BLAME(1)                                                              BLAME(1)

       blame - annotate RCS files

       blame [options] file ...

       blame outputs an annotated revision from each RCS file.  An annotated
       RCS file describes the revision and date in which each line was added
       to the file, and the author of each line.

       Pathnames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files; all others denote
       working files.  Names are paired as explained in ci(1).

       A revision is selected by options for revision or branch number,
       checkin date/time, author, or state.  When the selection options are
       applied in combination, blame retrieves the latest revision that
       satisfies all of them.  If none of the selection options is specified,
       blame retrieves the latest revision on the default branch (normally the
       trunk, see the -b option of rcs(1)).  The options -d (--date), -s
       (--state), and -w (--author) retrieve from a single branch, the
       selected branch, which is specified by -r (--revision), or the default

       blame always performs keyword substitution (see KEYWORD SUBSTITUTION in

       -r, --revision[=rev]
              Retrieves the latest revision whose number is less than or equal
              to rev.  If rev indicates a branch rather than a revision, the
              latest revision on that branch is retrieved.  If rev is omitted,
              the latest revision on the default branch (see the -b option of
              rcs(1)) is annotated.  If rev is $, blame determines the
              revision number from keyword values in the working file.
              Otherwise, a revision is composed of one or more numeric or
              symbolic fields separated by periods.  If rev begins with a
              period, then the default branch (normally the trunk) is
              prepended to it.  If rev is a branch number followed by a
              period, then the latest revision on that branch is used.  The
              numeric equivalent of a symbolic field is specified with the -n
              option of the commands ci(1) and rcs(1).

       -kkv, --expand=kv
              Generate keyword strings using the default form, e.g. $Revision:
              1.3 $ for the Revision keyword.  This is the default.

       -kkvl, --expand=kvl
              Like -kkv, except that a locker's name is inserted into the
              value of the Header, Id, and Locker keyword strings if the given
              revision is currently locked.

       -kk, --expand=k
              Generate only keyword names in keyword strings; omit their
              values.  See KEYWORD SUBSTITUTION in co(1).  For example, for
              the Revision keyword, generate the string $Revision$ instead of
              $Revision: 1.3 $.  Log messages are inserted after $Log$
              keywords even if this option is specified.

       -ko, --expand=o
              Generate the old keyword string, present in the working file
              just before it was checked in.  For example, for the Revision
              keyword, generate the string $Revision: 1.1 $ instead of
              $Revision: 1.3 $ if that is how the string appeared when the
              file was checked in.

       -kb, --expand=b
              Generate a binary image of the old keyword string.  This acts
              like -ko, except it performs all working file input and output
              in binary mode.  This makes little difference on Posix and Unix

       -kv, --expand=v
              Generate only keyword values for keyword strings.  For example,
              for the Revision keyword, generate the string 1.3 instead of
              $Revision: 1.3 $.

       -d, --date=date
              Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch whose
              checkin date/time is less than or equal to date.  The date and
              time can be given in free format.  The time zone LT stands for
              local time; other common time zone names are understood.  For
              example, the following dates are equivalent if local time is
              January 11, 1990, 8pm Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of
              Coordinated Universal Time (UTC):

                     8:00 pm lt
                     4:00 AM, Jan. 12, 1990           default is UTC
                     1990-01-12 04:00:00+00           ISO 8601 (UTC)
                     1990-01-11 20:00:00-08           ISO 8601 (local time)
                     1990/01/12 04:00:00              traditional RCS format
                     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 1990 LT      output of ctime(3) + LT
                     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 PST 1990     output of date(1)
                     Fri Jan 12 04:00:00 GMT 1990
                     Thu, 11 Jan 1990 20:00:00 -0800  Internet RFC 822
                     12-January-1990, 04:00 WET

              Most fields in the date and time can be defaulted.  The default
              time zone is normally UTC, but this can be overridden by the -z
              option.  The other defaults are determined in the order year,
              month, day, hour, minute, and second (most to least
              significant).  At least one of these fields must be provided.
              For omitted fields that are of higher significance than the
              highest provided field, the time zone's current values are
              assumed.  For all other omitted fields, the lowest possible
              values are assumed.  For example, without -z, the date 20, 10:30
              defaults to 10:30:00 UTC of the 20th of the UTC time zone's
              current month and year.  The date/time must be quoted if it
              contains spaces.

       -s, --state=state
              Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch whose state
              is set to state.

       -w, --login[=login]
              Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch which was
              checked in by the user with login name login.  If the argument
              login is omitted, the caller's login is assumed.

       -V, --version[=ver]
              If no argument is supplied, print blame's version number, and
              the version of RCS it emulates by default. Otherwise emulate the
              specified version.  See co(1) for details.

       -x, --suffixes=suffixes
              Use suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for details.

       -z, --zone=zone
              Specifies the date output format in keyword substitution, and
              specifies the default time zone for date in the -ddate option.
              The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC offset, or the special
              string LT for local time.  The default is an empty zone, which
              uses the traditional RCS format of UTC without any time zone
              indication and with slashes separating the parts of the date;
              otherwise, times are output in ISO 8601 format with time zone
              indication.  For example, if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm
              Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is
              output as follows:

                     option    time output
                     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00        (default)
                     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
                     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

       Strings of the form $keyword$ and $keyword:...$ embedded in the text
       are replaced with strings of the form $keyword:value$ as described in

       blame never changes an RCS or working file.  It uses the effective user
       for all accesses, and it does not even read the working file unless a
       revision number of $ is specified.

              Options prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.
              See ci(1) for details.

       The working pathname and a separator line is written to the diagnostic
       output.  The exit status is zero if and only if all operations were

       One day, there will be a whole bunch of useful examples here.

       rcsintro(1), ci(1), co(1), ctime(3), date(1), rcs(1), rcsfile(5)

       Michael Chapman <>

       Portions of this manual page are from ci(1) and co(1) by Walter F.
       Tichy and Paul Eggert.

       blame is copyright © 2004, 2005 Michael Chapman.

       blame is released under the terms and conditions of the GNU General
       Public License version 2.  Please read the COPYING file carefully.

                                  2005/06/30                          BLAME(1)