AMANDA(8)                                                            AMANDA(8)

       amanda - Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver

       amadmin config command [options]

       amcheck [options] config

       amcheckdb config

       amcleanup config


       amdd [options]

       amdump config


       amflush [-f] config

       amgetconf [config] parameter

       amlabel config label [slot slot]

       ammt [options]

       amoverview config [options]

       amplot [options] amdump-files

       amrecover [config] [options]

       amreport [config] [options]

       amrestore [options] tapedevice [hostname [diskname]]

       amfetchdump [options] config [hostname [diskname [date [level]]]]

       amrmtape [options] config label

       amstatus config [options]

       amtape config command [options]

       amtapetype [options]

       amtoc [options] logfile

       amverify config

       amverifyrun config

       Amanda is the "Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver". This
       manual page gives an overview of the Amanda commands and configuration
       files for quick reference.

       Here are all the Amanda commands. Each one has its own manual page. See
       them for all the gory details.

       amdump Take care of automatic Amanda backups. This is normally executed
              by cron on a computer called the tape server host and requests
              backups of file systems located on backupclients.  Amdump backs
              up all disks in the disklist file (discussed below) to tape or,
              if there is a problem, to a special holdingdisk. After all
              backups are done, amdump sends mail reporting failures and

              Flush backups from the holding disk to tape.  Amflush is used
              after amdump has reported it could not write backups to tape for
              some reason. When this happens, backups stay in the holding
              disk. Run amflush after the tape problem is corrected to write
              backups from the holding disk to tape.

              Clean up after an interrupted amdump. This command is only
              needed if amdump was unable to complete for some reason, usually
              because the tape server host crashed while amdump was running.

              Provides an interactive interface to browse the Amanda index
              files (backup image catalogues) and select which tapes to
              recover files from. It can also run amrestore and a restore
              program (e.g.  tar) to actually recover the files.

              Read an Amanda tape, searching for requested backups.  Amrestore
              is suitable for everything from interactive restores of single
              files to a full restore of all partitions on a failed disk.

              Performs Amanda tape restoration, similar to amrestore.
              Additional capabilities include "hands-off" searching of
              multiple tapes, automatic retrieval of specific dump files based
              on dump logs, and assembly of tape-spanning split dump files.

              Write an Amanda format label onto a tape. All Amanda tapes must
              be labeled with amlabel.  Amdump and amflush will not write to
              an unlabeled tape (see TAPE MANAGEMENT below).

              Verify the correct tape is mounted and all file systems on all
              backup client systems are ready to be backed up. Often run by
              cron before amdump to generate a mail warning that backups might
              fail unless corrective action is taken.

              Take care of administrative tasks like finding out which tapes
              are needed to restore a filesystem, forcing hosts to do full
              backups of selected disks and looking at schedule balance

       amtape Take care of tape changer control operations like loading
              particular tapes, ejecting tapes and scanning the tape storage

              Check Amanda backup tapes for errors.

              Delete a tape from the Amanda databases.

              Report the status of a running or completed amdump.

              Display a chart of hosts and file systems backed up every run.

       amplot Generate utilization plots of Amanda runs for performance

              Generate an Amanda summary E-mail report.

       amtoc  Generate table of content files for Amanda tapes.

              Verify every tape Amanda knows about is consistent in the

              Look up parameters in the Amanda configuration file.

              Generate a tapetype definition.

              Wrapper program from aespipe (data encryption utility)

              Reference encryption program for Amanda symmetric data

       There are three user-editable files that control the behavior of

       The first is amanda.conf, the main configuration file. It contains
       parameters to customize Amanda for the site. Refer to the
       amanda.conf(5), manpage for details on Amanda configuration parameters.

       Second is the disklist file, which lists hosts and disk partitions to
       back up.

       Third is the tapelist file, which lists tapes that are currently
       active. These files are described in more detail in the following

       All files are stored in individual configuration directories under
       /usr/local/etc/amanda/. A site will often have more than one
       configuration. For example, it might have a normal configuration for
       everyday backups and an archive configuration for infrequent full
       archival backups. The configuration files would be stored under
       directories /usr/local/etc/amanda/normal/ and
       /usr/local/etc/amanda/archive/, respectively. Part of the job of an
       Amanda administrator is to create, populate and maintain these

       All log and database files generated by Amanda go in corresponding
       directories somewhere. The exact location is controlled by entries in
       amanda.conf. A typical location would be under /var/adm/amanda. For the
       above example, the files might go in /var/adm/amanda/normal/ and

       As log files are no longer needed (no longer contain relevant
       information), Amanda cycles them out in various ways, depending on the
       type of file.

       Detailed information about amdump runs are stored in files named
       amdump.NN where NN is a sequence number, with 1 being the most recent
       file.  Amdump rotates these files each run, keeping roughly the last
       tapecycle (see below) worth of them.

       The file used by amreport to generate the mail summary is named
       log.YYYYMMDD.NN where YYYYMMDD is the datestamp of the start of the
       amdump run and NN is a sequence number started at 0. At the end of each
       amdump run, log files for runs whose tapes have been reused are renamed
       into a subdirectory of the main log directory (see the logdir parameter
       below) named oldlog. It is up to the Amanda administrator to remove
       them from this directory when desired.

       Index (backup image catalogue) files older than the full dump matching
       the oldest backup image for a given client and disk are removed by
       amdump at the end of each run.

       The disklist file determines which disks will be backed up by Amanda.
       The file usually contains one line per disk:

       hostname diskname [diskdevice] dumptype [spindle [interface] ]

       All pairs [ hostname diskname ] must be unique.

       Lines starting with # are ignored, as are blank lines. The fields have
       the following meanings:

              The name of the host to be backed up. If diskdevice refers to a
              PC share, this is the host Amanda will run the Samba smbclient
              program on to back up the share.

              The name of the disk (a label). In most case, you set your
              diskname to the diskdevice and you don't set the diskdevice.  If
              you want multiple entries with the same diskdevice, you must set
              a different diskname for each entry. It's the diskname that you
              use on the commandline for any Amanda command. Look at the
              example/disklist file for example.

              Default: same as diskname. The name of the disk device to be
              backed up. It may be a full device name, a device name without
              the /dev/ prefix, e.g.  sd0a, or a mount point such as /usr.

              It may also refer to a PC share by starting the name with two
              (forward) slashes, e.g.  //some-pc/home. In this case, the
              program option in the associated dumptype must be entered as
              GNUTAR. It is the combination of the double slash disk name and
              program GNUTAR in the dumptype that triggers the use of Samba.

              Refers to a dumptype defined in the amanda.conf file.  Dumptypes
              specify backup related parameters, such as whether to compress
              the backups, whether to record backup results in /etc/dumpdates,
              the disk's relative priority, etc.

              Default: -1. A number used to balance backup load on a host.
              Amanda will not run multiple backups at the same time on the
              same spindle, unless the spindle number is -1, which means there
              is no spindle restriction.

              Default: local. The name of a network interface definition in
              the amanda.conf file, used to balance network load.

       Instead of naming a dumptype, it is possible to define one in-line,
       enclosing dumptype options within curly braces, one per line, just like
       a dumptype definition in amanda.conf. Since pre-existing dumptypes are
       valid option names, this syntax may be used to customize dumptypes for
       particular disks.

       A line break must follow the left curly bracket.

       For instance, if a dumptype named normal is used for most disks, but
       use of the holding disk needs to be disabled for the file system that
       holds it, this would work instead of defining a new dumptype:

       hostname diskname [ diskdevice ] {
         holdingdisk no
       } [ spindle [ interface ] ]

       The tapelist file contains the list of tapes in active use. This file
       is maintained entirely by Amanda and should not be created or edited
       during normal operation. It contains lines of the form:

       YYYYMMDD label flags

       Where YYYYMMDD is the date the tape was written, label is a label for
       the tape as written by amlabel and flags tell Amanda whether the tape
       may be reused, etc (see the reuse options of amadmin).

       Amdump and amflush will refuse to write to an unlabeled tape, or to a
       labeled tape that is considered active. There must be more tapes in
       active rotation (see the tapecycle option) than there are runs in the
       backup cycle (see the dumpcycle option) to prevent overwriting a backup
       image that would be needed to do a full recovery.

       The normal value for the tapedev parameter, or for what a tape changer
       returns, is a full path name to a non-rewinding tape device, such as
       /dev/nst0 or /dev/rmt/0mn or /dev/nst0.1 or whatever conventions the
       operating system uses.  Amanda provides additional application level
       drivers that support non-traditional tape-simulations or features. To
       access a specific output driver, set tapedev (or configure your changer
       to return) a string of the form driver:driver-info where driver is one
       of the supported drivers and driver-info is optional additional
       information needed by the driver.

       The supported drivers are:

       tape   This is the default driver. The driver-info is the tape device
              name. Entering

              tapedev /dev/rmt/0mn
              is really a short hand for

              tapedev tape:/dev/rmt/0mn

       null   This driver throws away anything written to it and returns EOF
              for any reads except a special case is made for reading a label,
              in which case a "fake" value is returned that Amanda checks for
              and allows through regardless of what you have set in labelstr.
              The driver-info field is not used and may be left blank:

              tapedev null:

              The length value from the associated tapetype is used to limit
              the amount of data written. When the limit is reached, the
              driver will simulate end of tape.

              This driver should only be used for debugging and testing, and
              probably only with the record option set to no..TP rait
              Redundant Array of Inexpensive (?)  Tapes. Reads and writes
              tapes mounted on multiple drives by spreading the data across
              N-1 drives and using the last drive for a checksum. See
              docs/RAIT for more information.

              The driver-info field describes the devices to use. Curly braces
              indicate multiple replacements in the string. For instance:

              tapedev rait:/dev/rmt/tps0d{4,5,6}n

              would use the following devices:


       file   This driver emulates a tape device with a set of files in a
              directory. The driver-info field must be the name of an existing
              directory. The driver will test for a subdirectory of that named
              data and return offline until it is present. When present, the
              driver uses two files in the data subdirectory for each tape
              file. One contains the actual data. The other contains record
              length information.

              The driver uses a file named status in the file device directory
              to hold driver status information, such as tape position. If not
              present, the driver will create it as though the device is

              The length value from the associated tapetype is used to limit
              the amount of data written. When the limit is reached, the
              driver will simulate end of tape.

              One way to use this driver with a real device such as a CD-
              writer is to create a directory for the file device and one or
              more other directories for the actual data. Create a symlink
              named data in the file directory to one of the data directories.
              Set the tapetype length to whatever the medium will hold.

              When Amanda fills the file device, remove the symlink and
              (optionally) create a new symlink to another data area. Use a CD
              writer software package to burn the image from the first data

              To read the CD, mount it and create the data symlink in the file
              device directory.

       Amanda processes on the tape server host run as the dumpuser user
       listed in amanda.conf. When they connect to a backup client, they do so
       with an Amanda-specific protocol. They do not, for instance, use rsh or
       ssh directly.

       On the client side, the amandad daemon validates the connection using
       one of several methods, depending on how it was compiled and on options
       it is passed:

       Even though
              Amanda does not use rsh, it can use file.

       This is essentially the same as
              authentication except a different file, with almost the same
              format, is used. This is the default mechanism built into

              The format of the .amandahosts file is:

              hostname [ username ]

              If username is ommitted, it defaults to the user running
              amandad, i.e. the user listed in the inetd or xinetd
              configuration file.

              Amanda may use the Kerberos authentication system. Further
              information is in the docs/KERBEROSfile that comes with an
              Amanda distribution.

              For Samba access, Amanda needs a file on the Samba server (which
              may or may not also be the tape server) named /etc/amandapass
              with share names, (clear text) passwords and (optional) domain
              names, in that order, one per line, whitespace separated. By
              default, the user used to connect to the PC is the same for all
              PC's and is compiled into Amanda. It may be changed on a host by
              host basis by listing it first in the password field followed by
              a percent sign and then the password. For instance:

                //some-pc/home normalpw
              With clear text passwords, this file should obviously be tightly protected. It only needs to be readable by the
              Amanda-user on the Samba server.

              You can find further information in the
              docs/SAMBAfile that comes with an

       All host and disk arguments to programs are special expressions. The
       command applies to all disks that match your arguments. This section
       describes the matcher.

       The matcher matches by word, each word is a glob expression, words are
       separated by the separator '.' for host and '/' for disk. You can
       anchor the expression at left with a '^'. You can anchor the expression
       at right with a '$'. The matcher is case insensitive for host but is
       case sensitive for disk. A match succeeds if all words in your
       expression match contiguous words in the host or disk.

       /    word separator for a disk
       ^    anchor at left
       $    anchor at right
       ?    match exactly one character except the separator
       *    match zero or more characters except the separator
       **   match zero or more characters including the separator

       Some examples:

       hosta          hosta                hostb
       host           host                 hosta
       host?          hosta                host
       ho*na          hoina      
       ho**na         hoina
       ^hosta         hosta      
       sda*           /dev/sda1
       /opt/          opt (disk)           opt (host)
       /              /                    any other disk
       /usr           /usr
       /usr$          /usr                 /usr/opt

       A datestamp expression is a range expression where we only match the
       prefix. Leading ^ is removed. Trailing $ forces an exact match.
       20001212-14match all dates beginning with 20001212, 20001213 or
       2000121420001212-4same as previous20001212-24match all dates between
       20001212 and 200012242000121match all dates that start with 2000121
       (20001210-20001219)2match all dates that start with 2
       (20000101-29991231)2000-10match all dates between
       20000101-20101231200010$match only 200010.PP

       James da Silva, <> : Original text

       Stefan G. Weichinger, <>, maintainer of the Amanda-
       documentation: XML-conversion, major update

       amadmin(8), amanda.conf(5), amcheck(8), amcheckdb(8), amcleanup(8),
       amdd(8), amdump(8), amfetchdump(8)amflush(8), amgetconf(8), amlabel(8),
       ammt(8), amoverview(8), amplot(8), amrecover(8), amreport(8),
       amrestore(8), amrmtape(8), amstatus(8), amtape(8), amtapetype(8),
       amtoc(8), amverify(8), amverifyrun(8)