CONFIG(5)                            OpenSSL                           CONFIG(5)

       config - OpenSSL CONF library configuration files

       The OpenSSL CONF library can be used to read configuration files.  It is
       used for the OpenSSL master configuration file openssl.cnf and in a few
       other places like SPKAC files and certificate extension files for the
       x509 utility. OpenSSL applications can also use the CONF library for
       their own purposes.

       A configuration file is divided into a number of sections. Each section
       starts with a line [ section_name ] and ends when a new section is
       started or end of file is reached. A section name can consist of
       alphanumeric characters and underscores.

       The first section of a configuration file is special and is referred to
       as the default section. This section is usually unnamed and spans from
       the start of file until the first named section. When a name is being
       looked up it is first looked up in a named section (if any) and then the
       default section.

       The environment is mapped onto a section called ENV.

       Comments can be included by preceding them with the # character

       Other files can be included using the .include directive followed by a
       path. If the path points to a directory all files with names ending with
       .cnf or .conf are included from the directory.  Recursive inclusion of
       directories from files in such directory is not supported. That means the
       files in the included directory can also contain .include directives but
       only inclusion of regular files is supported there. The inclusion of
       directories is not supported on systems without POSIX IO support.

       It is strongly recommended to use absolute paths with the .include
       directive. Relative paths are evaluated based on the application current
       working directory so unless the configuration file containing the
       .include directive is application specific the inclusion will not work as

       There can be optional = character and whitespace characters between
       .include directive and the path which can be useful in cases the
       configuration file needs to be loaded by old OpenSSL versions which do
       not support the .include syntax. They would bail out with error if the =
       character is not present but with it they just ignore the include.

       Each section in a configuration file consists of a number of name and
       value pairs of the form name=value

       The name string can contain any alphanumeric characters as well as a few
       punctuation symbols such as . , ; and _.

       The value string consists of the string following the = character until
       end of line with any leading and trailing white space removed.

       The value string undergoes variable expansion. This can be done by
       including the form $var or ${var}: this will substitute the value of the
       named variable in the current section. It is also possible to substitute
       a value from another section using the syntax $section::name or
       ${section::name}. By using the form $ENV::name environment variables can
       be substituted. It is also possible to assign values to environment
       variables by using the name ENV::name, this will work if the program
       looks up environment variables using the CONF library instead of calling
       getenv() directly. The value string must not exceed 64k in length after
       variable expansion. Otherwise an error will occur.

       It is possible to escape certain characters by using any kind of quote or
       the \ character. By making the last character of a line a \ a value
       string can be spread across multiple lines. In addition the sequences \n,
       \r, \b and \t are recognized.

       All expansion and escape rules as described above that apply to value
       also apply to the path of the .include directive.

       Applications can automatically configure certain aspects of OpenSSL using
       the master OpenSSL configuration file, or optionally an alternative
       configuration file. The openssl utility includes this functionality: any
       sub command uses the master OpenSSL configuration file unless an option
       is used in the sub command to use an alternative configuration file.

       To enable library configuration the default section needs to contain an
       appropriate line which points to the main configuration section. The
       default name is openssl_conf which is used by the openssl utility. Other
       applications may use an alternative name such as myapplication_conf.  All
       library configuration lines appear in the default section at the start of
       the configuration file.

       The configuration section should consist of a set of name value pairs
       which contain specific module configuration information. The name
       represents the name of the configuration module. The meaning of the value
       is module specific: it may, for example, represent a further
       configuration section containing configuration module specific
       information. E.g.:

        # This must be in the default section
        openssl_conf = openssl_init


        oid_section = new_oids
        engines = engine_section


        ... new oids here ...


        ... engine stuff here ...

       The features of each configuration module are described below.

   ASN1 Object Configuration Module
       This module has the name oid_section. The value of this variable points
       to a section containing name value pairs of OIDs: the name is the OID
       short and long name, the value is the numerical form of the OID. Although
       some of the openssl utility sub commands already have their own ASN1
       OBJECT section functionality not all do. By using the ASN1 OBJECT
       configuration module all the openssl utility sub commands can see the new
       objects as well as any compliant applications. For example:


        some_new_oid =
        some_other_oid =

       It is also possible to set the value to the long name followed by a comma
       and the numerical OID form. For example:

        shortName = some object long name,

   Engine Configuration Module
       This ENGINE configuration module has the name engines. The value of this
       variable points to a section containing further ENGINE configuration

       The section pointed to by engines is a table of engine names (though see
       engine_id below) and further sections containing configuration
       information specific to each ENGINE.

       Each ENGINE specific section is used to set default algorithms, load
       dynamic, perform initialization and send ctrls. The actual operation
       performed depends on the command name which is the name of the name value
       pair. The currently supported commands are listed below.

       For example:


        # Configure ENGINE named "foo"
        foo = foo_section
        # Configure ENGINE named "bar"
        bar = bar_section

        ... foo ENGINE specific commands ...

        ... "bar" ENGINE specific commands ...

       The command engine_id is used to give the ENGINE name. If used this
       command must be first. For example:

        # This would normally handle an ENGINE named "foo"
        foo = foo_section

        # Override default name and use "myfoo" instead.
        engine_id = myfoo

       The command dynamic_path loads and adds an ENGINE from the given path. It
       is equivalent to sending the ctrls SO_PATH with the path argument
       followed by LIST_ADD with value 2 and LOAD to the dynamic ENGINE. If this
       is not the required behaviour then alternative ctrls can be sent directly
       to the dynamic ENGINE using ctrl commands.

       The command init determines whether to initialize the ENGINE. If the
       value is 0 the ENGINE will not be initialized, if 1 and attempt it made
       to initialized the ENGINE immediately. If the init command is not present
       then an attempt will be made to initialize the ENGINE after all commands
       in its section have been processed.

       The command default_algorithms sets the default algorithms an ENGINE will
       supply using the functions ENGINE_set_default_string().

       If the name matches none of the above command names it is assumed to be a
       ctrl command which is sent to the ENGINE. The value of the command is the
       argument to the ctrl command. If the value is the string EMPTY then no
       value is sent to the command.

       For example:


        # Configure ENGINE named "foo"
        foo = foo_section

        # Load engine from DSO
        dynamic_path = /some/path/
        # A foo specific ctrl.
        some_ctrl = some_value
        # Another ctrl that doesn't take a value.
        other_ctrl = EMPTY
        # Supply all default algorithms
        default_algorithms = ALL

   EVP Configuration Module
       This modules has the name alg_section which points to a section
       containing algorithm commands.

       Currently the only algorithm command supported is fips_mode whose value
       can only be the boolean string off. If fips_mode is set to on, an error
       occurs as this library version is not FIPS capable.

   SSL Configuration Module
       This module has the name ssl_conf which points to a section containing
       SSL configurations.

       Each line in the SSL configuration section contains the name of the
       configuration and the section containing it.

       Each configuration section consists of command value pairs for SSL_CONF.
       Each pair will be passed to a SSL_CTX or SSL structure if it calls
       SSL_CTX_config() or SSL_config() with the appropriate configuration name.

       Note: any characters before an initial dot in the configuration section
       are ignored so the same command can be used multiple times.

       For example:

        ssl_conf = ssl_sect


        server = server_section


        RSA.Certificate = server-rsa.pem
        ECDSA.Certificate = server-ecdsa.pem
        Ciphers = ALL:!RC4

       The system default configuration with name system_default if present will
       be applied during any creation of the SSL_CTX structure.

       Example of a configuration with the system default:

        ssl_conf = ssl_sect

        system_default = system_default_sect

        MinProtocol = TLSv1.2
        MinProtocol = DTLSv1.2

       If a configuration file attempts to expand a variable that doesn't exist
       then an error is flagged and the file will not load. This can happen if
       an attempt is made to expand an environment variable that doesn't exist.
       For example in a previous version of OpenSSL the default OpenSSL master
       configuration file used the value of HOME which may not be defined on non
       Unix systems and would cause an error.

       This can be worked around by including a default section to provide a
       default value: then if the environment lookup fails the default value
       will be used instead. For this to work properly the default value must be
       defined earlier in the configuration file than the expansion. See the
       EXAMPLES section for an example of how to do this.

       If the same variable exists in the same section then all but the last
       value will be silently ignored. In certain circumstances such as with DNs
       the same field may occur multiple times. This is usually worked around by
       ignoring any characters before an initial . e.g.

        1.OU="My first OU"
        2.OU="My Second OU"

       Here is a sample configuration file using some of the features mentioned

        # This is the default section.

        RANDFILE= ${ENV::HOME}/.rnd

        [ section_one ]

        # We are now in section one.

        # Quotes permit leading and trailing whitespace
        any = " any variable name "

        other = A string that can \
        cover several lines \
        by including \\ characters

        message = Hello World\n

        [ section_two ]

        greeting = $section_one::message

       This next example shows how to expand environment variables safely.

       Suppose you want a variable called tmpfile to refer to a temporary
       filename. The directory it is placed in can determined by the TEMP or TMP
       environment variables but they may not be set to any value at all. If you
       just include the environment variable names and the variable doesn't
       exist then this will cause an error when an attempt is made to load the
       configuration file. By making use of the default section both values can
       be looked up with TEMP taking priority and /tmp used if neither is

        # The above value is used if TMP isn't in the environment
        # The above value is used if TEMP isn't in the environment

       Simple OpenSSL library configuration example to enter FIPS mode:

        # Default appname: should match "appname" parameter (if any)
        # supplied to CONF_modules_load_file et al.
        openssl_conf = openssl_conf_section

        # Configuration module list
        alg_section = evp_sect

        # Set to "yes" to enter FIPS mode if supported
        fips_mode = yes

       Note: in the above example you will get an error in non FIPS capable
       versions of OpenSSL.

       Simple OpenSSL library configuration to make TLS 1.2 and DTLS 1.2 the
       system-default minimum TLS and DTLS versions, respectively:

        # Toplevel section for openssl (including libssl)
        openssl_conf = default_conf_section

        # We only specify configuration for the "ssl module"
        ssl_conf = ssl_section

        system_default = system_default_section

        MinProtocol = TLSv1.2
        MinProtocol = DTLSv1.2

       The minimum TLS protocol is applied to SSL_CTX objects that are TLS-
       based, and the minimum DTLS protocol to those are DTLS-based.  The same
       applies also to maximum versions set with MaxProtocol.

       More complex OpenSSL library configuration. Add OID and don't enter FIPS

        # Default appname: should match "appname" parameter (if any)
        # supplied to CONF_modules_load_file et al.
        openssl_conf = openssl_conf_section

        # Configuration module list
        alg_section = evp_sect
        oid_section = new_oids

        # This will have no effect as FIPS mode is off by default.
        # Set to "yes" to enter FIPS mode, if supported
        fips_mode = no

        # New OID, just short name
        newoid1 =
        # New OID shortname and long name
        newoid2 = New OID 2 long name,

       The above examples can be used with any application supporting library
       configuration if "openssl_conf" is modified to match the appropriate

       For example if the second sample file above is saved to "example.cnf"
       then the command line:

        OPENSSL_CONF=example.cnf openssl asn1parse -genstr OID:

       will output:

           0:d=0  hl=2 l=   4 prim: OBJECT            :newoid1

       showing that the OID "newoid1" has been added as "".

           The path to the config file.  Ignored in set-user-ID and set-group-ID

           The path to the engines directory.  Ignored in set-user-ID and set-
           group-ID programs.

       Currently there is no way to include characters using the octal \nnn
       form. Strings are all null terminated so nulls cannot form part of the

       The escaping isn't quite right: if you want to use sequences like \n you
       can't use any quote escaping on the same line.

       Files are loaded in a single pass. This means that a variable expansion
       will only work if the variables referenced are defined earlier in the

       x509(1), req(1), ca(1)

       Copyright 2000-2020 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved.

       Licensed under the OpenSSL license (the "License").  You may not use this
       file except in compliance with the License.  You can obtain a copy in the
       file LICENSE in the source distribution or at

1.1.1l                             2021-08-24                          CONFIG(5)