circ_in_circ(1)             General Commands Manual            circ_in_circ(1)

       circ_in_circ - bitmap generator for circular conductor inside circular
       conductor (part of atlc)

       circ_in_circ [options... ] D d O Er

       This man page is not a complete set of documentation. See the html
       files for more complete information. So far, I've not managed to
       install the html files into /usr/local, so you will have to look into
       the atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs directory for them.

       circ_in_circ is a pre-processor for atlc, the finite difference
       programme that is used to calculate the properties of a two-conductor
       electrical transmission line of arbitrary cross section. The programme
       circ_in_circ is used as a fast way of generating bitmaps (there is no
       need to use a graphics programme), for a circular conductor inside a
       circular conductor (coaxial conductors), like this:

                       ****                 ****
                    ****    <-----d------>     ****
                  ***            *****            ***
                ***           ***********           ***
              ***            *************            ***
             ***            ***************            ***
            ***      ^      ***************             ***
           ***       |      ***************              ***
          ***        |       *************                ***
          **         O        ***********                  **
         ***         |            ***                      ***
         **          |                                      **
         **                                                 **
         **                                                 **
         **                                                 **
         ***                                               ***
          **                                               **
          ***                                             ***
           **                                             **
            **                                           **
             **                                         **
              ***                                     ***
               ****                                 ****
                 ****                             ****
                   *****                       *****
                      ******               ******

       The parameter 'D' is the inner dimensions of the outer conductor and
       'd' is the outer diameter of the inner conductor.  The inner conductor
       is offset 'h' from the centre of the outer conductor. The whole region
       is surrounded by a dielectric of relative permittivity 'Er'.

       The bitmap is printed to standard output, which MUST be re-directed to
       either a file in one of the following two ways.

       The bitmaps produced by circ_in_circ are 24-bit bit colour bitmaps, as
       are required by atlc.

       The permittivities of the dielectric 'Er' determines the colours in the
       bitmap. If Er is 1.0, 1.006, 2.1, 2.2, 2.33, 2.5, 3.3, 3.335, 4.8 or
       10.2, then the colour corresponding to that permittivity will be set
       according to the colours defined in COLOURS below. If Er is not one of
       those permittivities, the region of permittivity Er will be set to the
       colour 0xCAFF00. The programme atlc does not know what this
       permittivity is, so atlc, must be told with the command line option -d,
       as in example 4 below.

       -b bitmapsize
       is used to set the size of the bitmap, and so the accuracy to which
       atlc is able to calculate the transmission line's properties. The
       default value for 'bitmapsize' is normally 4, although this is set at
       compile time. The value can be set anywhere from 1 to 15, but more than
       8 is probably not sensible.

       -f outfile
       Set the output filename. By default, the bitmap is sent to stdout, but
       it *must* be sent to a file, with this option, or as described above.

       Causes circ_in_circ to print some data to stderr. Note, nothing extra
       goes to standard output, as that is expected to be redirected to a
       bitmap file.

       The 24-bit bitmaps that atlc expects, have 8 bits assigned to represent
       the amount of red, 8 for blue and 8 for green. Hence there are 256
       levels of red, green and blue, making a total of 256*256*256=16777216
       colours.  Every one of the possible 16777216 colours can be defined
       precisely by the stating the exact amount of red, green and blue, as

       red         = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000
       green       = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00
       blue        = 000,000,255 or 0x0000ff
       black       = 000,000,000 or 0x000000
       white       = 255,255,255 or 0xffffff
       Brown       = 255,000,255 or 0xff00ff
       gray        = 142,142,142 or 0x8e8e8e

       Some colours, such as pink, turquiose, sandy, brown, gray etc may mean
       slightly different things to different people. This is not so with
       atlc, as the programme expects the colours below to be EXACTLY defined
       as given. Whether you feel the colour is sandy or yellow is up to you,
       but if you use it in your bitmap, then it either needs to be a colour
       recognised by atlc, or you must define it with a command line option
       (see OPTIONS and example 5 below).
       The following conductors are recognised by atlc:
       red    = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000 is the live conductor.
       green  = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00 is the grounded conductor.
       blue   = 000,000,000 or 0x000000 is the negative conductor

       All bitmaps must have the live (red) and grounded (green) conductor.
       The blue conductor is not currently supported, but it will be used to
       indicate a negative conductor, which will be needed if/when the
       programme gets extended to analyse directional couplers.

       The following dielectrics are recognised by atlc and so are produced by

       white     255,255,255 or 0xFFFFFF as Er=1.0   (vacuum)
       pink      255,202,202 or 0xFFCACA as Er=1.0006 (air)
       blue      000,000,255 or 0x0000FF as Er=2.1   (PTFE)
       Mid gray  142,242,142 or 0x8E8E8E as Er=2.2   (duroid 5880)
       mauve     255.000,255 or 0xFF00FF as Er=2.33  (polyethylene)
       yellow    255,255,000 or 0xFFFF00 as Er=2.5   (polystyrene)
       sandy     239,203,027 or 0xEFCC1A as Er=3.3   (PVC)
       brown     188,127,096 or 0xBC7F60 as Er=3.335 (epoxy resin)
       Turquoise 026,239,179 or 0x1AEFB3 as Er=4.8   (glass PCB)
       Dark gray 142,142,142 or ox696969 as Er=6.15  (duroid 6006)
       L. gray   240,240,240 or 0xDCDCDC as Er=10.2  (duroid 6010)

       Although circ_in_circ is used for circular inner and outer conductors,
       the outside of the outer conductor is drawn as a square. This is for
       convenience and makes no difference to the calculations. The inside is
       of the outer conductor is drawn as a circle.

       Here are a few examples of the use of circ_in_circ. Again, see the html
       documentation in atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html for more

       1) In the first example, the outer conductor has an inside diameter of
       12 units (inches, mm, feet etc.), the inner has an outside diameter of
       3.9 units.  The inner is placed centrally (h=0) and the dielectric is
       vacuum (Er=1.0).
       % circ_in_circ 12 3.9 0 1.0 > coaxial_1.bmp
       % atlc coaxial_1.bmp
       atlc will indicate the correct value of impedance to be 67.3667 Ohms,
       whereas an exact analysis will show the true value to be 67.4358 Ohms,
       so atlc has an error of 0.102%.

       2) In this second example, the conductor sizes are the sames as in
       example 1, but the inner is located 3.5 units off-centre and the
       dielectric has a relative permittivity of 2.1 (Er of PTFE) The output
       is sent to a file not_in_centre.bmp which is then processed by atlc
       % circ_in_circ 12 3.9 3.5 2.1 > not_in_centre.bmp
       % atlc not_in_centre.bmp
       The impedance of this is theoretically 24.315342 Ohms, as circ_in_circ
       will calculate for you. atlc's esitmate is 24.2493 Ohms, an error of
       only -0.271 %.

       3) In the third example the bitmap is made larger, to increase
       accuracy, but otherwise this is identical to the previous one.
       % circ_in_circ -b8 12 3.9 3.5 2.1 > bigger_not_in_centre.bmp
       % atlc bigger_not_in_centre.bmp
       This time atlc will take much longer to calculate Zo, since the bitmap
       is larger and so it needs to do more calculations. However, the final
       result should be more accurate. In this case, the result reported is
       24.2461 Ohms, an error that't manginally smaller than before at 0.285
       %.  It is possible there may be something to be gained by decreassing
       the cutoff at larger grids, so this is being investigated. However,
       errors almost always below 0.25 %, no matter what is being analysed.

       In the fourth example, instead of re-directing circ_in_circ's output to
       a file with the > sign, it is done using the -f option.
       % circ_in_circ -f 13inner_22outer_coax.bmp 22 13 0 1.0
       % atlc 13inner_22outer_coax.bmp
       %atlc will calculate an impedance of 32.5063 Ohms, whereas the correct
       value, calculated using the formula Zo=60 log(D/d) is 31.5656 Ohms, so
       altc has an error of -0.187 %.

       In the fifth example, a material with a relativity permittivity 7.89 of
       is used. While there is no change in how to use circ_in_circ, since
       this permittivity is not one of the pre-defined values (see COLOURS),
       we must tell atlc what it is % circ_in_circ 23 9 0 7.89 > an_odd_er.bmp
       % atlc -d CAFF00=7.89 an_odd_er.bmp This has a theoretical impedance of
       20.041970 Ohms, but atlc version 3.0.1 will calculate it to be 20.0300,
       an error of -0.058 % !!! If you look at the file an_odd_er.bmp with a
       graphics package, you will see there are 3 colours in it - the red
       inner conductor, the green outer and an olive-green dielectric.

       atlc(1), rect_cen_in_rect(1), rect_in_rect(1). rect_in_circ(1),
       circ_in_rect(1).  rect_in_circ(1), readbin(1) and sym_strip(1).                - Home page       - Download area
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html       - HTML docs
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/qex-december-1996/atlc.pdf - theory paper
       atlc-X.Y.Z/examples                        - examples              - my home page          - ham radio pages

Dr. David Kirkby              atlc-3.0.1 29/3/02               circ_in_circ(1)