bpf

BPF(2)                      Linux Programmer's Manual                     BPF(2)



NAME
       bpf - perform a command on an extended BPF map or program

SYNOPSIS
       #include <linux/bpf.h>

       int bpf(int cmd, union bpf_attr *attr, unsigned int size);

DESCRIPTION
       The bpf() system call performs a range of operations related to extended
       Berkeley Packet Filters.  Extended BPF (or eBPF) is similar to the
       original ("classic") BPF (cBPF) used to filter network packets.  For both
       cBPF and eBPF programs, the kernel statically analyzes the programs
       before loading them, in order to ensure that they cannot harm the running
       system.

       eBPF extends cBPF in multiple ways, including the ability to call a fixed
       set of in-kernel helper functions (via the BPF_CALL opcode extension
       provided by eBPF) and access shared data structures such as eBPF maps.

   Extended BPF Design/Architecture
       eBPF maps are a generic data structure for storage of different data
       types.  Data types are generally treated as binary blobs, so a user just
       specifies the size of the key and the size of the value at map-creation
       time.  In other words, a key/value for a given map can have an arbitrary
       structure.

       A user process can create multiple maps (with key/value-pairs being
       opaque bytes of data) and access them via file descriptors.  Different
       eBPF programs can access the same maps in parallel.  It's up to the user
       process and eBPF program to decide what they store inside maps.

       There's one special map type, called a program array.  This type of map
       stores file descriptors referring to other eBPF programs.  When a lookup
       in the map is performed, the program flow is redirected in-place to the
       beginning of another eBPF program and does not return back to the calling
       program.  The level of nesting has a fixed limit of 32, so that infinite
       loops cannot be crafted.  At run time, the program file descriptors
       stored in the map can be modified, so program functionality can be
       altered based on specific requirements.  All programs referred to in a
       program-array map must have been previously loaded into the kernel via
       bpf().  If a map lookup fails, the current program continues its
       execution.  See BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY below for further details.

       Generally, eBPF programs are loaded by the user process and automatically
       unloaded when the process exits.  In some cases, for example, tc-bpf(8),
       the program will continue to stay alive inside the kernel even after the
       process that loaded the program exits.  In that case, the tc subsystem
       holds a reference to the eBPF program after the file descriptor has been
       closed by the user-space program.  Thus, whether a specific program
       continues to live inside the kernel depends on how it is further attached
       to a given kernel subsystem after it was loaded via bpf().

       Each eBPF program is a set of instructions that is safe to run until its
       completion.  An in-kernel verifier statically determines that the eBPF
       program terminates and is safe to execute.  During verification, the
       kernel increments reference counts for each of the maps that the eBPF
       program uses, so that the attached maps can't be removed until the
       program is unloaded.

       eBPF programs can be attached to different events.  These events can be
       the arrival of network packets, tracing events, classification events by
       network queueing  disciplines (for eBPF programs attached to a tc(8)
       classifier), and other types that may be added in the future.  A new
       event triggers execution of the eBPF program, which may store information
       about the event in eBPF maps.  Beyond storing data, eBPF programs may
       call a fixed set of in-kernel helper functions.

       The same eBPF program can be attached to multiple events and different
       eBPF programs can access the same map:

           tracing     tracing    tracing    packet      packet     packet
           event A     event B    event C    on eth0     on eth1    on eth2
            |             |         |          |           |          ^
            |             |         |          |           v          |
            --> tracing <--     tracing      socket    tc ingress   tc egress
                 prog_1          prog_2      prog_3    classifier    action
                 |  |              |           |         prog_4      prog_5
              |---  -----|  |------|          map_3        |           |
            map_1       map_2                              --| map_4 |--

   Arguments
       The operation to be performed by the bpf() system call is determined by
       the cmd argument.  Each operation takes an accompanying argument,
       provided via attr, which is a pointer to a union of type bpf_attr (see
       below).  The size argument is the size of the union pointed to by attr.

       The value provided in cmd is one of the following:

       BPF_MAP_CREATE
              Create a map and return a file descriptor that refers to the map.
              The close-on-exec file descriptor flag (see fcntl(2)) is
              automatically enabled for the new file descriptor.

       BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_ELEM
              Look up an element by key in a specified map and return its value.

       BPF_MAP_UPDATE_ELEM
              Create or update an element (key/value pair) in a specified map.

       BPF_MAP_DELETE_ELEM
              Look up and delete an element by key in a specified map.

       BPF_MAP_GET_NEXT_KEY
              Look up an element by key in a specified map and return the key of
              the next element.

       BPF_PROG_LOAD
              Verify and load an eBPF program, returning a new file descriptor
              associated with the program.  The close-on-exec file descriptor
              flag (see fcntl(2)) is automatically enabled for the new file
              descriptor.

              The bpf_attr union consists of various anonymous structures that
              are used by different bpf() commands:

           union bpf_attr {
               struct {    /* Used by BPF_MAP_CREATE */
                   __u32         map_type;
                   __u32         key_size;    /* size of key in bytes */
                   __u32         value_size;  /* size of value in bytes */
                   __u32         max_entries; /* maximum number of entries
                                                 in a map */
               };

               struct {    /* Used by BPF_MAP_*_ELEM and BPF_MAP_GET_NEXT_KEY
                              commands */
                   __u32         map_fd;
                   __aligned_u64 key;
                   union {
                       __aligned_u64 value;
                       __aligned_u64 next_key;
                   };
                   __u64         flags;
               };

               struct {    /* Used by BPF_PROG_LOAD */
                   __u32         prog_type;
                   __u32         insn_cnt;
                   __aligned_u64 insns;      /* 'const struct bpf_insn *' */
                   __aligned_u64 license;    /* 'const char *' */
                   __u32         log_level;  /* verbosity level of verifier */
                   __u32         log_size;   /* size of user buffer */
                   __aligned_u64 log_buf;    /* user supplied 'char *'
                                                buffer */
                   __u32         kern_version;
                                             /* checked when prog_type=kprobe
                                                (since Linux 4.1) */
               };
           } __attribute__((aligned(8)));

   eBPF maps
       Maps are a generic data structure for storage of different types of data.
       They allow sharing of data between eBPF kernel programs, and also between
       kernel and user-space applications.

       Each map type has the following attributes:

       *  type

       *  maximum number of elements

       *  key size in bytes

       *  value size in bytes

       The following wrapper functions demonstrate how various bpf() commands
       can be used to access the maps.  The functions use the cmd argument to
       invoke different operations.

       BPF_MAP_CREATE
              The BPF_MAP_CREATE command creates a new map, returning a new file
              descriptor that refers to the map.

                  int
                  bpf_create_map(enum bpf_map_type map_type,
                                 unsigned int key_size,
                                 unsigned int value_size,
                                 unsigned int max_entries)
                  {
                      union bpf_attr attr = {
                          .map_type    = map_type,
                          .key_size    = key_size,
                          .value_size  = value_size,
                          .max_entries = max_entries
                      };

                      return bpf(BPF_MAP_CREATE, &attr, sizeof(attr));
                  }

              The new map has the type specified by map_type, and attributes as
              specified in key_size, value_size, and max_entries.  On success,
              this operation returns a file descriptor.  On error, -1 is
              returned and errno is set to EINVAL, EPERM, or ENOMEM.

              The key_size and value_size attributes will be used by the
              verifier during program loading to check that the program is
              calling bpf_map_*_elem() helper functions with a correctly
              initialized key and to check that the program doesn't access the
              map element value beyond the specified value_size.  For example,
              when a map is created with a key_size of 8 and the eBPF program
              calls

                  bpf_map_lookup_elem(map_fd, fp - 4)

              the program will be rejected, since the in-kernel helper function

                  bpf_map_lookup_elem(map_fd, void *key)

              expects to read 8 bytes from the location pointed to by key, but
              the fp - 4 (where fp is the top of the stack) starting address
              will cause out-of-bounds stack access.

              Similarly, when a map is created with a value_size of 1 and the
              eBPF program contains

                  value = bpf_map_lookup_elem(...);
                  *(u32 *) value = 1;

              the program will be rejected, since it accesses the value pointer
              beyond the specified 1 byte value_size limit.

              Currently, the following values are supported for map_type:

                  enum bpf_map_type {
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_UNSPEC,  /* Reserve 0 as invalid map type */
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERF_EVENT_ARRAY,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERCPU_HASH,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERCPU_ARRAY,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_STACK_TRACE,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_CGROUP_ARRAY,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_LRU_HASH,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_LRU_PERCPU_HASH,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_LPM_TRIE,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY_OF_MAPS,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH_OF_MAPS,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_DEVMAP,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_SOCKMAP,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_CPUMAP,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_XSKMAP,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_SOCKHASH,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_CGROUP_STORAGE,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_REUSEPORT_SOCKARRAY,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERCPU_CGROUP_STORAGE,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_QUEUE,
                      BPF_MAP_TYPE_STACK,
                      /* See /usr/include/linux/bpf.h for the full list. */
                  };

              map_type selects one of the available map implementations in the
              kernel.  For all map types, eBPF programs access maps with the
              same bpf_map_lookup_elem() and bpf_map_update_elem() helper
              functions.  Further details of the various map types are given
              below.

       BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_ELEM
              The BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_ELEM command looks up an element with a given
              key in the map referred to by the file descriptor fd.

                  int
                  bpf_lookup_elem(int fd, const void *key, void *value)
                  {
                      union bpf_attr attr = {
                          .map_fd = fd,
                          .key    = ptr_to_u64(key),
                          .value  = ptr_to_u64(value),
                      };

                      return bpf(BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_ELEM, &attr, sizeof(attr));
                  }

              If an element is found, the operation returns zero and stores the
              element's value into value, which must point to a buffer of
              value_size bytes.

              If no element is found, the operation returns -1 and sets errno to
              ENOENT.

       BPF_MAP_UPDATE_ELEM
              The BPF_MAP_UPDATE_ELEM command creates or updates an element with
              a given key/value in the map referred to by the file descriptor
              fd.

                  int
                  bpf_update_elem(int fd, const void *key, const void *value,
                                  uint64_t flags)
                  {
                      union bpf_attr attr = {
                          .map_fd = fd,
                          .key    = ptr_to_u64(key),
                          .value  = ptr_to_u64(value),
                          .flags  = flags,
                      };

                      return bpf(BPF_MAP_UPDATE_ELEM, &attr, sizeof(attr));
                  }

              The flags argument should be specified as one of the following:

              BPF_ANY
                     Create a new element or update an existing element.

              BPF_NOEXIST
                     Create a new element only if it did not exist.

              BPF_EXIST
                     Update an existing element.

              On success, the operation returns zero.  On error, -1 is returned
              and errno is set to EINVAL, EPERM, ENOMEM, or E2BIG.  E2BIG
              indicates that the number of elements in the map reached the
              max_entries limit specified at map creation time.  EEXIST will be
              returned if flags specifies BPF_NOEXIST and the element with key
              already exists in the map.  ENOENT will be returned if flags
              specifies BPF_EXIST and the element with key doesn't exist in the
              map.

       BPF_MAP_DELETE_ELEM
              The BPF_MAP_DELETE_ELEM command deletes the element whose key is
              key from the map referred to by the file descriptor fd.

                  int
                  bpf_delete_elem(int fd, const void *key)
                  {
                      union bpf_attr attr = {
                          .map_fd = fd,
                          .key    = ptr_to_u64(key),
                      };

                      return bpf(BPF_MAP_DELETE_ELEM, &attr, sizeof(attr));
                  }

              On success, zero is returned.  If the element is not found, -1 is
              returned and errno is set to ENOENT.

       BPF_MAP_GET_NEXT_KEY
              The BPF_MAP_GET_NEXT_KEY command looks up an element by key in the
              map referred to by the file descriptor fd and sets the next_key
              pointer to the key of the next element.

                  int
                  bpf_get_next_key(int fd, const void *key, void *next_key)
                  {
                      union bpf_attr attr = {
                          .map_fd   = fd,
                          .key      = ptr_to_u64(key),
                          .next_key = ptr_to_u64(next_key),
                      };

                      return bpf(BPF_MAP_GET_NEXT_KEY, &attr, sizeof(attr));
                  }

              If key is found, the operation returns zero and sets the next_key
              pointer to the key of the next element.  If key is not found, the
              operation returns zero and sets the next_key pointer to the key of
              the first element.  If key is the last element, -1 is returned and
              errno is set to ENOENT.  Other possible errno values are ENOMEM,
              EFAULT, EPERM, and EINVAL.  This method can be used to iterate
              over all elements in the map.

       close(map_fd)
              Delete the map referred to by the file descriptor map_fd.  When
              the user-space program that created a map exits, all maps will be
              deleted automatically (but see NOTES).

   eBPF map types
       The following map types are supported:

       BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH
              Hash-table maps have the following characteristics:

              *  Maps are created and destroyed by user-space programs.  Both
                 user-space and eBPF programs can perform lookup, update, and
                 delete operations.

              *  The kernel takes care of allocating and freeing key/value
                 pairs.

              *  The map_update_elem() helper will fail to insert new element
                 when the max_entries limit is reached.  (This ensures that eBPF
                 programs cannot exhaust memory.)

              *  map_update_elem() replaces existing elements atomically.

              Hash-table maps are optimized for speed of lookup.

       BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY
              Array maps have the following characteristics:

              *  Optimized for fastest possible lookup.  In the future the
                 verifier/JIT compiler may recognize lookup() operations that
                 employ a constant key and optimize it into constant pointer.
                 It is possible to optimize a non-constant key into direct
                 pointer arithmetic as well, since pointers and value_size are
                 constant for the life of the eBPF program.  In other words,
                 array_map_lookup_elem() may be 'inlined' by the verifier/JIT
                 compiler while preserving concurrent access to this map from
                 user space.

              *  All array elements pre-allocated and zero initialized at init
                 time

              *  The key is an array index, and must be exactly four bytes.

              *  map_delete_elem() fails with the error EINVAL, since elements
                 cannot be deleted.

              *  map_update_elem() replaces elements in a nonatomic fashion; for
                 atomic updates, a hash-table map should be used instead.  There
                 is however one special case that can also be used with arrays:
                 the atomic built-in __sync_fetch_and_add() can be used on 32
                 and 64 bit atomic counters.  For example, it can be applied on
                 the whole value itself if it represents a single counter, or in
                 case of a structure containing multiple counters, it could be
                 used on individual counters.  This is quite often useful for
                 aggregation and accounting of events.

              Among the uses for array maps are the following:

              *  As "global" eBPF variables: an array of 1 element whose key is
                 (index) 0 and where the value is a collection of 'global'
                 variables which eBPF programs can use to keep state between
                 events.

              *  Aggregation of tracing events into a fixed set of buckets.

              *  Accounting of networking events, for example, number of packets
                 and packet sizes.

       BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY (since Linux 4.2)
              A program array map is a special kind of array map whose map
              values contain only file descriptors referring to other eBPF
              programs.  Thus, both the key_size and value_size must be exactly
              four bytes.  This map is used in conjunction with the
              bpf_tail_call() helper.

              This means that an eBPF program with a program array map attached
              to it can call from kernel side into

                  void bpf_tail_call(void *context, void *prog_map,
                                     unsigned int index);

              and therefore replace its own program flow with the one from the
              program at the given program array slot, if present.  This can be
              regarded as kind of a jump table to a different eBPF program.  The
              invoked program will then reuse the same stack.  When a jump into
              the new program has been performed, it won't return to the old
              program anymore.

              If no eBPF program is found at the given index of the program
              array (because the map slot doesn't contain a valid program file
              descriptor, the specified lookup index/key is out of bounds, or
              the limit of 32 nested calls has been exceed), execution continues
              with the current eBPF program.  This can be used as a fall-through
              for default cases.

              A program array map is useful, for example, in tracing or
              networking, to handle individual system calls or protocols in
              their own subprograms and use their identifiers as an individual
              map index.  This approach may result in performance benefits, and
              also makes it possible to overcome the maximum instruction limit
              of a single eBPF program.  In dynamic environments, a user-space
              daemon might atomically replace individual subprograms at run-time
              with newer versions to alter overall program behavior, for
              instance, if global policies change.

   eBPF programs
       The BPF_PROG_LOAD command is used to load an eBPF program into the
       kernel.  The return value for this command is a new file descriptor
       associated with this eBPF program.

           char bpf_log_buf[LOG_BUF_SIZE];

           int
           bpf_prog_load(enum bpf_prog_type type,
                         const struct bpf_insn *insns, int insn_cnt,
                         const char *license)
           {
               union bpf_attr attr = {
                   .prog_type = type,
                   .insns     = ptr_to_u64(insns),
                   .insn_cnt  = insn_cnt,
                   .license   = ptr_to_u64(license),
                   .log_buf   = ptr_to_u64(bpf_log_buf),
                   .log_size  = LOG_BUF_SIZE,
                   .log_level = 1,
               };

               return bpf(BPF_PROG_LOAD, &attr, sizeof(attr));
           }

       prog_type is one of the available program types:

                  enum bpf_prog_type {
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_UNSPEC,        /* Reserve 0 as invalid
                                                      program type */
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_KPROBE,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_SCHED_CLS,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_SCHED_ACT,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_TRACEPOINT,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_XDP,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_PERF_EVENT,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SKB,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_IN,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_OUT,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_XMIT,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCK_OPS,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_SKB,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_DEVICE,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_MSG,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_RAW_TRACEPOINT,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK_ADDR,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_LWT_SEG6LOCAL,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_LIRC_MODE2,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_SK_REUSEPORT,
                      BPF_PROG_TYPE_FLOW_DISSECTOR,
                      /* See /usr/include/linux/bpf.h for the full list. */
                  };

       For further details of eBPF program types, see below.

       The remaining fields of bpf_attr are set as follows:

       *  insns is an array of struct bpf_insn instructions.

       *  insn_cnt is the number of instructions in the program referred to by
          insns.

       *  license is a license string, which must be GPL compatible to call
          helper functions marked gpl_only.  (The licensing rules are the same
          as for kernel modules, so that also dual licenses, such as "Dual
          BSD/GPL", may be used.)

       *  log_buf is a pointer to a caller-allocated buffer in which the in-
          kernel verifier can store the verification log.  This log is a multi-
          line string that can be checked by the program author in order to
          understand how the verifier came to the conclusion that the eBPF
          program is unsafe.  The format of the output can change at any time as
          the verifier evolves.

       *  log_size size of the buffer pointed to by log_buf.  If the size of the
          buffer is not large enough to store all verifier messages, -1 is
          returned and errno is set to ENOSPC.

       *  log_level verbosity level of the verifier.  A value of zero means that
          the verifier will not provide a log; in this case, log_buf must be a
          NULL pointer, and log_size must be zero.

       Applying close(2) to the file descriptor returned by BPF_PROG_LOAD will
       unload the eBPF program (but see NOTES).

       Maps are accessible from eBPF programs and are used to exchange data
       between eBPF programs and between eBPF programs and user-space programs.
       For example, eBPF programs can process various events (like kprobe,
       packets) and store their data into a map, and user-space programs can
       then fetch data from the map.  Conversely, user-space programs can use a
       map as a configuration mechanism, populating the map with values checked
       by the eBPF program, which then modifies its behavior on the fly
       according to those values.

   eBPF program types
       The eBPF program type (prog_type) determines the subset of kernel helper
       functions that the program may call.  The program type also determines
       the program input (context)—the format of struct bpf_context (which is
       the data blob passed into the eBPF program as the first argument).

       For example, a tracing program does not have the exact same subset of
       helper functions as a socket filter program (though they may have some
       helpers in common).  Similarly, the input (context) for a tracing program
       is a set of register values, while for a socket filter it is a network
       packet.

       The set of functions available to eBPF programs of a given type may
       increase in the future.

       The following program types are supported:

       BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER (since Linux 3.19)
              Currently, the set of functions for BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER
              is:

                  bpf_map_lookup_elem(map_fd, void *key)
                                      /* look up key in a map_fd */
                  bpf_map_update_elem(map_fd, void *key, void *value)
                                      /* update key/value */
                  bpf_map_delete_elem(map_fd, void *key)
                                      /* delete key in a map_fd */

              The bpf_context argument is a pointer to a struct __sk_buff.

       BPF_PROG_TYPE_KPROBE (since Linux 4.1)
              [To be documented]

       BPF_PROG_TYPE_SCHED_CLS (since Linux 4.1)
              [To be documented]

       BPF_PROG_TYPE_SCHED_ACT (since Linux 4.1)
              [To be documented]

   Events
       Once a program is loaded, it can be attached to an event.  Various kernel
       subsystems have different ways to do so.

       Since Linux 3.19, the following call will attach the program prog_fd to
       the socket sockfd, which was created by an earlier call to socket(2):

           setsockopt(sockfd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_ATTACH_BPF,
                      &prog_fd, sizeof(prog_fd));

       Since Linux 4.1, the following call may be used to attach the eBPF
       program referred to by the file descriptor prog_fd to a perf event file
       descriptor, event_fd, that was created by a previous call to
       perf_event_open(2):

           ioctl(event_fd, PERF_EVENT_IOC_SET_BPF, prog_fd);

RETURN VALUE
       For a successful call, the return value depends on the operation:

       BPF_MAP_CREATE
              The new file descriptor associated with the eBPF map.

       BPF_PROG_LOAD
              The new file descriptor associated with the eBPF program.

       All other commands
              Zero.

       On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS
       E2BIG  The eBPF program is too large or a map reached the max_entries
              limit (maximum number of elements).

       EACCES For BPF_PROG_LOAD, even though all program instructions are valid,
              the program has been rejected because it was deemed unsafe.  This
              may be because it may have accessed a disallowed memory region or
              an uninitialized stack/register or because the function
              constraints don't match the actual types or because there was a
              misaligned memory access.  In this case, it is recommended to call
              bpf() again with log_level = 1 and examine log_buf for the
              specific reason provided by the verifier.

       EBADF  fd is not an open file descriptor.

       EFAULT One of the pointers (key or value or log_buf or insns) is outside
              the accessible address space.

       EINVAL The value specified in cmd is not recognized by this kernel.

       EINVAL For BPF_MAP_CREATE, either map_type or attributes are invalid.

       EINVAL For BPF_MAP_*_ELEM commands, some of the fields of union bpf_attr
              that are not used by this command are not set to zero.

       EINVAL For BPF_PROG_LOAD, indicates an attempt to load an invalid
              program.  eBPF programs can be deemed invalid due to unrecognized
              instructions, the use of reserved fields, jumps out of range,
              infinite loops or calls of unknown functions.

       ENOENT For BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_ELEM or BPF_MAP_DELETE_ELEM, indicates that the
              element with the given key was not found.

       ENOMEM Cannot allocate sufficient memory.

       EPERM  The call was made without sufficient privilege (without the
              CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability).

VERSIONS
       The bpf() system call first appeared in Linux 3.18.

CONFORMING TO
       The bpf() system call is Linux-specific.

NOTES
       Prior to Linux 4.4, all bpf() commands require the caller to have the
       CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability.  From Linux 4.4 onwards, an unprivileged user
       may create limited programs of type BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER and
       associated maps.  However they may not store kernel pointers within the
       maps and are presently limited to the following helper functions:

       *  get_random
       *  get_smp_processor_id
       *  tail_call
       *  ktime_get_ns

       Unprivileged access may be blocked by writing the value 1 to the file
       /proc/sys/kernel/unprivileged_bpf_disabled.

       eBPF objects (maps and programs) can be shared between processes.  For
       example, after fork(2), the child inherits file descriptors referring to
       the same eBPF objects.  In addition, file descriptors referring to eBPF
       objects can be transferred over UNIX domain sockets.  File descriptors
       referring to eBPF objects can be duplicated in the usual way, using
       dup(2) and similar calls.  An eBPF object is deallocated only after all
       file descriptors referring to the object have been closed.

       eBPF programs can be written in a restricted C that is compiled (using
       the clang compiler) into eBPF bytecode.  Various features are omitted
       from this restricted C, such as loops, global variables, variadic
       functions, floating-point numbers, and passing structures as function
       arguments.  Some examples can be found in the samples/bpf/*_kern.c files
       in the kernel source tree.

       The kernel contains a just-in-time (JIT) compiler that translates eBPF
       bytecode into native machine code for better performance.  In kernels
       before Linux 4.15, the JIT compiler is disabled by default, but its
       operation can be controlled by writing one of the following integer
       strings to the file /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable:

       0  Disable JIT compilation (default).

       1  Normal compilation.

       2  Debugging mode.  The generated opcodes are dumped in hexadecimal into
          the kernel log.  These opcodes can then be disassembled using the
          program tools/net/bpf_jit_disasm.c provided in the kernel source tree.

       Since Linux 4.15, the kernel may configured with the
       CONFIG_BPF_JIT_ALWAYS_ON option.  In this case, the JIT compiler is
       always enabled, and the bpf_jit_enable is initialized to 1 and is
       immutable.  (This kernel configuration option was provided as a
       mitigation for one of the Spectre attacks against the BPF interpreter.)

       The JIT compiler for eBPF is currently available for the following
       architectures:

       *  x86-64 (since Linux 3.18; cBPF since Linux 3.0);
       *  ARM32 (since Linux 3.18; cBPF since Linux 3.4);
       *  SPARC 32 (since Linux 3.18; cBPF since Linux 3.5);
       *  ARM-64 (since Linux 3.18);
       *  s390 (since Linux 4.1; cBPF since Linux 3.7);
       *  PowerPC 64 (since Linux 4.8; cBPF since Linux 3.1);
       *  SPARC 64 (since Linux 4.12);
       *  x86-32 (since Linux 4.18);
       *  MIPS 64 (since Linux 4.18; cBPF since Linux 3.16);
       *  riscv (since Linux 5.1).

EXAMPLES
       /* bpf+sockets example:
        * 1. create array map of 256 elements
        * 2. load program that counts number of packets received
        *    r0 = skb->data[ETH_HLEN + offsetof(struct iphdr, protocol)]
        *    map[r0]++
        * 3. attach prog_fd to raw socket via setsockopt()
        * 4. print number of received TCP/UDP packets every second
        */
       int
       main(int argc, char **argv)
       {
           int sock, map_fd, prog_fd, key;
           long long value = 0, tcp_cnt, udp_cnt;

           map_fd = bpf_create_map(BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY, sizeof(key),
                                   sizeof(value), 256);
           if (map_fd < 0) {
               printf("failed to create map '%s'\n", strerror(errno));
               /* likely not run as root */
               return 1;
           }

           struct bpf_insn prog[] = {
               BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_6, BPF_REG_1),        /* r6 = r1 */
               BPF_LD_ABS(BPF_B, ETH_HLEN + offsetof(struct iphdr, protocol)),
                                       /* r0 = ip->proto */
               BPF_STX_MEM(BPF_W, BPF_REG_10, BPF_REG_0, -4),
                                       /* *(u32 *)(fp - 4) = r0 */
               BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_2, BPF_REG_10),       /* r2 = fp */
               BPF_ALU64_IMM(BPF_ADD, BPF_REG_2, -4),      /* r2 = r2 - 4 */
               BPF_LD_MAP_FD(BPF_REG_1, map_fd),           /* r1 = map_fd */
               BPF_CALL_FUNC(BPF_FUNC_map_lookup_elem),
                                       /* r0 = map_lookup(r1, r2) */
               BPF_JMP_IMM(BPF_JEQ, BPF_REG_0, 0, 2),
                                       /* if (r0 == 0) goto pc+2 */
               BPF_MOV64_IMM(BPF_REG_1, 1),                /* r1 = 1 */
               BPF_XADD(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_0, BPF_REG_1, 0, 0),
                                       /* lock *(u64 *) r0 += r1 */
               BPF_MOV64_IMM(BPF_REG_0, 0),                /* r0 = 0 */
               BPF_EXIT_INSN(),                            /* return r0 */
           };

           prog_fd = bpf_prog_load(BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER, prog,
                                   sizeof(prog) / sizeof(prog[0]), "GPL");

           sock = open_raw_sock("lo");

           assert(setsockopt(sock, SOL_SOCKET, SO_ATTACH_BPF, &prog_fd,
                             sizeof(prog_fd)) == 0);

           for (;;) {
               key = IPPROTO_TCP;
               assert(bpf_lookup_elem(map_fd, &key, &tcp_cnt) == 0);
               key = IPPROTO_UDP;
               assert(bpf_lookup_elem(map_fd, &key, &udp_cnt) == 0);
               printf("TCP %lld UDP %lld packets\n", tcp_cnt, udp_cnt);
               sleep(1);
           }

           return 0;
       }

       Some complete working code can be found in the samples/bpf directory in
       the kernel source tree.

SEE ALSO
       seccomp(2), bpf-helpers(7), socket(7), tc(8), tc-bpf(8)

       Both classic and extended BPF are explained in the kernel source file
       Documentation/networking/filter.txt.

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 5.10 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.



Linux                              2020-11-01                             BPF(2)