AR(1)                         GNU Development Tools                        AR(1)

       ar - create, modify, and extract from archives

       ar [--plugin name] [-X32_64] [-]p[mod [relpos] [count]] [--target
       bfdname] archive [member...]

       The GNU ar program creates, modifies, and extracts from archives.  An
       archive is a single file holding a collection of other files in a
       structure that makes it possible to retrieve the original individual
       files (called members of the archive).

       The original files' contents, mode (permissions), timestamp, owner, and
       group are preserved in the archive, and can be restored on extraction.

       GNU ar can maintain archives whose members have names of any length;
       however, depending on how ar is configured on your system, a limit on
       member-name length may be imposed for compatibility with archive formats
       maintained with other tools.  If it exists, the limit is often 15
       characters (typical of formats related to a.out) or 16 characters
       (typical of formats related to coff).

       ar is considered a binary utility because archives of this sort are most
       often used as libraries holding commonly needed subroutines.

       ar creates an index to the symbols defined in relocatable object modules
       in the archive when you specify the modifier s.  Once created, this index
       is updated in the archive whenever ar makes a change to its contents
       (save for the q update operation).  An archive with such an index speeds
       up linking to the library, and allows routines in the library to call
       each other without regard to their placement in the archive.

       You may use nm -s or nm --print-armap to list this index table.  If an
       archive lacks the table, another form of ar called ranlib can be used to
       add just the table.

       GNU ar can optionally create a thin archive, which contains a symbol
       index and references to the original copies of the member files of the
       archives.  Such an archive is useful for building libraries for use
       within a local build, where the relocatable objects are expected to
       remain available, and copying the contents of each object would only
       waste time and space.  Thin archives are also flattened, so that adding
       one or more archives to a thin archive will add the elements of the
       nested archive individually.  The paths to the elements of the archive
       are stored relative to the archive itself.

       GNU ar is designed to be compatible with two different facilities.  You
       can control its activity using command-line options, like the different
       varieties of ar on Unix systems; or, if you specify the single command-
       line option -M, you can control it with a script supplied via standard
       input, like the MRI "librarian" program.

       GNU ar allows you to mix the operation code p and modifier flags mod in
       any order, within the first command-line argument.

       If you wish, you may begin the first command-line argument with a dash.

       The p keyletter specifies what operation to execute; it may be any of the
       following, but you must specify only one of them:

       d   Delete modules from the archive.  Specify the names of modules to be
           deleted as member...; the archive is untouched if you specify no
           files to delete.

           If you specify the v modifier, ar lists each module as it is deleted.

       m   Use this operation to move members in an archive.

           The ordering of members in an archive can make a difference in how
           programs are linked using the library, if a symbol is defined in more
           than one member.

           If no modifiers are used with "m", any members you name in the member
           arguments are moved to the end of the archive; you can use the a, b,
           or i modifiers to move them to a specified place instead.

       p   Print the specified members of the archive, to the standard output
           file.  If the v modifier is specified, show the member name before
           copying its contents to standard output.

           If you specify no member arguments, all the files in the archive are

       q   Quick append; Historically, add the files member... to the end of
           archive, without checking for replacement.

           The modifiers a, b, and i do not affect this operation; new members
           are always placed at the end of the archive.

           The modifier v makes ar list each file as it is appended.

           Since the point of this operation is speed, the archive's symbol
           table index is not updated, even if it already existed; you can use
           ar s or ranlib explicitly to update the symbol table index.

           However, too many different systems assume quick append rebuilds the
           index, so GNU ar implements q as a synonym for r.

       r   Insert the files member... into archive (with replacement). This
           operation differs from q in that any previously existing members are
           deleted if their names match those being added.

           If one of the files named in member... does not exist, ar displays an
           error message, and leaves undisturbed any existing members of the
           archive matching that name.

           By default, new members are added at the end of the file; but you may
           use one of the modifiers a, b, or i to request placement relative to
           some existing member.

           The modifier v used with this operation elicits a line of output for
           each file inserted, along with one of the letters a or r to indicate
           whether the file was appended (no old member deleted) or replaced.

       s   Add an index to the archive, or update it if it already exists.  Note
           this command is an exception to the rule that there can only be one
           command letter, as it is possible to use it as either a command or a
           modifier.  In either case it does the same thing.

       t   Display a table listing the contents of archive, or those of the
           files listed in member... that are present in the archive.  Normally
           only the member name is shown; if you also want to see the modes
           (permissions), timestamp, owner, group, and size, you can request
           that by also specifying the v modifier.

           If you do not specify a member, all files in the archive are listed.

           If there is more than one file with the same name (say, fie) in an
           archive (say b.a), ar t b.a fie lists only the first instance; to see
           them all, you must ask for a complete listing---in our example, ar t

       x   Extract members (named member) from the archive.  You can use the v
           modifier with this operation, to request that ar list each name as it
           extracts it.

           If you do not specify a member, all files in the archive are

           Files cannot be extracted from a thin archive.

           Displays the list of command line options supported by ar and then

           Displays the version information of ar and then exits.

       A number of modifiers (mod) may immediately follow the p keyletter, to
       specify variations on an operation's behavior:

       a   Add new files after an existing member of the archive.  If you use
           the modifier a, the name of an existing archive member must be
           present as the relpos argument, before the archive specification.

       b   Add new files before an existing member of the archive.  If you use
           the modifier b, the name of an existing archive member must be
           present as the relpos argument, before the archive specification.
           (same as i).

       c   Create the archive.  The specified archive is always created if it
           did not exist, when you request an update.  But a warning is issued
           unless you specify in advance that you expect to create it, by using
           this modifier.

       D   Operate in deterministic mode.  When adding files and the archive
           index use zero for UIDs, GIDs, timestamps, and use consistent file
           modes for all files.  When this option is used, if ar is used with
           identical options and identical input files, multiple runs will
           create identical output files regardless of the input files' owners,
           groups, file modes, or modification times.

           If binutils was configured with --enable-deterministic-archives, then
           this mode is on by default.  It can be disabled with the U modifier,

       f   Truncate names in the archive.  GNU ar will normally permit file
           names of any length.  This will cause it to create archives which are
           not compatible with the native ar program on some systems.  If this
           is a concern, the f modifier may be used to truncate file names when
           putting them in the archive.

       i   Insert new files before an existing member of the archive.  If you
           use the modifier i, the name of an existing archive member must be
           present as the relpos argument, before the archive specification.
           (same as b).

       l   This modifier is accepted but not used.

       N   Uses the count parameter.  This is used if there are multiple entries
           in the archive with the same name.  Extract or delete instance count
           of the given name from the archive.

       o   Preserve the original dates of members when extracting them.  If you
           do not specify this modifier, files extracted from the archive are
           stamped with the time of extraction.

       P   Use the full path name when matching names in the archive.  GNU ar
           can not create an archive with a full path name (such archives are
           not POSIX complaint), but other archive creators can.  This option
           will cause GNU ar to match file names using a complete path name,
           which can be convenient when extracting a single file from an archive
           created by another tool.

       s   Write an object-file index into the archive, or update an existing
           one, even if no other change is made to the archive.  You may use
           this modifier flag either with any operation, or alone.  Running ar s
           on an archive is equivalent to running ranlib on it.

       S   Do not generate an archive symbol table.  This can speed up building
           a large library in several steps.  The resulting archive can not be
           used with the linker.  In order to build a symbol table, you must
           omit the S modifier on the last execution of ar, or you must run
           ranlib on the archive.

       T   Make the specified archive a thin archive.  If it already exists and
           is a regular archive, the existing members must be present in the
           same directory as archive.

       u   Normally, ar r... inserts all files listed into the archive.  If you
           would like to insert only those of the files you list that are newer
           than existing members of the same names, use this modifier.  The u
           modifier is allowed only for the operation r (replace).  In
           particular, the combination qu is not allowed, since checking the
           timestamps would lose any speed advantage from the operation q.

       U   Do not operate in deterministic mode.  This is the inverse of the D
           modifier, above: added files and the archive index will get their
           actual UID, GID, timestamp, and file mode values.

           This is the default unless binutils was configured with

       v   This modifier requests the verbose version of an operation.  Many
           operations display additional information, such as filenames
           processed, when the modifier v is appended.

       V   This modifier shows the version number of ar.

       ar ignores an initial option spelt -X32_64, for compatibility with AIX.
       The behaviour produced by this option is the default for GNU ar.  ar does
       not support any of the other -X options; in particular, it does not
       support -X32 which is the default for AIX ar.

       The optional command line switch --plugin name causes ar to load the
       plugin called name which adds support for more file formats.  This option
       is only available if the toolchain has been built with plugin support

       The optional command line switch --target bfdname specifies that the
       archive members are in an object code format different from your system's
       default format.  See

           Read command-line options from file.  The options read are inserted
           in place of the original @file option.  If file does not exist, or
           cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and not

           Options in file are separated by whitespace.  A whitespace character
           may be included in an option by surrounding the entire option in
           either single or double quotes.  Any character (including a
           backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be included
           with a backslash.  The file may itself contain additional @file
           options; any such options will be processed recursively.

       nm(1), ranlib(1), and the Info entries for binutils.

       Copyright (c) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
       2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012
       Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any
       later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
       Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
       Free Documentation License".

binutils-2.23.2                    2013-04-10                              AR(1)