BEEP(1)                           User commands                          BEEP(1)

       beep - beep the pc speaker any number of ways

       beep [GLOBALS] [-f FREQ] [-l LEN] [-r REPEATS] [<-d|-D> DELAY] [-s] [-c]
       beep [GLOBALS] <TONE_OPTIONS> [-n|--new] <TONE_OPTIONS>
       beep <-h|--help>
       beep <-v|-V|--version>

       beep allows the user to control the PC speaker with precision, allowing
       different sounds to indicate different events.  While beep can be run
       quite happily on the command line, beep's intended use is within
       shell/perl scripts, notifying the user when something interesting occurs.
       Of course, it has no notion of what IS interesting, but it is good at the
       notifying part.

       All options have default values, meaning that just typing 'beep' will
       work.  If an option is specified more than once on the command line,
       subsequent options override their predecessors.  So 'beep -f 200 -f 300'
       will beep at 300Hz.

       All durations are given in a unit of milliseconds, frequencies as Hertz,
       and the number of repeats is a dimensionless number.

   Global options
       -e DEVICE, --device=DEVICE
              Explicitly set the device beep shall use to generate beep tones.
              When not given a device explicitly, beep runs through an internal
              list of devices until one appears to work.

       --debug, --verbose
              Make the beep program more verbose.

   Tone options
       -f FREQ
              Beep with a tone frequency of FREQ Hz, where 0 < FREQ < 20000.  As
              a general ballpark, the regular terminal beep is around 750Hz.
              For backwards compatibility, you can give FREQ as a floating point
              number, but beep will round that to integer values as the kernel
              APIs expect them.  Default value: 440 Hz.

       -l LEN Beep for a tone length of LEN milliseconds. Default value: 200 ms.

       -r REPEATS
              Repeat the tone including delays REPEATS times. Default value: 1
              tone, not repeated.

       -d DELAY | -D DELAY
              Specify a delay of DELAY milliseconds between repetitions.  Small
              letter -d specifies that this delay should only occur between
              beeps, that is, it should not occur after the last repetition.
              Capital letter -D specifies that the delay should occur after
              every repetition, including after the last one.  Normally, -d is
              what you want, but if, for example, you are stringing several beep
              commands together to play the star wars anthem, you may want
              control over every delay. Default value: 100 ms delay between
              beeps with no delay after the last beep.

       -n, --new
              The --new option allows you to chain multiple beeps together on a
              single command line.  Each time the --new is used, beep starts
              treating all further arguments as though they were for a new beep.
              So for example:

                  beep -f 1000 -n -f 2000 -n -f 1500

              would produce a sequence of three beeps, the first with a
              frequency of 1000Hz (and otherwise default values), then a second
              beep with a frequency of 2000Hz (again, with things like delay and
              reps being set to their defaults), then a third beep, at 1500Hz.
              This is different from specifying a -r value, since -r repeats the
              same beep multiple times, whereas --new allows you to specify
              different beeps.  After a --new, the new beep is created with all
              the default values, and any of these can be specified without
              altering values for preceding (or later) beeps.  See the EXAMPLES
              section if this managed to confuse you.

       -s, -c Both the -s and the -c option put beep into input processing mode,
              reading from stdin and copying all received data to stdout.  This
              makes it easy to slip beep into a text processing pipeline to
              acoustically monitor the data flow within that pipeline.  See the
              EXAMPLES section.

              -c     Beep after every character received.

              -s     Beep after every set of data received.  Usually, this means
                     after newlines occur in text processing pipes.

              In a sequence of notes specified with one or more occurrences of
              -n or --new, it only makes sense to have one single note marked
              with either -s or -c attached to it.  Then beep will beep all
              notes until it reaches that marked note, then repeat the marked
              note according to the input it receives, and once the input has
              reached EOF, beep will continue with the remainder of the note

              The behaviour of beep with more than one note marked with -s or -c
              is undefined.

   Other Actions
       -h, --help Display beep usage info and exit.

       -v, -V, --version
              Display beep version information and exit.

       When successful, beep returns with exit code 0.

       Any non-0 exit code means beep has encountered an error and has bailed

              When set to a number between -999 and 999, BEEP_LOG_LEVEL will be
              used as the default loglevel until overridden by a command line

       The device files beep uses by default are the following:

   Devices and Permissions
       When you run beep without explicitly giving a device to use, beep tries
       opening the following devices in sequence until one succeeds:

           Uses the evdev API, and system administrator can allow access to any
           set of users and groups using the normal file permissions.

           Uses the console API, and the kernel insists you are root or own the

           Uses the console API, and the kernel insists you are root or own the

       beep does not support running as setuid root or via sudo(1).

       For non-root uses, the system administrator can set up a udev(7) rule to
       allow write access to /dev/input/by-path/platform-pcspkr-event-spkr for
       certain users and/or user groups. For details, see the beep
       /usr/share/doc/beep/ file.

           Uses the input event device driver, which means running write(2) on

           The permissions to this device file can be set up such that beep can
           be run by any non-root user the system administrator wants to.

           Opening this device takes on the order of magnitude of 20ms in the
           Linux kernel for every time you start the beep command. Therefore, if
           you need to play multiple notes in a rhythmical sequence for a
           melody, use one beep command invocation with multiple notes, not
           several beep invocations playing one note each.

           Uses the ancient console API, which means running the KIOCSOUND
           ioctl(2) on a tty device like /dev/tty0 or /dev/vc/0.

           This requires being root, unless the non-root user happens be logged
           into the virtual console and be using that specific virtual console
           device like e.g. /dev/tty4. This makes the console driver useless for
           non-root users logged in via ssh, and often X11 or Wayland.

           Use the evdev API instead.

   Concurrent Invocations
       Concurrent invocations of beep are not supported. There is only one tone
       generator in the PC hardware, and we do not manage access to that shared
       resource in any way.  So if a first beep -f 1000 -l 10000 process starts
       a long 10 second beep with 1000Hz, and 2 seconds later a second quick
       beep -f 2050 -l 100 with 2050Hz comes in, you will hear that 2050Hz beep
       for 100ms, and then silence as the quick beep silences the tone
       generator. Now you will not hear that the first beep process is still
       running after having waited for the first 2100ms of its 10000ms. You will
       also not hear that the first beep process will silence the already silent
       speaker 7900ms later, i.e. 10000ms after the first beep started.

   Sound Volume
       The PC speaker hardware has no way to explicitly set the volume of a

       If you have a standalone PC, however, chances are you have a piezo beeper
       connected to the mainboard.  If you prioritize a loud beep over a certain
       frequency beep, you can choose to beep at a frequency close to the
       resonance frequency of the piezo beeper.  Typical piezo beepers have a
       resonance frequency around 2000Hz, so you can test frequencies around
       that range.  The author's piezo beeper is the loudest at about 2050Hz.

       If you have a PC laptop, chances are that your laptop will not have a
       piezo beeper hardware inside and that it will route the output of the
       pcspkr circuit to the laptop's internal speakers via the sound card
       mixer.  In that case, you can and/or must change the mixer level for the
       beeper using a sound card mixer application.

   Frequency Table
       This frequency table might come in handy for translating musical notes to
       frequencies.  The frequencies are rounded to integer numbers as the
       kernel driver only works with integers.  The column for octave 4 is the
       octave of middle C.

                           │note octave          │
                           │name 3     4     5      6   │
                           │ C   │ 131   262    523   1047 │
                           │ C#  │ 139   277    554   1109 │
                           │ D   │ 147   294    587   1175 │
                           │ D#  │ 156   311    622   1245 │
                           │ E   │ 165   330    659   1319 │
                           │ F   │ 175   349    698   1397 │
                           │ F#  │ 185   370    740   1480 │
                           │ G   │ 196   392    784   1568 │
                           │ G#  │ 208   415    831   1661 │
                           │ A   │ 220   440    880   1760 │
                           │ A#  │ 233   466    932   1865 │
                           │ B   │ 247   494    988   1976 │
                           │ C   │ 262   523   1047   2093 │
       Report bugs to ⟨⟩.

       At its simplest (yet still effective)


       A more interesting standalone setup

           beep -f 300.7 -r 2 -d 100 -l 400

       As part of a log watching pipeline

           tail -f /var/log/xferlog | grep 'passwd' | beep -f 1000 -r 5 -s

       When using -c mode, I recommend using a short -D, and a shorter -l, so
       that the beeps do not blur together.  Something like this will get you a
       cheesy 1970's style beep-as-you-type-each-letter effect

           cat file | beep -c -f 400 -D 50 -l 10

       A highly contrived example of -n/--new usage

           beep -f 1000 -r 2 -n -r 5 -l 10 --new

       will produce first two 1000Hz beeps, then 5 beeps at the default tone,
       but only 10ms long each, followed by a third beep using all the default
       settings (since none are specified).

       /usr/share/doc/beep/, /usr/share/doc/beep/,

Linux                              2020-01-01                            BEEP(1)