crypt

CRYPT(3)                   Linux Programmer's Manual                  CRYPT(3)



NAME
       crypt, crypt_r - password and data encryption

SYNOPSIS
       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE       /* See feature_test_macros(7) */
       #include <unistd.h>

       char *crypt(const char *key, const char *salt);

       #define _GNU_SOURCE         /* See feature_test_macros(7) */
       #include <crypt.h>

       char *crypt_r(const char *key, const char *salt,
                     struct crypt_data *data);

       Link with -lcrypt.

DESCRIPTION
       crypt() is the password encryption function.  It is based on the Data
       Encryption Standard algorithm with variations intended (among other
       things) to discourage use of hardware implementations of a key search.

       key is a user's typed password.

       salt is a two-character string chosen from the set [a-zA-Z0-9./].  This
       string is used to perturb the algorithm in one of 4096 different ways.

       By taking the lowest 7 bits of each of the first eight characters of
       the key, a 56-bit key is obtained.  This 56-bit key is used to encrypt
       repeatedly a constant string (usually a string consisting of all
       zeros).  The returned value points to the encrypted password, a series
       of 13 printable ASCII characters (the first two characters represent
       the salt itself).  The return value points to static data whose content
       is overwritten by each call.

       Warning: the key space consists of 2**56 equal 7.2e16 possible values.
       Exhaustive searches of this key space are possible using massively
       parallel computers.  Software, such as crack(1), is available which
       will search the portion of this key space that is generally used by
       humans for passwords.  Hence, password selection should, at minimum,
       avoid common words and names.  The use of a passwd(1) program that
       checks for crackable passwords during the selection process is
       recommended.

       The DES algorithm itself has a few quirks which make the use of the
       crypt() interface a very poor choice for anything other than password
       authentication.  If you are planning on using the crypt() interface for
       a cryptography project, don't do it: get a good book on encryption and
       one of the widely available DES libraries.

       crypt_r() is a reentrant version of crypt().  The structure pointed to
       by data is used to store result data and bookkeeping information.
       Other than allocating it, the only thing that the caller should do with
       this structure is to set data->initialized to zero before the first
       call to crypt_r().

RETURN VALUE
       On success, a pointer to the encrypted password is returned.  On error,
       NULL is returned.

ERRORS
       EINVAL salt has the wrong format.

       ENOSYS The crypt() function was not implemented, probably because of
              U.S.A. export restrictions.

       EPERM  /proc/sys/crypto/fips_enabled has a nonzero value, and an
              attempt was made to use a weak encryption type, such as DES.

ATTRIBUTES
       For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see
       attributes(7).

       ┌──────────┬───────────────┬──────────────────────┐
       │Interface Attribute     Value                │
       ├──────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────┤
       │crypt()   │ Thread safety │ MT-Unsafe race:crypt │
       ├──────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────┤
       │crypt_r() │ Thread safety │ MT-Safe              │
       └──────────┴───────────────┴──────────────────────┘
CONFORMING TO
       crypt(): POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, SVr4, 4.3BSD.  crypt_r() is a GNU
       extension.

NOTES
   Availability in glibc
       The crypt(), encrypt(3), and setkey(3) functions are part of the
       POSIX.1-2008 XSI Options Group for Encryption and are optional.  If the
       interfaces are not available, then the symbolic constant _XOPEN_CRYPT
       is either not defined, or it is defined to -1 and availability can be
       checked at run time with sysconf(3).  This may be the case if the
       downstream distribution has switched from glibc crypt to libxcrypt.
       When recompiling applications in such distributions, the programmer
       must detect if _XOPEN_CRYPT is not available and include <crypt.h> for
       the function prototypes; otherwise libxcrypt is an ABI-compatible drop-
       in replacement.

   Features in glibc
       The glibc version of this function supports additional encryption
       algorithms.

       If salt is a character string starting with the characters "$id$"
       followed by a string optionally terminated by "$", then the result has
       the form:

              $id$salt$encrypted

       id identifies the encryption method used instead of DES and this then
       determines how the rest of the password string is interpreted.  The
       following values of id are supported:

              ID  | Method
              ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
              1   | MD5
              2a  | Blowfish (not in mainline glibc; added in some
                  | Linux distributions)
              5   | SHA-256 (since glibc 2.7)
              6   | SHA-512 (since glibc 2.7)

       Thus, $5$salt$encrypted and $6$salt$encrypted contain the password
       encrypted with, respectively, functions based on SHA-256 and SHA-512.

       "salt" stands for the up to 16 characters following "$id$" in the salt.
       The "encrypted" part of the password string is the actual computed
       password.  The size of this string is fixed:

       MD5     | 22 characters
       SHA-256 | 43 characters
       SHA-512 | 86 characters

       The characters in "salt" and "encrypted" are drawn from the set
       [a-zA-Z0-9./].  In the MD5 and SHA implementations the entire key is
       significant (instead of only the first 8 bytes in DES).

       Since glibc 2.7, the SHA-256 and SHA-512 implementations support a
       user-supplied number of hashing rounds, defaulting to 5000.  If the
       "$id$" characters in the salt are followed by "rounds=xxx$", where xxx
       is an integer, then the result has the form

              $id$rounds=yyy$salt$encrypted

       where yyy is the number of hashing rounds actually used.  The number of
       rounds actually used is 1000 if xxx is less than 1000, 999999999 if xxx
       is greater than 999999999, and is equal to xxx otherwise.

SEE ALSO
       login(1), passwd(1), encrypt(3), getpass(3), passwd(5)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 5.03 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.



                                  2018-04-30                          CRYPT(3)