CAL(1)                           User Commands                          CAL(1)

       cal - display a calendar

       cal [options] [[[day] month] year]
       cal [options] [timestamp|monthname]

       cal displays a simple calendar.  If no arguments are specified, the
       current month is displayed.

       The month may be specified as a number (1-12), as a month name or as an
       abbreviated month name according to the current locales.

       Two different calendar systems are used, Gregorian and Julian.  These
       are nearly identical systems with Gregorian making a small adjustment
       to the frequency of leap years; this facilitates improved
       synchronization with solar events like the equinoxes.  The Gregorian
       calendar reform was introduced in 1582, but its adoption continued up
       to 1923.  By default cal uses the adoption date of 3 Sept 1752.  From
       that date forward the Gregorian calendar is displayed; previous dates
       use the Julian calendar system.  11 days were removed at the time of
       adoption to bring the calendar in sync with solar events.  So Sept 1752
       has a mix of Julian and Gregorian dates by which the 2nd is followed by
       the 14th (the 3rd through the 13th are absent).

       Optionally, either the proleptic Gregorian calendar or the Julian
       calendar may be used exclusively.  See --reform below.

       -1, --one
              Display single month output.  (This is the default.)

       -3, --three
              Display three months spanning the date.

       -n , --months number
              Display number of months, starting from the month containing the

       -S, --span
              Display months spanning the date.

       -s, --sunday
              Display Sunday as the first day of the week.

       -m, --monday
              Display Monday as the first day of the week.

       --iso  Display the proleptic Gregorian calendar exclusively.  This
              option does not affect week numbers and the first day of the
              week.  See --reform below.

       -j, --julian
              Use day-of-year numbering for all calendars.  These are also
              called ordinal days.  Ordinal days range from 1 to 366.  This
              option does not switch from the Gregorian to the Julian calendar
              system, that is controlled by the --reform option.

              Sometimes Gregorian calendars using ordinal dates are referred
              to as Julian calendars.  This can be confusing due to the many
              date related conventions that use Julian in their name:
              (ordinal) julian date, julian (calendar) date, (astronomical)
              julian date, (modified) julian date, and more.  This option is
              named julian, because ordinal days are identified as julian by
              the POSIX standard.  However, be aware that cal also uses the
              Julian calendar system.  See DESCRIPTION above.

       --reform val
              This option sets the adoption date of the Gregorian calendar
              reform.  Calendar dates previous to reform use the Julian
              calendar system.  Calendar dates after reform use the Gregorian
              calendar system.  The argument val can be:

              • 1752 - sets 3 September 1752 as the reform date (default).
                This is when the Gregorian calendar reform was adopted by the
                British Empire.

              • gregorian - display Gregorian calendars exclusively.  This
                special placeholder sets the reform date below the smallest
                year that cal can use; meaning all calendar output uses the
                Gregorian calendar system.  This is called the proleptic
                Gregorian calendar, because dates prior to the calendar
                system's creation use extrapolated values.

              • iso - alias of gregorian.  The ISO 8601 standard for the
                representation of dates and times in information interchange
                requires using the proleptic Gregorian calendar.

              • julian - display Julian calendars exclusively.  This special
                placeholder sets the reform date above the largest year that
                cal can use; meaning all calendar output uses the Julian
                calendar system.

              See DESCRIPTION above.

       -y, --year
              Display a calendar for the whole year.

       -Y, --twelve
              Display a calendar for the next twelve months.

       -w, --week[=number]
              Display week numbers in the calendar (US or ISO-8601).  See
              NOTES section for more details.

              Colorize the output.  The optional argument when can be auto,
              never or always.  If the when argument is omitted, it defaults
              to auto.  The colors can be disabled; for the current built-in
              default see the --help output.  See also the COLORS section.

       -V, --version
              Display version information and exit.

       -h, --help
              Display help text and exit.

       Single digits-only parameter (e.g., 'cal 2020')
              Specifies the year to be displayed; note the year must be fully
              specified: cal 89 will not display a calendar for 1989.

       Single string parameter (e.g., 'cal tomorrow' or 'cal August')
              Specifies timestamp or a month name (or abbreviated name)
              according to the current locales.

              The special placeholders are accepted when parsing timestamp,
              "now" may be used to refer to the current time, "today",
              "yesterday", "tomorrow" refer to of the current day, the day
              before or the next day, respectively.

              The relative date specifications are also accepted, in this case
              "+" is evaluated to the current time plus the specified time
              span. Correspondingly, a time span that is prefixed with "-" is
              evaluated to the current time minus the specified time span, for
              example '+2days'. Instead of prefixing the time span with "+" or
              "-", it may also be suffixed with a space and the word "left" or
              "ago" (for example '1 week ago').

       Two parameters (e.g., 'cal 11 2020')
              Denote the month (1 - 12) and year.

       Three parameters (e.g., 'cal 25 11 2020')
              Denote the day (1-31), month and year, and the day will be
              highlighted if the calendar is displayed on a terminal.  If no
              parameters are specified, the current month's calendar is

       A year starts on January 1.  The first day of the week is determined by
       the locale or the --sunday and --monday options.

       The week numbering depends on the choice of the first day of the week.
       If it is Sunday then the customary North American numbering is used,
       where 1 January is in week number 1.  If it is Monday (-m) then the ISO
       8601 standard week numbering is used, where the first Thursday is in
       week number 1.

       Implicit coloring can be disabled as follows:

              touch /etc/terminal-colors.d/cal.disable

       See terminal-colors.d(5) for more details about colorization

       The default cal output uses 3 September 1752 as the Gregorian calendar
       reform date.  The historical reform  dates for the other locales,
       including its introduction in October 1582, are not implemented.

       Alternative calendars, such as the Umm al-Qura, the Solar Hijri, the
       Ge'ez, or the lunisolar Hindu, are not supported.

       A cal command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.

       The cal command is part of the util-linux package and is available from

util-linux                       January 2018                           CAL(1)