cap_get_file, cap_set_file, cap_get_fd, cap_set_fd − capability manipulation on files #include<sys/capability.h> );cap_t cap_get_file(const char *path_p , cap_t int cap_set_file(const char *path_p );cap_t cap_get_fd(int fd , cap_t int cap_set_fd(int fd );uid_t cap_get_nsowner(cap_t caps , uid_t int cap_set_nsowner(cap_t caps Link with −lcap. and allocate a capability state in working storage and set it to represent the capability state of the pathname pointed to by path_p or the file open on descriptor These functions return a pointer to the newly created capability state. The effects of reading the capability state from any file other than a regular file is undefined. The caller should free any releasable memory, when the capability state in working storage is no longer required, by calling with the used cap_t as an argument. and set the values for all capability flags for all capabilities for the pathname pointed to by path_p or the file open on descriptor with the capability state identified by The new capability state of the file is completely determined by the contents of A NULL value for is used to indicate that capabilities for the file should be deleted. For these functions to succeed, the calling process must have the effective capability, enabled and either the effective user ID of the process must match the file owner or the calling process must have the CAP_FOWNER flag in its effective capability set. The effects of writing the capability state to any file type other than a regular file are undefined. A capability set held in memory can be associated with the rootid in use in a specific namespace. It is possible to get and set this value (in the memory copy) with and respectively. The rootid is ignored by the libcap library in all cases other than when the capability is written to a file. Only if the value is non‐zero will the library attempt to include it in the written file capability set. ‐2‐ and return a non‐NULL value on success, and NULL on failure. and return zero on success, and −1 on failure. On failure, errno is set to or These functions are specified by withdrawn POSIX.1e draft specification. Support for file capabilities is provided on Linux since version 2.6.24. On Linux, the file Effective set is a single bit. If it is enabled, then all Permitted capabilities are enabled in the Effective set of the calling process when the file is executed; otherwise, no capabilities are enabled in the process’s Effective set following an Because the file Effective set is a single bit, if any capability is enabled in the Effective set of the cap_t given to or then all capabilities whose Permitted or Inheritable flag is enabled must also have the Effective flag enabled. Conversely, if the Effective bit is enabled on a file, then the cap_t returned by and will have the Effective flag enabled for each capability that has the Permitted or Inheritable flag enabled.