the first letter capitalized (e.g. Bitmap or Emacs) although some
       programs that begin with the letter ``x'' also capitalize the second
       letter for historical reasons.

       The precise syntax for resources is:

       ResourceLine    =       Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
       Comment         =       "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
       IncludeFile     =       "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
       FileName        =       <valid filename for operating system>
       ResourceSpec    =       WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
       ResourceName    =       [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
       Binding         =       "." | "*"
       WhiteSpace      =       {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
       Component       =       "?" | ComponentName
       ComponentName   =       NameChar {NameChar}
       NameChar        =       "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
       Value           =       {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

       Elements separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.  Curly braces
       ({...}) indicate zero or more repetitions of the enclosed elements.
       Square brackets ([...]) indicate that the enclosed element is optional.
       Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

       IncludeFile lines are interpreted by replacing the line with the
       contents of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in
       lowercase.  The filename is interpreted relative to the directory of
       the file in which the line occurs (for example, if the filename
       contains no directory or contains a relative directory specification).

       If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more Binding
       characters, the sequence will be replaced with single "." character if
       the sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence will
       be replaced with a single "*" character.

       A resource database never contains more than one entry for a given
       ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple lines with the same
       ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.

       Any whitespace character before or after the name or colon in a
       ResourceSpec are ignored.  To allow a Value to begin with whitespace,
       the two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash followed by space) is
       recognized and replaced by a space character, and the two-character
       sequence ``\tab'' (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is recognized
       and replaced by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value to
       contain embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n''
       is recognized and replaced by a newline character.  To allow a Value to
       be broken across multiple lines in a text file, the two-character
       sequence ``\newline'' (backslash followed by newline) is recognized and
       removed from the value.  To allow a Value to contain arbitrary
       character codes, the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each n is
       a digit character in the range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and
       replaced with a single byte that contains the octal value specified by
       the sequence.  Finally, the two-character sequence ``\\'' is recognized
       and replaced with a single backslash.

       When an application looks for the value of a resource, it specifies a
       complete path in the hierarchy, with both class and instance names.
       However, resource values are usually given with only partially
       specified names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An
       asterisk (*) is a loose binding and is used to represent any number of
       intervening components, including none.  A period (.) is a tight
       binding and is used to separate immediately adjacent components.  A
       question mark (?) is used to match any single component name or class.
       A database entry cannot end in a loose binding; the final component
       (which cannot be "?") must be specified.  The lookup algorithm searches
       the resource database for the entry that most closely matches (is most
       specific for) the full name and class being queried.  When more than
       one database entry matches the full name and class, precedence rules
       are used to select just one.

       The full name and class are scanned from left to right (from highest
       level in the hierarchy to lowest), one component at a time.  At each
       level, the corresponding component and/or binding of each matching
       entry is determined, and these matching components and bindings are
       compared according to precedence rules.  Each of the rules is applied
       at each level, before moving to the next level, until a rule selects a
       single entry over all others.  The rules (in order of precedence) are:

       1.   An entry that contains a matching component (whether name, class,
            or "?")  takes precedence over entries that elide the level (that
            is, entries that match the level in a loose binding).

       2.   An entry with a matching name takes precedence over both entries
            with a matching class and entries that match using "?".  An entry
            with a matching class takes precedence over entries that match
            using "?".

       3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
            preceded by a loose binding.

       Programs based on the X Toolkit Intrinsics obtain resources from the
       following sources (other programs usually support some subset of these

       RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property
               Any global resources that should be available to clients on all
               machines should be stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER property on
               the root window of the first screen using the xrdb program.
               This is frequently taken care of when the user starts up X
               through the display manager or xinit.

       SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
               Any resources specific to a given screen (e.g. colors) that
               should be available to clients on all machines should be stored
               in the SCREEN_RESOURCES property on the root window of that
               screen.  The xrdb program will sort resources automatically and
               place them in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES, as

       application-specific files
               Directories named by the environment variable
               XUSERFILESEARCHPATH or the environment variable XAPPLRESDIR
               (which names a single directory and should end with a '/' on
               POSIX systems), plus directories in a standard place (usually
               under /usr/share/X11/, but this can be overridden with the
               XFILESEARCHPATH environment variable) are searched for for
               application-specific resources.  For example, application
               default resources are usually kept in /usr/share/X11/app-
               defaults/.  See the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface
               manual for details.

               Any user- and machine-specific resources may be specified by
               setting the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of a
               resource file to be loaded by all applications.  If this
               variable is not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname
               is looked for instead, where hostname is the name of the host
               where the application is executing.

       -xrm resourcestring
               Resources can also be specified from the command line.  The
               resourcestring is a single resource name and value as shown
               above.  Note that if the string contains characters interpreted
               by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must be quoted.  Any number
               of -xrm arguments may be given on the command line.

       Program resources are organized into groups called classes, so that
       collections of individual resources (each of which are called
       instances) can be set all at once.  By convention, the instance name of
       a resource begins with a lowercase letter and class name with an upper
       case letter.  Multiple word resources are concatenated with the first
       letter of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications written with
       the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the following resources:

       background (class Background)
               This resource specifies the color to use for the window

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               This resource specifies the width in pixels of the window

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               This resource specifies the color to use for the window border.

       Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have the resource
       foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
       graphics within the window.

       By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
       can be set quickly and easily.  Users of color displays will frequently
       want to set Background and Foreground classes to particular defaults.
       Specific color instances such as text cursors can then be overridden
       without having to define all of the related resources.  For example,

           bitmap*Dashed:  off
           XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
           XTerm*multiScroll:  on
           XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
           XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
           XTerm*curses:  on
           XTerm*Font:  6x10
           XTerm*scrollBar: on
           XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
           XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
           XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
           XTerm*cutNewline: off
           XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
           XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
           XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
           XLoad*Background: gold
           XLoad*Foreground: red
           XLoad*highlight: black
           XLoad*borderWidth: 0
           emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
           emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
           emacs*Foreground:  white
           emacs*Cursor:  white
           emacs*BorderColor:  white
           emacs*Font:  6x10
           xmag*geometry: -0-0
           xmag*borderColor:  white

       If these resources were stored in a file called .Xresources in your
       home directory, they could be added to any existing resources in the
       server with the following command:

           % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

       This is frequently how user-friendly startup scripts merge user-
       specific defaults into any site-wide defaults.  All sites are
       encouraged to set up convenient ways of automatically loading
       resources. See the Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for
       more information.

              This is the only mandatory environment variable. It must point
              to an X server. See section "Display Names" above.

              This must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
              default is $HOME/.Xauthority. See Xsecurity(7), xauth(1),
              xdm(1), Xau(3).

              This must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
              default is $HOME/.ICEauthority.

              The first non-empty value among these three determines the
              current locale's facet for character handling, and in particular
              the default text encoding. See locale(7), setlocale(3),

              This variable can be set to contain additional information
              important for the current locale setting. Typically set to
              @im=<input-method> to enable a particular input method. See

              This must point to a directory containing the locale.alias file
              and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file hierarchies for all locales. The
              default value is /usr/share/X11/locale.

              This must point to a file containing X resources. The default is
              $HOME/.Xdefaults-<hostname>. Unlike $HOME/.Xresources, it is
              consulted each time an X application starts.

              This must contain a colon separated list of path templates,
              where libXt will search for resource files. The default value
              consists of


              A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

                  %D => the implementation-specific default path
                  %N => name (basename) being searched for
                  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                  %S => suffix being searched for
                  %C => value of the resource "customization"
                        (class "Customization")
                  %L => the locale name
                  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
                  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
                  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

              This must contain a colon separated list of path templates,
              where libXt will search for user dependent resource files. The
              default value is:


              $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.

              A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

                  %D => the implementation-specific default path
                  %N => name (basename) being searched for
                  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                  %S => suffix being searched for
                  %C => value of the resource "customization"
                        (class "Customization")
                  %L => the locale name
                  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
                  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
                  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

              This must point to a base directory where the user stores the
              application dependent resource files. The default value is
              $HOME. Only used if XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is not set.

              This must point to a file containing nonstandard keysym
              definitions.  The default value is /usr/share/X11/XKeysymDB.

       XCMSDB This must point to a color name database file. The default value

              This serves as main identifier for resources belonging to the
              program being executed. It defaults to the basename of pathname
              of the program.

              Denotes the session manager to which the application should
              connect. See xsm(1), rstart(1).

              Setting this variable to a non-empty value disables the
              XFree86-Bigfont extension. This extension is a mechanism to
              reduce the memory consumption of big fonts by use of shared


       These variables influence the X Keyboard Extension.

       The following is a collection of sample command lines for some of the
       more frequently used commands.  For more information on a particular
       command, please refer to that command's manual page.

           %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
           %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
           %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
           %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
           %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
           %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
           %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
           %  xset q
           %  twm
           %  xmag
           %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
           %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
           %  xbiff -update 20
           %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
           %  xwininfo -root
           %  xdpyinfo -display joesworkstation:0
           %  xhost -joesworkstation
           %  xrefresh
           %  xwd | xwud
           %  bitmap companylogo.bm 32x32
           %  xcalc -bg blue -fg magenta
           %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*

       A wide variety of error messages are generated from various programs.
       The default error handler in Xlib (also used by many toolkits) uses
       standard resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors occur.
       The defaults for these messages are usually stored in
       usr/share/X11/XErrorDB.  If this file is not present, error messages
       will be rather terse and cryptic.

       When the X Toolkit Intrinsics encounter errors converting resource
       strings to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are
       usually printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one
       set of resources across a variety of displays (e.g. color vs.
       monochrome, lots of fonts vs. very few, etc.), although it can pose
       problems for trying to determine why an application might be failing.
       This behavior can be overridden by the setting the
       StringConversionWarnings resource.

       To force the X Toolkit Intrinsics to always print string conversion
       error messages, the following resource should be placed in the file
       that gets loaded onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb
       program (frequently called .Xresources or .Xres in the user's home

           *StringConversionWarnings: on

       To have conversion messages printed for just a particular application,
       the appropriate instance name can be placed before the asterisk:

           xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on

       XOrgFoundation(7), XStandards(7), Xsecurity(7), appres(1), bdftopcf(1),
       bitmap(1), editres(1), fsinfo(1), fslsfonts(1), fstobdf(1), iceauth(1),
       imake(1), makedepend(1), mkfontdir(1), oclock(1), proxymngr(1), rgb(1),
       resize(1), rstart(1), smproxy(1), twm(1), x11perf(1), x11perfcomp(1),
       xauth(1), xclipboard(1), xclock(1), xcmsdb(1), xconsole(1), xdm(1),
       xdpyinfo(1), xfd(1), xfindproxy(1), xfs(1), xfwp(1), xhost(1),
       xinit(1), xkbbell(1), xkbcomp(1), xkbevd(1), xkbprint(1), xkbvleds(1),
       xkbwatch(1), xkill(1), xlogo(1), xlsatoms(1), xlsclients(1),
       xlsfonts(1), xmag(1), xmh(1), xmodmap(1), xprop(1), xrdb(1),
       xrefresh(1), xrx(1), xset(1), xsetroot(1), xsm(1), xstdcmap(1),
       xterm(1), xwd(1), xwininfo(1), xwud(1).  Xserver(1), Xorg(1), Xdmx(1),
       Xephyr(1), Xnest(1), Xquartz(1), Xvfb(1), Xvnc(1), XWin(1).  Xlib - C
       Language X Interface, and X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       A cast of thousands, literally.  Releases 6.7 and later are brought to
       you by the X.Org Foundation. The names of all people who made it a
       reality will be found in the individual documents and source files.

       Releases 6.6 and 6.5 were done by The X.Org Group.  Release 6.4 was
       done by The X Project Team.  The Release 6.3 distribution was from The
       X Consortium, Inc.  The staff members at the X Consortium responsible
       for that release were: Donna Converse (emeritus), Stephen Gildea
       (emeritus), Kaleb Keithley, Matt Landau (emeritus), Ralph Mor
       (emeritus), Janet O'Halloran, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins
       (emeritus), and Reed Augliere.

       The X Window System standard was originally developed at the Laboratory
       for Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and
       all rights thereto were assigned to the X Consortium on January 1,
       1994.  X Consortium, Inc. closed its doors on December 31, 1996.  All
       rights to the X Window System have been assigned to The Open Group.

X Version 11                    xorg-docs 1.7.1                           X(7)