ctwm

CTWM(1)                                                                CTWM(1)



NAME
       ctwm - Claude's Tab Window Manager for the X Window System

SYNTAX
           ctwm [(--display | -d) dpy]  [--replace]  [--single]
                [(--file | -f) initfile]  [--cfgchk]  [--dumpcfg]
                [--nom4 | -n]  [(--keep-defs | -k)]  [(--keep | -K) m4file]
                [--verbose | -v]  [--quiet | -q]  [--mono]  [--xrm resource]
                [--version]  [--info]  [--nowelcome | -W]
                [(--window | -w) [win-id]]  [--name name]
                [--clientId clid]  [--restore resfname]
                [--help | -h]

DESCRIPTION
       ctwm is a window manager for the X Window System. It provides
       titlebars, shaped windows, virtual screens (workspaces), several forms
       of icon management, user-defined macro functions, click-to-type and
       pointer-driven keyboard focus, and user-specified key and pointer
       button bindings. It is actually twm(1) (Tab Window Manager) from the
       MIT X11 distribution slightly modified to accommodate the use of
       several virtual screens (workspaces). It is heavily inspired by the
       Hewlett-Packard vuewm window manager. In addition, ctwm can use
       coloured, shaped icons and background root pixmaps in XPM format [from
       Arnaud Le Hors], in JPEG using libjpeg, and xwd files. ctwm can be
       compiled to use any combination of the above icon/pixmap formats.

       This program is usually started by the user’s session manager or
       startup script. When used from xdm(1) or xinit(1) without a session
       manager, ctwm is frequently executed in the foreground as the last
       client. When run this way, exiting ctwm causes the session to be
       terminated (i.e. logged out).

       By default, application windows are surrounded by a “frame” with a
       titlebar at the top and a special border around the window. The
       titlebar contains the window’s name, a rectangle that is lit when the
       window is receiving keyboard input, and function boxes known as
       “titlebuttons” at the left and right edges of the titlebar to which
       actions can be bound.

       Pressing pointer Button1 (usually the left-most button unless it has
       been changed with xmodmap) on a titlebutton will invoke the function
       associated with the button. In the default interface, windows are
       iconified by clicking (pressing and then immediately releasing) the
       left titlebutton (which looks like a Dot). Conversely, windows are
       deiconified by clicking in the associated icon or entry in the icon
       manager (see description of the variable ShowIconManager and of the
       function f.showiconmgr).

       Windows are resized by pressing the right titlebutton (which resembles
       a group of nested squares), dragging the pointer over edge that is to
       be moved, and releasing the pointer when the outline of the window is
       the desired size. Similarly, windows are moved by pressing in the title
       or highlight region, dragging a window outline to the new location, and
       then releasing when the outline is in the desired position. Just
       clicking in the title or highlight region raises the window without
       moving it.

       When new windows are created, ctwm will honor any size and location
       information requested by the user (usually through -geometry command
       line argument or resources for the individual applications). Otherwise,
       an outline of the window’s default size, its titlebar, and lines
       dividing the window into a 3x3 grid that track the pointer are
       displayed. Clicking pointer Button1 will position the window at the
       current position and give it the default size. Pressing pointer Button2
       (usually the middle pointer button) and dragging the outline will give
       the window its current position but allow the sides to be resized as
       described above. Clicking pointer Button3 (usually the right pointer
       button) will give the window its current position but attempt to make
       it long enough to touch the bottom the screen.

OPTIONS
       ctwm accepts the following command line options:

       --help, -h
           Print usage text.

       --display=dpy, -d dpy
           This option specifies the X server to use.

       --replace
           This option indicates that it is not an error if a window manager
           is already running. In that case, the existing window manager is
           asked to quit, and ctwm takes its place. Available only if ctwm is
           built with the USE_EWMH flag. First appeared in 4.0.0.

       --single
           This option indicates that only the default screen (as specified by
           --display or by the DISPLAY environment variable) should be
           managed. By default, ctwm will attempt to manage all screens on the
           display.

       --cfgchk
           This option causes ctwm to only try to parse the config file, and
           indicate whether errors are found.

       --dumpcfg
           This option causes ctwm to print out the compiled-in fallback
           config. First appeared in 4.0.0.

       --file=filename, -f filename
           This option specifies the name of the startup file to use. ctwm
           will first try to load filename.num, where num is the screen
           number. If it fails, it will try to load filename. By default, ctwm
           will look in the user’s home directory for files named .ctwmrc.num,
           .ctwmrc, .twmrc.num, or .twmrc (where num is a screen number).

       --verbose, -v
           This option indicates that ctwm should print error messages
           whenever an unexpected X Error event is received. This can be
           useful when debugging applications but can be distracting in
           regular use.

       --quiet, -q
           Disables --verbose (useful for overriding aliases, etc).

       --nom4, -n
           This option indicates that ctwm should not filter the startup file
           through m4. Available only if ctwm is built with the USE_M4 flag.

       --keep-defs, -k
           This option indicates that ctwm should keep the definitions it
           prepends to your startup file when filtering through m4 in /tmp.
           Available only if ctwm is built with the USE_M4 flag.

       --keep=m4file, -K m4file
           This option indicates that ctwm should keep the result of filtering
           your startup file through m4 in the named file. Available only if
           ctwm is built with the USE_M4 flag.

       --mono
           Run in monochrome mode.

       --version
           ctwm just prints its version number.

       --info
           ctwm prints its detailed version and compile time options.

       --window[=win-id], -w[win-id]
           If -w is specified without a win-id value, ctwm does not take over
           the whole screen(s); instead it creates a new window that becomes
           its root window. If the win-id value is given, it is considered to
           be the id of an existing window, in which case, ctwm will try to
           use this window as root window. You can run any number of
           instantiations of ctwm at the same time. You can even have embedded
           ctwm instantiations. This is totally useless, but I like it. The
           f.adoptwindow function can be used to capture an existing window
           belonging to another ctwm. A possible use of such mode can be to
           test new configuration file without restarting ctwm.

       --name=name, -n name
           Set the captivename when using --window.

       --nowelcome, -W
           This option tells ctwm not to display any welcome when starting.

       --clientId=clid, --restore=resfname
           Something to do with session management

       --xrm=resource
           Ignored.

       ctwm uses getopt_long() for parsing the command-line options. This
       means that args can be passed via --long=arg and --long arg, as well as
       -l arg and -larg, and short args can be bundled like -vnk as well as -v
       -n -k.

           Note, however, that the handling of optional args is slightly
           different; they must be specified with = or no space. e.g.,
           --window=123 will set the win-id to 123, but --window 123 will not;
           the 123 will be treated as a separate argument. Similarly, it must
           be set as -w123, not -w 123.

CUSTOMIZATION
       Much of ctwm’s appearance and behavior can be controlled by providing a
       startup file in one of the following locations (searched in order for
       each screen being managed when ctwm begins):

       $HOME/.ctwmrc.screennumber
           The screennumber is a small positive number (e.g. 0, 1, etc.)
           representing the screen number (e.g. the last number in the DISPLAY
           environment variable host:displaynum.screennum) that would be used
           to contact that screen of the display. This is intended for
           displays with multiple screens of differing visual types.

       $HOME/.ctwmrc
           This is the usual name for an individual user’s startup file.

       $HOME/.twmrc.screennumber, $HOME/.twmrc
           The users twm startup file.

       /usr/local/etc/system.ctwmrc
           If none of the preceding files are found, ctwm will look in this
           file for a default configuration. This is often tailored by the
           site administrator to provide convenient menus or familiar bindings
           for novice users.

       If no startup files are found, ctwm will use the built-in defaults
       described above. The only resource used by ctwm is bitmapFilePath for a
       colon-separated list of directories to search when looking for bitmap
       files (for more information, see the Athena Widgets manual and
       xrdb(1)).

       ctwm startup files are logically broken up into three types of
       specifications:  Variables, Bindings, Menus. The Variables section must
       come first and is used to describe the fonts, colors, cursors, border
       widths, icon and window placement, highlighting, autoraising, layout of
       titles, warping, use of the icon manager. The Bindings section usually
       comes second and is used to specify the functions that should be
       invoked when keyboard and pointer buttons are pressed in windows,
       icons, titles, and frames. The Menus section gives any user-defined
       menus (containing functions to be invoked or commands to be executed).

       Variable names and keywords are case-insensitive. Strings must be
       surrounded by double quote characters (e.g. “blue”) and are
       case-sensitive. A pound sign (#) outside of a string causes the
       remainder of the line in which the character appears to be treated as a
       comment.

M4 PREPROCESSING
       ctwm can use m4(1) to pre-process its setup files. The availability of
       the m4 preprocessing is dependent on the build option USE_M4 (on by
       default), and can be selectively disabled with the --nom4 command-line
       argument.

       When ctwm starts up, it opens a file for input as described above. But,
       it processes that file through m4 before parsing it. So, you can use m4
       macros to perform operations at runtime. This makes it very easy to
       work when you use many different displays, with different
       characteristics. For example, If you want to set the lower right
       section of the screen to be your IconRegion, (see below for details on
       the IconRegion variable) you can use m4 directives and pre-defined
       symbols to calculate the region you want. For example:

           define(IRegion, translit(eval(WIDTH/3)*eval(HEIGHT/2)+eval(WIDTH-WIDTH/3)-0, *, x))
           IconRegion  "IRegion" SOUTH EAST 75 25

       will define the lower half, and right-hand third of the screen. The
       above makes use of symbols that are predefined for m4 by ctwm. The
       symbols WIDTH and HEIGHT are among those calculated by ctwm and written
       into a temporary file for m4 to use.

       You may well find that if you research the m4(1) manual well, and
       understand the power of m4, this will be a very useful and powerful
       tool. But, if you use any of the symbols which are predefined by m4,
       you are in severe danger! For example, the Sun m4 predefines shift, so
       if you use that name in your .ctwmrc, you are out of luck.

       The following symbols are predefined by ctwm:

   Hostnames
       SERVERHOST
           This variable is set to the name of the machine that is running the
           X server.

       CLIENTHOST
           The machine that is running the clients. (ie, ctwm)

       HOSTNAME
           As of 4.0.2, this is a duplicate of CLIENTHOST. In prior versions,
           gethostbyname() was used to attempt to derive a canonical or
           fully-qualified version of the hostname.

   User Info
       USER
           The name of the user running the program. Value taken from
           environmental variables $USER and $LOGNAME, or from the passwd
           lookup for your uid if they don’t exist. Falls back to “unknown” if
           all methods fail.

       HOME
           The user’s home directory. Gotten from the environment var $HOME.

   ctwm info
       TWM_TYPE
           Tells which twm offshoot is running. It will always be set to the
           string “ctwm” in this program. This is useful for protecting parts
           of your .twmrc file that twm proper won’t understand (like
           WorkSpaces) so that it is still usable with other twm programs.

       TWM_VERSION
           Tells which ctwm version is running in the form of a floating point
           number.

       CTWM_VERSION_MAJOR, CTWM_VERSION_MINOR, CTWM_VERSION_PATCH,
       CTWM_VERSION_ADDL
           Gives the ctwm version split out. e.g., for a version like
           "3.8.2-beta1", the _MAJOR will be "3", _MINOR "8", _PATCH "2", and
           _ADDL "-beta1". Final releases will generally have an empty
           CTWM_VERSION_ADDL; it’s mostly meaningful in dev and betas. For
           comparison, in this situation, TWM_VERSION will be "3.8.2".

           The CTWM_VERSION_* variables first appeared in 4.0.0.

   X server info
       VERSION
           The X major protocol version. As seen by ProtocolVersion(3).

       REVISION
           The X minor protocol revision. As seen by ProtocolRevision(3).

       VENDOR
           The vendor of your X server. For example: MIT X Consortium.

       RELEASE
           The release number of your X server. For MIT X11R5, this is 5.

   Display info
       WIDTH
           The width of your display in pixels.

       HEIGHT
           The height of your display in pixels.

       X_RESOLUTION
           The X resolution of your display in pixels per meter.

       Y_RESOLUTION
           The Y resolution of your display in pixels per meter.

       PLANES
           The number of bit planes your display supports in the default root
           window.

       BITS_PER_RGB
           The number of significant bits in an RGB color. (log base 2 of the
           number of distinct colors that can be created. This is often
           different from the number of colors that can be displayed at once.)

       CLASS
           Your visual class. Will return one of StaticGray, GrayScale,
           StaticColor, PseudoColor, TrueColor, DirectColor, or, if it cannot
           determine what you have, NonStandard.

       COLOR
           This will be either “Yes” or “No”. This is just a wrapper around
           the above definition. Returns “Yes” on *Color, and “No” on
           StaticGray and GrayScale.

   ctwm compile-time options
       XPM
           Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with XPM support.

       PIXMAP_DIRECTORY
           The directory where the ctwm pictures are installed.

       JPEG
           Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with JPEG support.

       SOUNDS
           Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with SOUND support.

       EWMH
           Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with EWMH support. First
           appeared in 4.0.0.

       I18N
           Is defined if ctwm was compiled with I18N support. This is no
           longer optional since 3.8 and is always compiled in. The definition
           will be removed in a future version.

   ctwm run-time options
       TWM_CAPTIVE
           This will be either “Yes” or “No”. “Yes” if the current ctwm is
           captive (flag -w), “No” in the other case.

       TWM_CAPTIVE_NAME
           Defined only if TWM_CAPTIVE is also defined. Contains the name of
           the captive ctwm (flag --name).

   Obsolete options
       GNOME
           Defined when ctwm was compiled with GNOME1 support. Removed after
           3.8.2.

VARIABLES
       Many of the aspects of ctwm’s user interface are controlled by
       variables that may be set in the user’s startup file. Some of the
       options are enabled or disabled simply by the presence of a particular
       keyword. Other options require keywords, numbers, strings, or lists of
       all of these.

       Lists are surrounded by braces and are usually separated by whitespace
       or a newline. For example:

           AutoRaise { "emacs" "XTerm" "Xmh" }

       or

           AutoRaise
           {
               "emacs"
               "XTerm"
               "Xmh"
           }

       When a variable containing a list of strings representing windows is
       searched (e.g. to determine whether or not to enable autoraise as shown
       above), a string must be an exact, case-sensitive match to the window’s
       name (given by various window properties, such as WM_NAME), resource
       name or class name (both given by the WM_CLASS window property). The
       preceding example would enable autoraise on windows named “emacs” as
       well as any xterm (since they are of class “XTerm”) or xmh windows
       (which are of class “Xmh”).

       String arguments that are interpreted as filenames (see the Pixmaps,
       Cursors, and IconDirectory below) will prepend the user’s directory
       (specified by the HOME environment variable) if the first character is
       a tilde (~). If, instead, the first character is a colon (:), the name
       is assumed to refer to one of the internal bitmaps that are used to
       create the default titlebars symbols:  :xlogo or :iconify (both refer
       to the X used for the iconify button), :resize (the nested squares used
       by the resize button), and :question (the question mark used for
       non-existent bitmap files).

       The following variables may be specified at the top of a ctwm startup
       file. Lists of window name prefix strings are indicated by win-list.
       Optional arguments are shown in square brackets:

       AlwaysOnTop { win-list }
           This variable specifies a list of windows (all windows if the list
           is defaulted) that ctwm will try its best to maintain on top of
           others. This doesn’t work in all case.

       AlwaysShowWindowWhenMovingFromWorkspaceManager
           When ReallyMoveInWorkspaceManager is present and the user is moving
           a window from the WorkSpaceMap, ctwm display the actual window only
           if it crosses the current active workspace. If
           AlwaysShowWindowWhenMovingFromWorkspaceManager is present, the
           actual window is always visible during the move, regardless of
           whether it crosses the current workspace or not. The Shift key
           toggles this behaviour.

       AlwaysSqueezeToGravity [{ win-list }]
           This variable indicates that ctwm should obey window gravity when
           squeezing a window even when the window has a titlebar. Normally,
           ctwm will always squeeze a window that has a titlebar toward the
           north. The optional win-list may be used to control which windows
           this applies on.

       AnimationSpeed speed
           The speed argument is a non-negative integer. It determines the
           number of times a second animations (if any) are updated. If speed
           is 0, animations are freezed. The default value is 0.

       AutoFocusToTransients
           Transient windows get focus automatically when created. Useful with
           programs that have keyboard shortcuts that pop up windows.

       AutoLower [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies a list of windows (all windows if the list
           is defaulted) to be automatically lowered whenever the pointer
           leaves a window. This action can be interactively enabled or
           disabled on individual windows using the function f.autolower.

       AutoOccupy
           This variable specifies that clients will automatically change
           their occupation when their name or icon name changes. The new
           occupation will be recalculated from the Occupy and OccupyAll
           fields in the .ctwmrc file.

       AutoPopup [{ win-list }]
           This variables specifies a list of windows which will be
           deiconified whenever their name changes. Can be used for xconsole,
           for instance,which adds a "*" to its name whenever something gets
           displayed on the console, or for various mail readers who change
           their icons depending on the presence of unread mail.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       AutoPriority
           This variable specifies that ctwm should automatically recompute
           the priority of a window (and its associated icon) when its name
           changes. See also OnTopPriority.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       AutoRaise [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies a list of windows (all windows if the list
           is defaulted) to be automatically raised whenever the pointer has
           come to rest in a window for the amount of time specified by the
           RaiseDelay variable. This action can be interactively enabled or
           disabled on individual windows using the function f.autoraise.

       AutoRaiseIcons
           Icons are raised when the cursor enters it. Useful with
           ShrinkIconTitles.

       AutoRelativeResize
           This variable indicates that dragging out a window size (either
           when initially sizing the window with pointer Button2 or when
           resizing it) should not wait until the pointer has crossed the
           window edges. Instead, moving the pointer automatically causes the
           nearest edge or edges to move by the same amount. This allows the
           resizing of windows that extend off the edge of the screen. If the
           pointer is in the center of the window, or if the resize is begun
           by pressing a titlebutton, ctwm will still wait for the pointer to
           cross a window edge (to prevent accidents). This option is
           particularly useful for people who like the press-drag-release
           method of sweeping out window sizes.

       AutoSqueeze { win-list }
           These windows will be auto-squeezed (see f.squeeze). i.e.
           automatically unsqueezed when they get focus, and squeezed when
           they loose it. Useful for the workspace manager. Not authorized for
           icon managers.

       BackingStore
           Enable usage of backing store on menus and workspace map windows.
           See also NoBackingStore. Added in 4.0.0; in previous versions this
           was the default.

       BeNiceToColormap
           By defaults new colors are allocated for shadows when a 3D look is
           used, but when you specify BeNiceToColormap ctwm uses stipling
           instead of new colors, the effect is less beautiful, but
           acceptable. In this case ClearShadowContrast and DarkShadowContrast
           have no effects.

       BorderBottom pixels
           This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone at
           the bottom of the screen. All constrained window functions
           (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider this
           zone as offscreen. Default is 0.

       BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }]
           This variable specifies the default color of the border to be
           placed around all non-iconified windows, and may only be given
           within a Color or Monochrome list. The optional wincolorlist
           specifies a list of window and color name pairs for specifying
           particular border colors for different types of windows. For
           example:

               BorderColor "gray50"
               {
                   "XTerm" "red"
                   "xmh"   "green"
               }

           The default is “black”.

       BorderLeft pixels
           This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone at
           the left of the screen. All constrained window functions
           (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider this
           zone as offscreen. Default is 0.

       BorderResizeCursors
           This variable specifies that ctwm should use resizing cursors when
           the pointer is on the window border. To be used preferably when you
           have bound a button to f.resize in the frame context.

       BorderRight pixels
           This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone at
           the right of the screen. All constrained window functions
           (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider this
           zone as offscreen. Default is 0.

       BorderShadowDepth pixels
           This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for 3D
           window borders, when UseThreeDBorders is selected.

       BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }]
           This variable specifies the default background color in the gray
           pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight hasn’t
           been set), and may only be given within a Color or Monochrome list.
           The optional wincolorlist allows per-window colors to be specified.
           The default  is “white”.

       BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }]
           This variable specifies the default foreground color in the gray
           pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight hasn’t
           been set), and may only be given within a Color or Monochrome list.
           The optional wincolorlist allows per-window colors to be specified.
           The default is “black”.

       BorderTop pixels
           This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone at
           the top of the screen. All constrained window functions
           (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider this
           zone as offscreen. Default is 0.

       BorderWidth pixels
           This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border
           surrounding all client window frames if ClientBorderWidth has not
           been specified. This value is also used to set the border size of
           windows created by ctwm (such as the icon manager). The default is
           2.

       ButtonIndent pixels
           This variable specifies the amount by which titlebuttons should be
           indented on all sides. Positive values cause the buttons to be
           smaller than the window text and highlight area so that they stand
           out. Setting this and the TitleButtonBorderWidth variables to 0
           makes titlebuttons be as tall and wide as possible. The default is
           1 if UseThreeDTitles is not set, 0 if it is set.

       CenterFeedbackWindow
           The moving and resizing information window is centered in the
           middle of the screen instead of the top left corner.

       ClearShadowContrast contrast
           Indicates to ctwm how to calculate the clear shadow color for 3D
           items. The value is a comprised between 0 and 100. The formula used
           is :

                   clear.{RGB} = (65535 - color.{RGB}) * (contrast / 100).

           Has no effect if BeNiceToColormap is active.

       ClickToFocus
           Focus windows by clicking on them, rather than merely mousing over
           them.

       ClientBorderWidth
           This variable indicates that border width of a window’s frame
           should be set to the initial border width of the window, rather
           than to the value of BorderWidth. If Use3DBorders is set this
           variable is automatically unset.

       Color { colors-list }
           This variable specifies a list of color assignments to be made if
           the default display is capable of displaying more than simple black
           and white. The colors-list is made up of the following color
           variables and their values: DefaultBackground, DefaultForeground,
           MenuBackground, MenuForeground, MenuTitleBackground,
           MenuTitleForeground, and MenuShadowColor. The following color
           variables may also be given a list of window and color name pairs
           to allow per-window colors to be specified (see BorderColor for
           details): BorderColor, IconManagerHighlight, BorderTileBackground,
           BorderTileForeground, TitleBackground, TitleForeground,
           IconBackground, IconForeground, IconBorderColor,
           IconManagerBackground, and IconManagerForeground. For example:

               Color
               {
                   MenuBackground      "gray50"
                   MenuForeground      "blue"
                   BorderColor         "red"    { "XTerm" "yellow" }
                   TitleForeground     "yellow"
                   TitleBackground     "blue"
               }

           All of these color variables may also be specified for the
           Monochrome variable, allowing the same initialization file to be
           used on both color and monochrome displays.

       ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds
           This variable specifies the length of time between button clicks
           needed to begin a constrained move operation. Double clicking
           within this amount of time when invoking f.move or other similar
           moving functions will cause the window only be moved in a
           horizontal or vertical direction. Setting this value to 0 will
           disable constrained moves. The default is 400 milliseconds.

           Note that this also affects double clicking in f.raiseorsqueeze,
           and potentially other places that need to track double clicks. It
           should probably be renamed.

       Cursors { cursor-list }
           This variable specifies the glyphs that ctwm should use for various
           pointer cursors. Each cursor may be defined either from the cursor
           font or from two bitmap files. Shapes from the cursor font may be
           specified directly as:

                   cursorname "string"

           where cursorname is one of the cursor names listed below, and
           string is the name of a glyph as found in the file
           <X11/cursorfont.h> (without the “XC_” prefix). If the cursor is to
           be defined from bitmap files, the following syntax is used instead:

                   cursorname "image" "mask"

           The image and mask strings specify the names of files containing
           the glyph image and mask in bitmap(1) form. The bitmap files are
           located in the same manner as icon bitmap files. The following
           example shows the default cursor definitions:

               Cursors
               {
                   Frame       "top_left_arrow"
                   Title       "top_left_arrow"
                   Icon        "top_left_arrow"
                   IconMgr     "top_left_arrow"
                   Move        "fleur"
                   Resize      "fleur"
                   Menu        "sb_left_arrow"
                   Button      "hand2"
                   Wait        "watch"
                   Select      "dot"
                   Destroy     "pirate"
               }

       DarkShadowContrast contrast
           Indicates to ctwm how to calculate the dark shadow color for 3D
           items. The value is a comprised between 0 and 100. The formula used
           is :

                   dark.{RGB}  = color.{RGB} * ((100 - contrast) / 100),

           Has no effect if BeNiceToColormap is active.

       DecorateTransients
           This variable indicates that transient windows (those containing a
           WM_TRANSIENT_FOR property) should have titlebars. As of 4.0.0 this
           is the default.

       DefaultBackground string
           This variable specifies the background color to be used for sizing
           and information windows. The default is “white”.

       DefaultForeground string
           This variable specifies the foreground color to be used for sizing
           and information windows. The default is “black”.

       DontIconifyByUnmapping { win-list }
           This variable specifies a list of windows that should not be
           iconified by simply unmapping the window (as would be the case if
           IconifyByUnmapping had been set). This is frequently used to force
           some windows to be treated as icons while other windows are handled
           by the icon manager.

       DontMoveOff
           This variable indicates that windows should not be allowed to be
           moved off the screen. It can be overridden by the f.forcemove
           function.

       DontNameDecorations
           Disable setting WM_NAME properties on the various decoration
           windows ctwm puts around the windows it manages. These are handy to
           keep track of what’s what when poking through the list of windows
           on the screen, but can confuse some tools that don’t expect to find
           them there (xwit is known to be one of them). First appeared in
           4.0.2.

       DontPaintRootWindow
           This variable tells ctwm not to paint the root window, whatever you
           told in the Workspaces specification. This is useful to have
           pixmaps in the Workspace Map but not on the root window.

       DontSave { win-list }
           These windows won’t have their characteristics saved for the
           session manager.

       DontSetInactive { win-list }
           These windows won’t be set to InactiveState when they become
           invisible due to a change workspace. This has been added because
           some ill-behaved clients (Frame5) don’t like this.

       DontShowWelcomeWindow
           Indicates the same as the -W option: the welcome window is not
           shown.

       DontSqueezeTitle [{ win-list }]
           This variable indicates that titlebars should not be squeezed to
           their minimum size as described under SqueezeTitle below. If the
           optional window list is supplied, only those windows will be
           prevented from being squeezed.

       DontToggleWorkSpaceManagerState
           Turns off the feature toggling the workspace manager state to/from
           map/button state when you press ctrl and the workspace manager
           window is in focus.

       DontWarpCursorInWMap
           Tells ctwm not to warp the cursor to the corresponding actual
           window when you click in a small window in the workspace map.

       EWMHIgnore { message-types }
           Sets EWMH message types that ctwm will ignore. This is only valid
           if built with USE_EWMH (currently on by default). The following
           example shows all the valid options:

               EWMHIgnore
               {
                   # Window states
                   "STATE_MAXIMIZED_VERT"
                   "STATE_MAXIMIZED_HORZ"
                   "STATE_FULLSCREEN"
                   "STATE_SHADED"
                   "STATE_ABOVE"
                   "STATE_BELOW"
               }

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       ForceFocus [{ win-list }]
           Give focus to windows whether they asked for it or not. This may
           occasionally be useful with windows that tell us not to give them
           focus, but still need it and fail to work right without us doing
           so. The optional window list allows specifying which windows will
           get such treatment.

           First appeared in 4.0.0. In prior versions, a variant of this
           functionality was unconditionally enabled.

       ForceIcons
           This variable indicates that icon pixmaps specified in the Icons
           variable should override any client-supplied pixmaps.

       FramePadding pixels
           This variable specifies the distance between the titlebar
           decorations (the button and text) and the window frame. The default
           is 2 pixels if UseThreeDTitles is not set, 0 if it is set.

       GrabServer
           Specifies that ctwm should grab the X server (blocking all events
           other than ours) when popping up menus and moving opaque windows.
           See also NoGrabServer. Added in 4.0.0; in previous versions this
           was the default.

       IconBackground string [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies the background color of icons, and may only
           be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional
           win-list is a list of window names and colors so that per-window
           colors may be specified. See the BorderColor variable for a
           complete description of the win-list. The default is “white”.

       IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies the color of the border used for icon
           windows, and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome
           list. The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so
           that per-window colors may be specified. See the BorderColor
           variable for a complete description of the win-list. The default is
           “black”.

       IconBorderWidth pixels
           This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border
           surrounding icon windows. The default is 2.

       IconDirectory string
           This variable specifies the directory that should be searched if a
           bitmap file cannot be found in any of the directories in the
           bitmapFilePath resource.

       IconFont string
           This variable specifies the font to be used to display icon names
           within icons. The default is “variable”.

       IconForeground string [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies the foreground color to be used when
           displaying icons, and may only be specified inside of a Color or
           Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names
           and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. See the
           BorderColor variable for a complete description of the win-list.
           The default is “black”.

       IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }]
           This variable indicates that windows should be iconified by being
           unmapped without trying to map any icons. This assumes that the
           user is will remap the window through the icon manager, the
           f.warpto function, or the TwmWindows menu. If the optional win-list
           is provided, only those windows will be iconified by simply
           unmapping. Windows that have both this and the IconManagerDontShow
           options set may not be accessible if no binding to the TwmWindows
           menu is set in the user’s startup file.

       IconifyStyle string
           Where string is either "normal", "mosaic", "zoomin", "zoomout" or
           "sweep". Tells ctwm to use some fancy graphical effects when
           iconifying windows.

       IconJustification string
           Where string is either "left", "center" or "right". Tells ctwm how
           to justify the icon image against the icon title (if any).

       IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies the background color to use for icon
           manager entries, and may only be specified inside of a Color or
           Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of window names
           and colors so that per-window colors may be specified. See the
           BorderColor variable for a complete description of the win-list.
           The default is “white”.

       IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }]
           This variable indicates that the icon manager should not display
           any windows. If the optional win-list is given, only those windows
           will not be displayed. This variable is used to prevent windows
           that are rarely iconified (such as xclock or xload) from taking up
           space in the icon manager.

       IconManagerFont string
           This variable specifies the font to be used when displaying icon
           manager entries. The default is “variable”.

       IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies the foreground color to be used when
           displaying icon manager entries, and may only be specified inside
           of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a list of
           window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
           See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the
           win-list. The default is “black”.

       IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
           This variable specifies the geometry of the icon manager window.
           The string argument is standard geometry specification that
           indicates the initial full size of the icon manager. The icon
           manager window is then broken into columns pieces and scaled
           according to the number of entries in the icon manager. Extra
           entries are wrapped to form additional rows. The default number of
           columns is 1.

       IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies the border color to be used when
           highlighting the icon manager entry that currently has the focus,
           and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The
           optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that
           per-window colors may be specified. See the BorderColor variable
           for a complete description of the win-list. The default is “black”.

       IconManagers { iconmgr-list }
           This variable specifies a list of icon managers to create. Each
           item in the iconmgr-list has the following format:

                   "winname" ["iconname"] "geometry" columns

           where winname is the name of the windows that should be put into
           this icon manager, iconname is the name of that icon manager
           window’s icon, geometry is a standard geometry specification, and
           columns is the number of columns in this icon manager as described
           in IconManagerGeometry. For example:

               IconManagers
               {
                   "XTerm"  "=300x5+800+5"  5
                   "myhost" "=400x5+100+5"  2
               }

           Clients whose name or class is “XTerm” will have an entry created
           in the “XTerm” icon manager. Clients whose name was “myhost” would
           be put into the “myhost” icon manager.

       IconManagerShadowDepth pixels
           This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for 3D
           IconManager entries, when UseThreeDIconManagers is selected.

       IconManagerShow { win-list }
           This variable specifies a list of windows that should appear in the
           icon manager. When used in conjunction with the IconManagerDontShow
           variable, only the windows in this list will be shown in the icon
           manager.

       IconMenuDontShow { win-list }
           Don’t show the name of these windows in the TwmIcons menu.

       IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight [iconjust]
       [iconregjust] [iconregalign] [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies an area on the root window in which icons
           are placed if no specific icon location is provided by the client.
           The geomstring is a quoted string containing a standard geometry
           specification. If more than one IconRegion lines are given, icons
           will be put into the succeeding icon regions when the first is
           full. The vgrav argument should be either North or South  and is
           used to control whether icons are first filled in from the top or
           bottom of the icon region. Similarly, the hgrav argument should be
           either East or West and is used to control whether icons should be
           filled in from left or from the right. Icons are laid out within
           the region in a grid with cells gridwidth pixels wide and
           gridheight pixels  high. The optional win-list argument tells ctwm
           that if such a window is iconified, and there is enough room in
           this icon region for its icon, then place it here. The optional
           iconjust, iconregjust and iconregalign can be used to give specific
           values of IconJustification, IconRegionJustification and
           IconRegionAlignement for this IconRegion.

       IconRegionAlignement string
           Where string is either "top", "center" "bottom" or "border". Tells
           ctwm how to align icons inside their place in the IconRegion. If
           “border” is given, the justification will be “top” if the icon
           region gravity is “north” and “bottom” if the icon region gravity
           is “south”.

       IconRegionJustification string
           Where string is either "left", "center" "right" or "border". Tells
           ctwm how to justify icons inside their place in the IconRegion. If
           “border” is given, the justification will be “left” if the icon
           region gravity is “west” and “right” if the icon region gravity is
           “east”.

       Icons { win-list }
           This variable specifies a list of window names and the bitmap
           filenames that should be used as their icons. For example:

               Icons
               {
                   "XTerm"  "xterm.icon"
                   "xfd"    "xfd_icon"
               }

           Windows that match “XTerm” and would not be iconified by unmapping,
           would try to use  the icon bitmap in the file “xterm.icon”.If
           ForceIcons is specified, this bitmap will be used even if the
           client has requested its own icon pixmap.

       IconSize string
           (Only if built with USE_EWMH) string is of the form
           "<width>x<height>" or "size" for a square size. This indicates the
           preferred size of icons selected from the EWMH window property
           _NET_WM_ICON. If an icon with the exact size is not available, one
           with the nearest (area) size will be chosen.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       IgnoreCaseInMenuSelection
           Used when moving the pointer inside a menu with the keyboard. When
           you type a letter, the pointer goes to the next entry beginning
           with this letter. If IgnoreCaseInMenuSelection is present, this
           selection ignores the case of this first letter.

       IgnoreLockModifier
           If present, all bindings (buttons and keys) will ignore the
           LockMask. Useful if you often use caps lock, and don’t want to
           define twice all your bindings.

       IgnoreModifier
           All bindings (buttons and keys) will ignore the modifiers you
           specified. It is useful when you use caps locks or num locks. You
           don’t need IgnoreLockModifier any more with this option.

               IgnoreModifier { lock m2 }

       IgnoreTransient
           List of windows for which to ignore transients.

               IgnoreTransient { "Wine" }

       InterpolateMenuColors
           This variable indicates that menu entry colors should be
           interpolated between entry specified colors. In the example below:

               Menu "mymenu"
               {
                   "Title"     ("black":"red")     f.title
                   "entry1"                        f.nop
                   "entry2"                        f.nop
                   "entry3"    ("white":"green")   f.nop
                   "entry4"                        f.nop
                   "entry5"    ("red":"white")     f.nop
               }

           the foreground colors for “entry1” and “entry2” will be
           interpolated between black and white, and the background colors
           between red and green. Similarly, the foreground for “entry4” will
           be half-way between white and red, and the background will be
           half-way between green and white.

       MakeTitle { win-list }
           This variable specifies a list of windows on which a titlebar
           should be placed and is used to request titles on specific windows
           when NoTitle has been set.

       MapWindowBackground color [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies the background colors to use for small
           windows in the workspace map window and may only be specified
           inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a
           list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be
           specified. If there is neither MapWindowBackground, nor
           MapWindowForeground the window title colors are used.

       MapWindowCurrentWorkSpace { border_color [background] [foreground]
       [bitmap] }
           Specify the appearence of the map window corresponding to the
           current workspace.

       MapWindowDefaultWorkSpace { border_color [background] [foreground]
       [bitmap] }
           Specify the appearence of the map window corresponding to the
           workspaces other than the current workspace when no root background
           information has been provided to ctwm in the WorkSpace command. Not
           used in others cases.

       MapWindowForeground color [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies the foreground colors to use for small
           windows in the workspace map window and may only be specified
           inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is a
           list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be
           specified. If there is neither MapWindowBackground, nor
           MapWindowForeground the window title colors are used.

       MaxIconTitleWidth width
           The integer argument tells ctwm the maximun width to use for an
           icon title. If an icon title is larger than width, it is truncated.

       MaxWindowSize string
           This variable specifies a geometry in which the width and height
           give the maximum size for a given window. This is typically used to
           restrict windows to the size of the screen. The default is
           “30000x30000”.

       MenuBackground string
           This variable specifies the background color used for menus, and
           can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The
           default is “white”.

       MenuFont string
           This variable specifies the font to use when displaying menus. The
           default is “variable”.

       MenuForeground string
           This variable specifies the foreground color used for menus, and
           can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The
           default is “black”.

       MenuShadowColor string
           This variable specifies the color of the shadow behind pull-down
           menus and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome
           list. The default is “black”.

       MenuShadowDepth pixels
           This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for 3D
           menus, when UseThreeDMenus is selected.

       MenuTitleBackground string
           This variable specifies the background color for f.title entries in
           menus, and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome
           list. The default is “white”.

       MenuTitleForeground string
           This variable specifies the foreground color for f.title entries in
           menus and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome
           list. The default is “black”.

       Monochrome { colors }
           This variable specifies a list of color assignments that should be
           made if the screen has a depth of 1. See the description of Color.

       MoveDelta pixels
           This variable specifies the number of pixels the pointer must move
           before the f.move function starts working. Also see the f.deltastop
           function. The default is zero pixels.

       MovePackResistance pixels
           This variable specifies the number of pixels of the movepack and
           movepush resistance. See f.movepack and f.movepush.

       MoveOffResistance pixels
           This variable specifies the number of pixels of the moveoff
           resistance. If pixels is positive, DontMoveOff will only prevent
           you from going off the edge if you’re within n pixels off the edge.
           If you go further, DontMoveOff gives up and lets you go as far as
           you wish. f.forcemove still allows you to totally ignore
           DontMoveOff. A negative value puts you back into “never moveoff”
           mode (it’s the default).

       MWMIgnore
           Sets Motif window manager hints ctwm will ignore. The following
           example shows all the valid options:

               MWMIgnore
               {
                   # en/disable window borders
                   "DECOR_BORDER"

                   # en/disable titlebars
                   "DECOR_TITLE"
               }

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       NoBackingStore
           This variable indicates that ctwm’s menus should not request
           backing store to minimize repainting of menus. This is typically
           used with servers that can repaint faster than they can handle
           backing store. See also BackingStore. As of 4.0.0 this is the
           default.

       NoBorder { win-list }
           These windows won’t have borders. If you want no borders on all
           windows, use the BorderWidth keyword.

       NoCaseSensitive
           This variable indicates that case should be ignored when sorting
           icon names in an icon manager. This option is typically used with
           applications that capitalize the first letter of their icon name.

       NoDecorateTransients
           Specify that transient windows (i.e., windows with a
           WM_TRANSIENT_FOR property set) should be ignored (not given
           decorations) by ctwm. See also DecorateTransients. Added in 4.0.0;
           in previous versions this was the default.

       NoDefaults
           This variable indicates that ctwm should not supply the default
           titlebuttons and bindings. This option should only be used if the
           startup file contains a completely new set of bindings and
           definitions.

       NoGrabServer
           This variable indicates that ctwm should not grab the server when
           popping up menus and moving opaque windows. As of 4.0.0 this is the
           default.

       NoHighlight [{ win-list }]
           This variable indicates that borders should not be highlighted to
           track the location of the pointer. If the optional win-list is
           given, highlighting will only be disabled for those windows. When
           the border is highlighted, it will be drawn in the current
           BorderColor. When the border is not highlighted, it will be
           stippled with an gray pattern using the current
           BorderTileForeground and BorderTileBackground colors.

       NoIconTitle [{ win-list }]
           This variable indicates that icons should not display the icon name
           of the client. If the optional win-list is given, only those
           clients will not have icon titles.

       NoIconManagerFocus
           This variable indicates that ctwm will not set the focus on the
           corresponding window when the pointer is in an IconManager.

       NoIconManagers
           This variable indicates that no icon manager should be created.

       NoImagesInWorkSpaceManager
           This variable turns off displaying of background images in the
           WorkSpaceMap. Instead only the colors defined in WorkSpaces will be
           used as background in the WorkSpaceMap.

       NoMenuShadows
           This variable indicates that menus should not have drop shadows
           drawn behind them. This is typically used with slower servers since
           it speeds up menu drawing at the expense of making the menu
           slightly harder to read.

       NoOpaqueMove [{ window-list }]
           The counterpart of OpaqueMove. See OpaqueMove.

       NoOpaqueResize [{ window-list }]
           The counterpart of OpaqueResize. See OpaqueResize.

       NoRaiseOnDeiconify
           This variable indicates that windows that are deiconified should
           not be raised.

       NoRaiseOnMove
           This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when
           moved. This is typically used to allow windows to slide underneath
           each other.

       NoRaiseOnResize
           This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when
           resized. This is typically used to allow windows to be resized
           underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnWarp
           This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when the
           pointer is warped into them with the f.warpto function. If this
           option is set, warping to an occluded window may result in the
           pointer ending up in the occluding window instead the desired
           window (which causes unexpected behavior with f.warpring).

       NoRestartPreviousState
           Don’t attempt to regenerate the state the screen was in before the
           previous window manager was shut down. See RestartPreviousState for
           details. Added in 4.0.0; in previous versions this was the default.

       NoSaveUnders
           This variable indicates that menus should not request save-unders
           to minimize window repainting following menu selection. It is
           typically used with displays that can repaint faster than they can
           handle save-unders.

       NoShowOccupyAll
           This variable specifies that OccupyAll windows won’t be displayed
           in the WorkSpaceMap window.

       NoSortIconManager
           Specifies that entries in the icon manager should be appended in
           the order they show up. See also SortIconManager. Added in 4.0.0;
           in previous versions this was the default.

       NoStackMode [{ win-list }]
           This variable indicates that client window requests to change
           stacking order should be ignored. If the optional win-list is
           given, only requests on those windows will be ignored. This is
           typically used to prevent applications from relentlessly popping
           themselves to the front of the window stack.

       NoTitle [{ win-list }]
           This variable indicates that windows should not have titlebars. If
           the optional win-list is given, only those windows will not have
           titlebars. MakeTitle may be used with this option to force
           titlebars to be put on specific windows.

       NoTitleFocus
           This variable indicates that ctwm should not set keyboard input
           focus to each window as it is entered. Normally, ctwm sets the
           focus so that focus and key events from the titlebar and icon
           managers are delivered to the application. If the pointer is moved
           quickly and ctwm is slow to respond, input can be directed to the
           old window instead of the new. This option is typically used to
           prevent this “input lag” and to work around bugs in older
           applications that have problems with focus events.

       NoTitleHighlight [{ win-list }]
           This variable indicates that the highlight area of the titlebar,
           which is used to indicate the window that currently has the input
           focus, should not be displayed. If the optional win-list is given,
           only those windows will not have highlight areas. This and the
           SqueezeTitle options can be set to substantially reduce the amount
           of screen space required by titlebars.

       NoWarpToMenuTitle
           This variable indicates that the cursor should not be warped to the
           title of a menu which does not have room to drop down below the
           current cursor position.

       Occupy { occupy-list }
           This variable specifies which windows occupy which workspaces at
           startup.

           occupy-list consists of entries of the form :

                       [Window]   win-name  { wspc1 wspc2 ... }
               or      Workspace  wspc-name { win1  win2 ... }

           Example :

               Occupy
               {
                              "xload"   {"all"}
                   Window     "xterm"   {"here" "there" "elsewhere"}
                              "xv"      {"images"}
                   WorkSpace  "images"  {"xloadimage"}
               }

           If all is given for the workspace name (in either form), the named
           window[s] will be put in all workspaces as if they were listed in
           OccupyAll. If the workspace name begins with ws:, the workspace
           name will be looked up without the prefix first. That is, if the
           given name is ws:abc, it will first look for a workspace called
           abc, and assign to that if found. Else it will fall back to looking
           for the name ws:abc.

           Note : The Occupy declaration should come after the WorkSpaces
           declaration.

       OccupyAll { window-list }

           This variable specifies a list of windows that will occupy all
           workspaces at startup.

           window-list is a list of window names.

           Example :

               OccupyAll
               {
                   "xload"
                   "xbiff"
                   "xconsole"
               }

           Note : The OccupyAll declaration should come after the WorkSpaces
           declaration.

       OnTopPriority [Icons] priority [ { win-list } ]
           ctwm allows you to put windows in several overlapping priority
           planes going from -8 to +8, which makes it possible to have windows
           that stay on top or that are kept in the background. If win-list is
           present, it specifies which windows should be put in the priority
           plane. Else the priority sets the default value to use (the default
           default is 0). The Icons parameter, if present, indicates that the
           preference described applies to icons rather than to windows.

           Example:

               OnTopPriority Icons -1  # place icons a little in the background
               OnTopPriority Icons 1   # place mail icons on top of normal windows
               {
                   "Exmh"
                   "xbiff"
               }

               OnTopPriority 8         # keep these always on top of other windows
               {
                   "Emacs Icon Manager" "WorkSpaceManager"
                   "TWM Icon Manager" "XDaliClock"
               }

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       OpaqueMove [{ window-list }]
           This variable indicates that the f.move function should actually
           move the window instead of just an outline so that the user can
           immediately see what the window will look like in the new position.
           This option is typically used on fast displays (particularly if
           NoGrabServer is set). The optional window list parameter indicates
           that only windows in this list should actually be moved in opaque
           mode. The NoOpaqueMove counterpart is also available.

           As of 4.0.0 this is enabled by default.

       OpaqueMoveThreshold threshold
           The integer parameter is a percentage and indicates that only
           windows (elligible for opaque moving) with a surface smaller than
           this percentage of the surface of the screen should actually be
           moved in opaque mode. The default is 200. Since 4.0.0, values >=
           200 are treated as infinity, causing windows to always OpaqueMove
           if eligible.

       OpaqueResize [{ window-list }]
           The opaque version of resize. Extremely resource intensive, but
           beautiful with fast server/client/network. See OpaqueMove. The
           NoOpaqueResize counterpart is also available. As of 4.0.0 this is
           enabled by default.

       OpaqueResizeThreshold threshold
           The resize version of OpaqueMoveThreshold. The default is 1000.
           Since 3.8.1, values >= 1000 are treated as infinity, causing
           windows to always OpaqueResize if eligible.

       OpenWindowTimeout seconds
           seconds is an integer representing a number of second. When a
           window tries to open on an unattended display, it will be
           automatically mapped after this number of seconds.

       PackNewWindows
           Use f.movepack algorithm instead of f.move when opening a new
           window.

       Pixmaps { pixmaps }
           This variable specifies a list of pixmaps that define the
           appearance of various images. Each entry is a keyword indicating
           the pixmap to set, followed by a string giving the name of the
           bitmap file. The following pixmaps may be specified:

               Pixmaps
               {
                       TitleHighlight  "gray1"
               #       TitleHighlight  "supman%.xbm"
               }

           The default for TitleHighlight is to use an even stipple pattern.

       PixmapDirectory path
           This variable specifies the path where ctwm looks to find non-X11
           bitmap files. Whenever you want to use a image file that is not an
           X11 bitmap, specify : xpm:filename for xpm files, xwd:filename for
           xwd files, jpeg:file for jpeg file, or |command for an on the fly
           generated xwd file. Use the % character to specify an animation.
           path can be a colon separated list of directories. Example :

               PixmapDirectory  "/usr/lib/X11/twm"
               Icons
               {
                   "Axe"    "xpm:edit.xpm"
                   "xterm"  "xpm:ball%.xpm"
               }

           N.B This is only valid if your version of ctwm has been compiled
           with the right extension (XPM or JPEG).

       PrioritySwitching [Icons] { win-list }
           Specifies that the windows in win-list can switch priority. This
           means that they can be in plane priority or -priority depending on
           the situation. For instance a window whose priority is 2 will be
           put into plane 2 when raised and plane -2 when lowered, which means
           that it will usually stay on top if you raise another window, but
           can still be lowered if its priority is temporarily too high for
           your liking. If Icons is specified, it means that the preference
           applies to icons rather than windows. See also the
           f.priorityswitching function for dynamically adding/removing
           windows at runtime.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       PriorityNotSwitching [Icons] { win-list }
           As above except that it declares that the default should be for
           windows to be able to switch priority except for the windows in
           win-list which can’t.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       RaiseDelay milliseconds
           For windows that are to be automatically raised when the pointer
           enters (see the AutoRaise variable and the f.autoraise function)
           this variable specifies the length of time the pointer should rest
           in the window before it is raised. The default is 0 milliseconds.

       RaiseOnClick
           If present a window will be raised on top of others when clicked
           on, and the ButtonPress event will be correctly forwarded to the
           client that owns this window (if it asked to). See
           RaiseOnClickButton.

       RaiseOnClickButton button_number
           Where button_number is a valid button number (currently 1 to 11).
           Specify the button to use for RaiseOnClick.

       RaiseWhenAutoUnSqueeze
           Windows are raised when auto-unsqueezed (See AutoSqueeze).

       RandomPlacement [ string1 [ string2 ]]
           This variable indicates that windows with no specified geometry
           should be placed in a pseudo-random location instead of having the
           user drag out an outline. If no argument is given, it is
           interpreted as RandomPlacement "on".

           string1 may be “on”, “off”, “all” or “unmapped”, and string2 is a
           displacement for the pseudo-randomly placed window compared to the
           previous one. The argument “on” or “all” are equivalent, and tell
           ctwm to do this for all such windows, “off”, not to do this, and
           “unmapped”, only for unmapped windows, e.g. iconified or not
           visible in the current workspace. If the second argument isn’t
           given, the displacement +30+30 (30 pixels right and down) is used.

           As of 4.0.0, “on” is the default if no RandomPlacement is specified
           in the config. Previously “off” was default.

       ReallyMoveInWorkspaceManager
           This keyword tells ctwm to move the actual window when the user is
           moving the small windows in the WorkSpaceMap window. If not present
           the WorkSpaceMap can be used only to modify the occupation of a
           window. Pressing the shift key while dragging a window in the
           workspace manager temporarily toggles this option.

       ResizeFont string
           This variable specifies the font to be used for in the dimensions
           window when resizing windows. The default is “fixed”.

       RestartPreviousState
           This variable indicates that properties on client windows to
           attempt to regenerate the state that the screen was in before the
           previous window manager was shutdown. This includes using the
           WM_STATE property to tell which windows should be iconified and
           which should be left visible, and the WM_OCCUPATION property to
           determine in which workspaces a window should be visible. As of
           4.0.0 this is the default.

       ReverseCurrentWorkspace
           This variable tells ctwm to reverse the background and foreground
           colors in the small windows in the workspace map for the current
           workspace.

       RplaySoundHost string
           The host on which sounds should be played. Only meaningful when
           ctwm is built with USE_SOUND; will give a warning otherwise. See
           the SOUNDS section. Added in 4.0.0; prior versions used the
           SoundHost parameter instead.

       RplaySounds { sounds-list }
           Define what sounds to play on various events through rplayd. It
           contains entries of the form

                   "EventName"   "/file/to/play.wav"

           Only meaningful when ctwm is built with USE_SOUND; it will give a
           warning otherwise. See the SOUNDS section. Note that if this
           section is given in the ctwmrc, the ~/.ctwm-sounds file will not be
           parsed. First appeared in 4.0.0.

       SaveColor { colors-list }
           This variable indicates a list of color assignments to be stored as
           pixel values in the root window property _MIT_PRIORITY_COLORS.
           Clients may elect to preserve these values when installing their
           own colormap. Note that use of this mechanism is a way for an
           application to avoid the “technicolor” problem, whereby useful
           screen objects such as window borders and titlebars disappear when
           a program’s custom colors are installed by the window manager. For
           example:

               SaveColor
               {
                   BorderColor
                   TitleBackground
                   TitleForeground
                   "red"
                   "green"
                   "blue"
               }

           This would place on the root window 3 pixel values for borders and
           titlebars, as well as the three color strings, all taken from the
           default colormap.

       ShrinkIconTitles
           A la Motif shrinking of icon titles, and expansion when mouse is
           inside icon. The old incorrect spelling SchrinkIconTitles is also
           still accepted.

       ShortAllWindowsMenus
           Don’t show WorkSpaceManager and IconManagers in the TwmWindows and
           TwmAllWindows menus.

       ShowIconManager
           This variable indicates that the icon manager window should be
           displayed when ctwm is started. It can always be brought up using
           the f.showiconmgr function.

       ShowWorkSpaceManager
           This variable specifies that the WorkSpaceManager should be
           visible.

       SloppyFocus
           Use sloppy focus.

       SaveWorkspaceFocus
           When changing to a workspace, restore the focus to the last window
           that had the focus when you left the workspace by warping the mouse
           into it. This essentially saves the focus window with the workspace
           and restores it automatically when you switch. In many cases, it
           avoids having to reach for the mouse after moving to a new
           workspace.

       SortIconManager
           This variable indicates that entries in the icon manager should be
           sorted alphabetically rather than by simply appending new windows
           to the end. As of 4.0.0 this is the default.

       SoundHost string
           Alias for RplaySoundHost, used in versions prior to 4.0.0. Unless
           you need backward compatibility with them, use RplaySoundHost
           instead. This alias will be removed in a future version.

       SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }]
           This variable indicates that ctwm should attempt to use the SHAPE
           extension to make titlebars occupy only as much screen space as
           they need, rather than extending all the way across the top of the
           window. The optional squeeze-list may be used to control the
           location of the squeezed titlebar along the top of the window. It
           contains entries of the form:

                   "name"  justification num denom

           where name is a window name, justification is either left, center,
           or right, and num and denom are numbers specifying a ratio giving
           the relative position about which the titlebar is justified. The
           ratio is measured from left to right if the numerator is positive,
           and right to left if negative. A denominator of 0 indicates that
           the numerator should be interpreted as pixels. For compatibility,
           the pixel-position 0/0 is the relative  middle  of the window (1/2)
           for center and the relative right side of the window (2/2) for
           right, but this use is not recommended. Use "right 2 2" for
           relative positioning, or "right -1 0" for absolute; this makes a
           difference when  dragging  the  titlebar (see f.movetitlebar). For
           example:

               SqueezeTitle
               {
                   "XTerm"   left    0  0
                   "xterm1"  left    1  3
                   "xterm2"  left    2  3
                   "oclock"  center  1  2
                   "emacs"   right   2  2
               }

           The default positioning is left-justified, absolute at 0 pixels.
           The DontSqueezeTitle list can be used to turn off squeezing on
           certain titles.

       StartIconified { win-list }
           This variable indicates that client windows should initially be
           left as icons until explicitly deiconified by the user. If the
           optional win-list is given, only those windows will be started
           iconic. This is useful for programs that do not support an -iconic
           command line option or resource.

       StartInButtonState
           Start the WorkSpaceManage in button form. See also StartInMapState.
           Added in 4.0.0.

       StartInMapState
           This variable specifies that the WorkSpaceManager should be started
           in its map form when created. See also StartInButtonState. As of
           4.0.0 this is the default.

       StartSqueezed { win-list }
           These windows will first show up squeezed (see f.squeeze).

       StayUpMenus
           Tells ctwm to use stayup menus. These menus will stay on the screen
           when ButtonUp, if either the menu has not yet been entered by the
           pointer, or the current item is a f.title.

       StrictWinNameEncoding
           Whether to be strict about what encodings we accept for window
           naming properties. Added in 4.0.2.

           This is used when translating properties relating to naming
           windows, like WM_NAME. For example, according to the ICCCM, WM_NAME
           can only be a STRING or COMPOUND_TEXT type. However, sloppy
           programs like Chrome may set it to a UTF8_STRING instead. If this
           var is set, ctwm will reject that, as was standard behavior prior
           to 4.0.2.

       SunkFocusWindowTitle
           This variable specifies that the title of the focus window (if
           exists) should be sunken instead of raised. Only valid if
           UseThreeDTitles is set.

       ThreeDBorderWidth  pixels
           The width of the 3D border in pixels, if any.

       TitleBackground string [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies the background color used in titlebars, and
           may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The
           optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that
           per-window colors may be specified. The default is “white”.

       TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels
           This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border
           surrounding titlebuttons. This is typically set to 0 to allow
           titlebuttons to take up as much space as possible and to not have a
           border. The default is 1 if UseThreeDTitles is not set, 0 if it is
           set.

       TitleButtonShadowDepth pixels
           This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for 3D
           title buttons, when UseThreeDTitles is selected.

       TitleFont string
           This variable specifies the font used for displaying window names
           in titlebars. The default is “variable”.

       TitleForeground string [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies the foreground color used in titlebars, and
           may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The
           optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that
           per-window colors may be specified. The default is “black”.

       TitleJustification string
           This keyword needs a string value. The acceptable values are :
           “left”, “center” and “right”. The window titles will be justified
           according to this in the title window.

       TitlePadding pixels
           This variable specifies the distance between the various buttons,
           text, and highlight areas in the titlebar. The default is 8 pixels
           if UseThreeDTitles is not set, 0 if it is set.

       TitleShadowDepth pixels
           This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for 3D
           titles, when UseThreeDTitles is selected.

       TransientHasOccupation
           This variable specifies that transient-for and non-group leader
           windows can have their own occupation potentially different from
           their leader window. The default case is that these windows follow
           their leader, use this keyword if the default action doesn’t please
           you.

       TransientOnTop percentage
           The parameter (required) is a percentage and tells ctwm to put
           transient (and non-group leader) windows always on top of their
           leader if and only if their surface is smaller than this fraction
           of the surface of their leader. The surface of a window is its
           width times its weight. The default is 30%. Added in 3.0.

       UnknownIcon string
           This variable specifies the filename of a bitmap file to be used as
           the default icon. This bitmap will be used as the icon of all
           clients which do not provide an icon bitmap and are not listed in
           the Icons list.

       UnmapByMovingFarAway { win-list }
           These windows will be moved out of the screen instead of being
           unmapped when they become invisible due to a change workspace. This
           has been added because some ill-behaved clients (Frame5) don’t like
           to be unmapped.

       UsePPosition string
           This variable specifies whether or not ctwm should honor
           program-requested locations (given by the PPosition flag in the
           WM_NORMAL_HINTS property) in the absence of a user-specified
           position. The argument string may have one of three values:  "off"
           (the default) indicating that ctwm should ignore the
           program-supplied position, "on" indicating that the position should
           be used, and "non-zero" indicating that the position should used if
           it is other than (0,0). The latter option is for working around a
           bug in older toolkits.

       UseSunkTitlePixmap
           This makes it so the shadows are inversed for title pixmaps when
           focus is lost. This is similar to having the SunkFocusWindowTitle,
           but it makes your xbm or 3d XPM (if any) sink instead of just the
           whole bar.

       UseThreeDBorders
           Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking window borders. The width ot the 3D
           borders is ThreeDBorderWidth. The color of the 3D border is
           BorderTileBackground, and if NoHighlight is not selected, the
           border of the Focus window is BorderColor. Setting this
           automatically unsets ClientBorderWidth.

       UseThreeDIconManagers
           Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking IconManagers if any.

       UseThreeDMenus
           Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking menus.

       UseThreeDTitles
           Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking windows titles. In which case the
           default values of TitleButtonBorderWidth, FramePadding,
           TitlePadding and ButtonIndent are set to 0. There are plenty of
           built-in scalable pixmaps for buttons: :xpm:menu, :xpm:dot,
           :xpm:cross, :xpm:bar, :xpm:vbar, :xpm:iconify, :xpm:resize,
           :xmp:sunkresize, and :xpm:box. There are several built-in scalable
           animations for buttons: %xpm:resize, %xpm:menu-up, %xpm:menu-down,
           %xpm:resize-out-top, %xpm:resize-in-top, %xpm:resize-out-bot,
           %xpm:resize-in-bot, %xpm:maze-out, %xpm:maze-in, %xpm:zoom-out,
           %xpm:zoom-in, and %xpm:zoom-inout. Try them to see what they look
           like.

       UseThreeDWMap
           Tells ctwm to use 3D for the small windows in the workspace map.

       VirtualScreens { geometries-list }

           This variable specifies a list of geometries for virtual screens.
           Virtual screens are designed to be used when you have several
           physical screens bound together with the Xinerama X extension.

           geometries-list is a list of valid geometry strings, that
           correspond to your actual physical screens.

           Example :

               VirtualScreens
               {
                   "1280x1024+0+0"
                   "1600x1200+1280+0"
               }

       WarpCursor [{ win-list }]
           This variable indicates that the pointer should be warped into
           windows when they are deiconified. If the optional win-list is
           given, the pointer will only be warped when those windows are
           deiconified.

       WarpOnDeIconify { win-list }
           When ctwm receives a request to map a window, it normally just
           deiconifies it, but if the window is in win-list, it will
           additionally bring it into the current workspace, if necessary. For
           example

               WarpOnDeIconify { "Emacs" }

           will make sure emacs windows will always popup in the current
           workspace when necessary (typically when the minibuffer or the Help
           frame is in another workspace).

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       WarpRingOnScreen
           Tells ctwm that f.warpring warps pointer only to windows visible in
           the current workspace.

       WarpToDefaultMenuEntry
           (Useful only with StayUpMenus) When using StayUpMenus, and a menu
           does stays up, the pointer is warped to the default entry of the
           menu.

       WarpUnmapped
           This variable indicates that that the f.warpto function should
           deiconify any iconified windows it encounters. This is typically
           used to make a key binding that will pop a particular window (such
           as xmh), no matter where it is. The default is for f.warpto to
           ignore iconified windows.

       WindowBox [{ win-list }]
           creates a new window called a box, where all the client windows
           that match the windows list are opened in, instead of the root
           window. This is useful to group small windows in the same box
           (xload for instance)

               WindowBox "xloadbox" "320x100+0-0" {
                   "xload"
               }

       WindowGeometries { win-list }
           Used to give a default geometry to some clients :

               WindowGeometries {
                   "Mozilla*"       "1000x800+10+10"
                   "jpilot*"        "800x600-0-0"
               }

       WindowRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav { win-list }
           Similar to IconRegion, but for windows. Note that the win-list is
           not optional.

       WindowRing [{ win-list }]
           This variable specifies a list of windows along which the
           f.warpring function cycles. If no argument is given, all the
           windows are in the ring.

       WindowRingExclude [{ win-list }]
           All listed windows will be excluded from the WarpRing.

       WMgrButtonShadowDepth depth
           Control the depth of the shadow of the workspace manager buttons.

       WMgrButtonStyle string
           Sets the style of the workspace manager buttons (when in button
           rather than map state), as well as the buttons in the Occupy
           window. Available options are normal (the default 3d look), style1,
           style2, and style3 (which are slightly different 2d looks).

       WMgrHorizButtonIndent nb_pixels
           Specifies the horizontal space, in pixel, between the buttons of
           the workspace manager (in button mode).

       WMgrVertButtonIndent nb_pixels
           Specifies the vertical space, in pixel, between the buttons of the
           workspace manager (in button mode).

       WorkSpaceFont string
           This allows you to specify the font to use for the small windows in
           the workspace manager map. (Try
           -adobe-times-*-r-*--10-*-*-*-*-*-*-*).

       WorkSpaceManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
           This variable specifies the geometry of the workspace manager
           window. The string argument is standard geometry specification that
           indicates the initial full size of the workspace manager. The
           columns argument indicates the number of columns to use for the
           workspace manager window.

               WorkSpaceManagerGeometry        "360x60+60-0" 8

       WorkSpaces { workspace-list }
           This variable specifies a list of workspaces that are created at
           startup, Where workspace-list is :

               name [{bg-button [fg-button] [bg-root] [fg-root] [pixmap-root]}]

           With:

           bg-button
               background color of the corresponding button in the workspace
               manager.

           fg-button
               foreground color of the corresponding button in the workspace
               manager.

           bg-root
               background color of the corresponding root screen.

           fg-root
               foreground color of the corresponding root screen.

           pixmap-root
               pixmap to display on the corresponding root screen, either the
               name of a bitmap, xpm:xpmfile, xwd:xwdfile, jpeg:jpgfile, or
               |command_that generates_xwd.

           Example:

               WorkSpaces
               {
                 "One"   {"#686B9F" "white" "DeepSkyBlue3" "white" "jpeg:shark.jpg"}
                 "Two"   {"#619AAE" "white" "firebrick"}
                 "Three" {"#727786" "white" "MidnightBlue" "white" "xpm:ball%.xpm"}
                 "Four"  {"#727786" "white" "white"        "white"
                                                     "|(giftoppm | pnmtoxwd) < 2010.gif"}

                 "Five"  {"#727786" "white" "DeepSkyBlue3" "white" "plaid"}
                 "Six"   {"#619AAE" "white" "DeepSkyBlue3" "white" "xpm:background1"}
                 "Seven" {"#8C5b7A" "white" "chartreuse4"}
                 "Eight" {"#686B9F" "white" "MidnightBlue"}
               }

           The WorkSpaces declaration should come before the Occupy or
           OccupyAll declarations. The maximum number of workspaces is 32.

           Each workspace also has a label, which is displayed in the
           WorkSpaceManager window when it is in button state. By moving the
           mouse cursor over a button and typing letters and/or backspace, you
           may edit the label. The name is unaffected. Functions that look up
           workspaces by name also look at the label.

       XMoveGrid number
           This variable specifies the value to use to constrain window
           movement. When moving windows around, the x coordinate will always
           be a multiple of this variable. Default is 1. f.forcemove ignores
           this variable.

       XorValue number
           This variable specifies the value to use when drawing window
           outlines for moving and resizing. This should be set to a value
           that will result in a variety of distinguishable colors when
           exclusive-or’ed with the contents of the user’s typical screen.
           Setting this variable to 1 often gives nice results if adjacent
           colors in the default colormap are distinct. By default, ctwm will
           attempt to cause temporary lines to appear at the opposite end of
           the colormap from the graphics.

       YMoveGrid number
           This variable specifies the value to use to constrain window
           movement. When moving windows around, the y coordinate will always
           be a multiple of this variable. Default is 1. f.forcemove ignores
           this variable.

       Zoom [ count ]
           This variable indicates that outlines suggesting movement of a
           window to and from its iconified state should be displayed whenever
           a window is iconified or deiconified. The optional count argument
           specifies the number of outlines to be drawn. The default count is
           8.

       The following variables must be set after the fonts have been assigned,
       so it is usually best to put them at the end of the variables or
       beginning of the bindings sections:

       ChangeWorkspaceFunction function
           This variable specifies the function to be executed when the user
           change the current workspace (zap).

       DefaultFunction function
           This variable specifies the function to be executed when a key or
           button event is received for which no binding is provided. This is
           typically bound to f.nop, f.beep, or a menu containing window
           operations.

       DeIconifyFunction function
           This variable specifies the function to be executed when a window
           is deiconified.

       IconifyFunction function
           This variable specifies the function to be executed when a window
           is iconified.

       WindowFunction function
           This variable specifies the function to execute when a window is
           selected from the TwmWindows menu. If this variable is not set, the
           window will be deiconified and raised.

BINDINGS
       After the desired variables have been set, functions may be attached to
       titlebuttons and key and pointer buttons. Titlebuttons may be added
       from the left or right side and appear in the titlebar from
       left-to-right according to the order in which they are specified. Key
       and pointer button bindings may be given in any order.

   Title buttons
       Titlebuttons specifications must include the name of the pixmap to use
       in the button box and the function to be invoked when a pointer button
       is pressed within them:

           LeftTitleButton "bitmapname" = function

       or

           LeftTitleButton "bitmapname" {
               Buttoni = modlist : function
               ...
               Buttonj = function
           }

       or

           RightTitleButton "bitmapname" = function

       or

           RightTitleButton "bitmapname" {
               Buttoni = modlist : function
               ...
               Buttonj = function
           }

       The bitmapname may refer to one of the  built-in bitmaps (which are
       scaled to match TitleFont) by using the appropriate colon-prefixed name
       described above.

       The pointer button specifications come in two forms, with a modifier
       list or without. When the specification comes without a modifier list,
       it’s used for the case when no modifiers are used. In other words, the
       following two lines are equivalent:

               Buttoni = function

               Buttoni = : function

   Key and pointer buttons
       Key and pointer button specifications must give the modifiers that must
       be pressed, over which parts of the screen the pointer must be, and
       what function is to be invoked. Keys are given as strings containing
       the appropriate keysym name; buttons are given as the keywords
       Button1-Button11:

           "FP1"   = modlist : context : function
           Button1 = modlist : context : function

       A user who wanted to be able to manipulate windows from the keyboard
       could use the following bindings:

           "F1"    =       : all : f.iconify
           "F2"    =       : all : f.raiselower
           "F3"    =       : all : f.warpring "next"
           "F4"    =       : all : f.warpto "xmh"
           "F5"    =       : all : f.warpto "emacs"
           "F6"    =       : all : f.colormap "next"
           "F7"    =       : all : f.colormap "default"
           "F20"   =       : all : f.warptoscreen "next"
           "Left"  = m     : all : f.backiconmgr
           "Right" = m | s : all : f.forwiconmgr
           "Up"    = m     : all : f.upiconmgr
           "Down"  = m | s : all : f.downiconmgr

       ctwm provides many more window manipulation primitives than can be
       conveniently stored in a titlebar, menu, or set of key bindings.
       Although a small set of defaults are supplied (unless the NoDefaults is
       specified), most users will want to have their most common operations
       bound to key and button strokes. To do this, ctwm associates names with
       each of the primitives and provides user-defined functions for building
       higher level primitives and menus for interactively selecting among
       groups of functions.

   Modifiers and Contexts
       The modlist allows specifying different bindings for a button or key
       when modifiers are applied. The list of recognized modifier names
       (abbreviated) are shift (s), control (c), lock (l), alter1 (a1), alter2
       (a2), alter3 (a3), alter4 (a4), alter5 (a5), meta (m), mod1 (m1), mod2
       (m2), mod3 (m3), mod4 (m4), and mod5 (m5). Multiple modifiers may be
       applied to a single line by combining them with a vertical bar (|). For
       example:

           # Open the "top" menu with a Button1 (usually left mouse button) click in
           # the root window
           Button1 =        : root : f.menu "top"

           # Open the "top2" menu with shift-click
           Button1 =     s  : root : f.menu "top2"

           # And "top3" when control-shift-click
           Button1 = c | s  : root : f.menu "top3"

       The lock modifier refers to CapsLock. meta is generally your Alt key.
       mod1 is the same as meta. mod2..5 can have various special meanings;
       try running xmodmap -pm to see how your X server is mapping things (the
       xkeycaps program may also be useful). The alter1..5 modifiers refer to
       ctwm alternate keymaps; see the description of f.altkeymap below for
       details.

       Note that if you’re using the m4 preprocessor, most implementations
       define a shift macro internally, so using that as a modifier will
       silently fail to work right. To get around it, you’ll need to quote it
       so that m4 passes it through as a literal string: `shift'.

       The context lets you specify which mappings apply based on where the
       pointer currently is on the screen. The available options are window
       (w), title (t), icon (i), root (r), frame (f), workspace (no
       abbreviation), iconmgr (m), and alter (a). Like the modifiers above,
       they may be combined with a vertical bar, which allows you to bind an
       action in multiple contexts at once. Alternately, all can be given for
       the context to specify that the binding should happen everywhere. It’s
       equivalent to combining all the choices (except alter, which is
       special).

       The alter context allows binding the function when in the alternate
       context; see the f.altcontext function below for details.

       There is an additional possible magical value for context; if you
       provide a quoted string (e.g., "MyXterm") for the context of a key (but
       not button) binding, then that binding will trigger the given function
       in window context to all windows matching that name. e.g.,

           # Pressing "F1" anywhere on the screen will cause all windows with name
           # "xterm" to raise themselves.
           "F1" = : "xterm" : f.raise

       Beware that this can have odd side effects if multiple windows are
       matched, especially if the function can conflict one with the other
       (e.g., in the example above, if two "xterm" windows overlap each
       other).

   Functions
       The function in a binding is any of the f. keywords described below.
       For example, the default startup file contains the following bindings:

           Button1 =   : root          : f.menu "TwmWindows"
           Button1 = m : window | icon : f.function "move-or-lower"
           Button2 = m : window | icon : f.iconify
           Button3 = m : window | icon : f.function "move-or-raise"
           Button1 =   : title         : f.function "move-or-raise"
           Button2 =   : title         : f.raiselower
           Button1 =   : icon          : f.function "move-or-iconify"
           Button2 =   : icon          : f.iconify
           Button1 =   : iconmgr       : f.iconify
           Button2 =   : iconmgr       : f.iconify

       User-defined functions contain the name by which they are referenced in
       calls to f.function and a list of other functions to execute. For
       example:

           Function "move-or-lower"    { f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
           Function "move-or-raise"    { f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
           Function "move-or-iconify"  { f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
           Function "restore-colormap" { f.colormap "default" f.lower }

       The function name must be used in f.function exactly as it appears in
       the function specification.

       In the descriptions below, if the function is said to operate on the
       selected window, but is invoked from a root menu, the cursor will be
       changed to the Select cursor and the next window to receive a button
       press will be chosen:

       ! string
           This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.

       f.addtoworkspace string
           This function adds the selected window to the workspace whose name
           is string.

       f.adoptwindow
           This function asks for the user to select a window with the mouse,
           and then adopt this window if it doesn’t belong to the current
           ctwm. Useful only with the -w flag.

       f.altcontext
           Set the alternate context. The next key or button event ctwm
           receives will be interpreted using the alternate context. To define
           bindings in the alternate context, use the keyword alter in the
           context field of the binding command. For example:

               "Return" = m : all   : f.altcontext
               "n" =        : alter : f.nextworkspace
               "p" =        : alter : f.prevworkspace

       f.altkeymap number
           Set the alternate keymap number, where number is an integer between
           1 and 5 inclusive. The next key or button event ctwm receives will
           be interpreted using this alternate keymap. To define bindings in
           an alternate keymap, use the keyword a followed by number in the
           modifier field of the binding command. For example:

               "Return" = c : all                  : f.altkeymap "1"
               "i" =     a1 : window|icon|iconmgr  : f.iconify
               "z" =     a1 : window               : f.zoom
               "d" =     a1 : window|icon          : f.delete
               "o" =     a1 : window|icon          : f.occupy
               "r" =     a1 : window|icon          : f.refresh

           When using an alternate keymaps, only the root, window, icon and
           iconmgr contexts are allowed.

       f.autolower
           This function toggles whether or not the selected window is lowered
           whenever the pointer leaves it. See the description of the variable
           AutoLower.

       f.autoraise
           This function toggles whether or not the selected window is raised
           whenever entered by the pointer. See the description of the
           variable AutoRaise.

       f.backiconmgr
           This function warps the pointer to the previous column in the
           current icon manager, wrapping back to the previous row if
           necessary.

       f.backmapiconmgr
           This function warps the  pointer in the same manner as
           f.backiconmgr but only stops at windows that are mapped.

       f.beep
           This function sounds the keyboard bell.

       f.bottomzoom
           This function stretches the bottom side of the window out to the
           bottom edge of the screen, or restores the original size if the
           window was already bottomzoom’d.

       f.changepriority rel-value
           Change the priority of a window by rel-value (enclosed within
           double quotes). For instance, to bury a window one level down, you
           would use f.changepriority "-1". See OnTopPriority variable.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       f.changesize string
           This function allows you to change the size of the focused window.
           The format of the string must be either "<border>
           <+|-><sizechange>" (where <border> must be one of top, bottom, left
           or right) or "<x size>x<y size>" (where the size is the requested
           new window size). The height of the window can never be set/changed
           to less than the title height + 1 (or 1 if the window has no title)
           and the width can never be set/changed to less than 1.

               "Right"  = c|s : all : f.changesize "right +10"
               "Left"   = c|s : all : f.changesize "right -10"
               "Down"   = c|s : all : f.changesize "bottom +10"
               "Up"     = c|s : all : f.changesize "bottom -10"

               "F1"     = c|s : all : f.changesize "640x480"
               "F2"     = c|s : all : f.changesize "800x600"
               "F3"     = c|s : all : f.changesize "1024x768"

       f.circledown
           This function lowers the top-most window that occludes another
           window.

       f.circleup
           This function raises the bottom-most window that is occluded by
           another window.

       f.colormap string
           This function rotates the colormaps (obtained from the
           WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property on the window) that ctwm will display
           when the pointer is in this window. The argument string may have
           one of the following values: "next", "prev", and "default". It
           should be noted here that in general, the installed colormap is
           determined by keyboard focus. A pointer driven keyboard focus will
           install a private colormap upon entry of the window owning the
           colormap. Using the click to type model, private colormaps will not
           be installed until the user presses a mouse button on the target
           window.

       f.deiconify
           This function deiconifies the selected window. If the window is not
           an icon, this function does nothing.

       f.delete
           This function sends the WM_DELETE_WINDOW message to the selected
           window if the client application has requested it through the
           WM_PROTOCOLS window property. The application is supposed to
           respond to the message by removing the indicated window. If the
           window has not requested WM_DELETE_WINDOW messages, the keyboard
           bell will be rung indicating that the user should choose an
           alternative method. Note this is very different from f.destroy. The
           intent here is to delete a single window,  not necessarily the
           entire application.

       f.deleteordestroy
           First tries to delete the window (send it WM_DELETE_WINDOW
           message), or kills it, if the client doesn’t accept such message.

       f.deltastop
           This function allows a user-defined function to be aborted if the
           pointer has been moved more than MoveDelta pixels. See the example
           definition given for Function "move-or-raise" at the beginning of
           the section.

       f.destroy
           This function instructs the X server to close the display
           connection of the client that created the selected window. This
           should only be used as a last resort for shutting down runaway
           clients. See also f.delete.

       f.downiconmgr
           This function warps the pointer to the next row in the current icon
           manger, wrapping to the beginning of the next column if necessary.

       f.downworkspace
           Goto the workspace immediately underneath the current workspace in
           the workspace manager. If the current workspace is the bottom one,
           goto the top one in the same column. The result depends on the
           layout of the workspace manager.

       f.exec string
           This function passes the argument string to /bin/sh for execution.
           In multiscreen mode, if string starts a new X client without giving
           a display argument, the client will appear on the screen from which
           this function was invoked. If the string “$currentworkspace” is
           present inside the string argument, it will be substituted with the
           current workspace name.

       f.fill string
           Where string is either : “right”, “left”, “top”, “bottom” or
           “vertical”. The current window is resized in the specified
           direction until it reaches an obstacle (either another window, or
           the screen border). f.fill “vertical” sets the window status to
           “zoomed” and toggles, ie calling it again will reset the previous
           window size.

       f.fittocontent
           Can be used only with window boxes. The result is to have the box
           have the minimal size that contains all its children windows.

       f.focus
           This function toggles the keyboard focus of the server to the
           selected window, changing the focus rule from pointer-driven if
           necessary. If the selected window already was focused, this
           function executes an f.unfocus.

       f.forcemove
           This function is like f.move except that it ignores the DontMoveOff
           variable.

       f.forwiconmgr
           This function warps the pointer to the next column in the current
           icon manager, wrapping to the beginning of the next row if
           necessary.

       f.forwmapiconmgr
           This function warps the  pointer in the same manner as
           f.forwiconmgr but only stops at windows that are mapped.

       f.fullscreenzoom
           This function is similar to the f.fullzoom function, except that it
           makes the client window (the part inside the frame) the size of the
           screen, so the window decorations are off-screen. This gives the
           same visual effect as the window covering the whole screen with no
           decorations. If the window is already fullscreenzoom’d, it restores
           the original size.

       f.fullzoom
           This function resizes the selected window to the full size of the
           screen, or restores the original size if the window was already
           fullzoom’d.

       f.function string
           This function executes the user-defined function whose name is
           specified by the argument string.

       f.gotoworkspace workspace_name
           This function warps you to the workspace whose name is
           workspace_name.

       f.hbzoom
           This function is a synonym for f.bottomzoom.

       f.hideiconmgr
           This function unmaps the current icon manager.

       f.hideworkspacemgr
           Unmap the WorkSpace manager.

       f.horizoom
           This function stretches the window so that it covers the whole
           width of the screen, or restores the original size if the window
           was already horizoom’d.

       f.htzoom
           This function is a synonym for f.topzoom.

       f.hypermove
           Use this function to “move” a window between 2 captives ctwm (or
           between a captive and the root ctwm). Of course 2 ctwms are
           completely different universes. You have to go in hyperspace to
           achieve this, hence the name.

       f.hzoom
           This function is a synonym for f.horizoom.

       f.iconify
           This function iconifies or deiconifies the selected window or icon,
           respectively.

       f.identify
           This function displays a summary of the name and geometry of the
           selected window. Clicking the pointer or pressing a key in the
           window will dismiss it.

       f.initsize
           This function resets a window to its initial size given by the
           WM_NORMAL_HINTS hints.

       f.jumpdown step
           This function is designed to be bound to a key, it moves the
           current window (step * {X,Y}MoveGrid) pixels downward. stopping if
           the window encounters another window or the screen border (ala
           f.pack).

       f.jumpleft step
           Leftward equivalent of f.jumpdown.

       f.jumpright step
           Rightward equivalent of f.jumpdown.

       f.jumpup step
           Upward equivalent of f.jumpdown.

       f.lefticonmgr
           This function similar to f.backiconmgr except that wrapping does
           not change rows.

       f.leftworkspace
           Goto the workspace immediately on the left of the current workspace
           in the workspace manager. If the current workspace is the leftest
           one, goto the rightest one in the same row. The result depends on
           the layout of the workspace manager.

       f.leftzoom
           This function stretches the left side of the window out to the left
           edge of the screen, or restores the original size if the window was
           already leftzoom’d.

       f.lower
           This function lowers the selected window.

       f.menu string
           This function invokes the menu specified by the argument string.
           Cascaded menus may be built by nesting calls to f.menu. When a menu
           is popped up, you can use the arrow keys to move the cursor around
           it. “Down” or space goes down, “Up” goes up, “Left” pops down the
           menu, and “Right” activates the current entry. The first letter of
           an entry name activates this entry (the first one if several
           entries match). If the first letter is ~ then
           Meta-the-second-letter activates it, if this first letter is ^ then
           Control-the-second-letter activates it, and if this first letter is
           space, then the second letter activates it.

       f.move
           This function drags an outline of the selected window (or the
           window itself if the OpaqueMove variable is set) until the invoking
           pointer button is released. Double clicking within the number of
           milliseconds given by ConstrainedMoveTime warps the pointer to the
           center of the window and constrains the move to be either
           horizontal or vertical depending on which grid line is crossed. To
           abort a move, press another button before releasing the first
           button.

       f.movepack
           This function is like f.move except that it tries to avoid
           overlapping of windows. When the moving window begin to overlap
           with another window, the move is stopped. If you go too far over
           the other window (more that MovePackResistance pixels), the move is
           resumed and the moving window can overlap with the other window.
           Useful to pack windows closely.

       f.movepush
           This function is like f.move except that it tries to avoid
           overlapping of windows. When the moving window begins to overlap
           with another window, the other window is pushed. If you go too far
           over the other window (more that MovePackResistance pixels), there
           is no push and the moving window can overlap with the other window.
           Only available if OpaqueMove is active.

       f.moveresize geometry
           Takes one string argument which is a geometry with the standard X
           geometry syntax (e.g. 200x300+150-0). Sets the current window to
           the specified geometry. The width and height are to be given in
           pixel, no base size or resize increment are used.

       f.movetitlebar
           If applied to a squeezed titlebar (see SqueezeTitle) you can drag
           it along the top of the window (a feature which was first found in
           BeOS). The existing justification type is preserved, as is the
           positioning (relative or absolute). This means that a relatively
           positioned titlebar will move when the width of a window changes,
           whereas an absolutely positioned title will not. The default
           positioning is left-justified, absolute at 0 pixels.

               Button1 = m1 : title : f.movetitlebar

           f.movetitlebar does nothing if the window has no title, the window
           is squeezed (see f.squeeze), or the title is not squeezed (see
           SqueezeTitle).

       f.movetonextworkspace, f.movetonextworkspaceandfollow
           Move the window to the next workspace, and optionally switch view
           over to that workspace.

       f.movetoprevworkspace, f.movetoprevworkspaceandfollow
           Move the window to the previous workspace, and optionally switch
           view over to that workspace.

       f.nexticonmgr
           This function warps the pointer to the next icon manager containing
           any windows on the current or any succeeding screen.

       f.nextworkspace
           Goto the next workspace in the list, using the order given in the
           .ctwmrc file.

       f.nop
           This function does nothing and is typically used with the
           DefaultFunction or WindowFunction variables or to introduce blank
           lines in menus.

       f.occupy
           This function pops up a window for the user to choose which
           workspaces a window belongs to.

       f.occupyall
           This function makes the specified window occupy all the workspaces.

       f.pack string
           Where string is either : “right”, “left”, “top” or “bottom” The
           current window is moved in the specified direction until it reaches
           an obstacle (either another window, or the screen border). The
           pointer follows the window.

       f.pin
           Valid only in a root menu. Make a menu permanent on the screen.
           This is a toggle function, if you select it while the menu is
           already permanent, it becomes non-permanent.

       f.previconmgr
           This function warps the pointer to the previous icon manager
           containing any windows on the current or preceding screens.

       f.prevworkspace
           Goto the previous workspace in the list, using the order given in
           the .ctwmrc file.

       f.priorityswitching
           Toggle the window’s switching ability. X-ref PrioritySwitching and
           OnTopPriority variables.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       f.quit
           This function causes ctwm to restore the window’s borders and exit.
           If ctwm is the first client invoked from xdm, this will result in a
           server reset.

       f.raise
           This function raises the selected window.

       f.raiseicons
           This function raises all the icons in the current workspace.

       f.raiselower
           This function raises the selected window to the top of the stacking
           order if it is occluded by any windows, otherwise the window will
           be lowered.

       f.raiseorsqueeze
           Raise the window or squeeze it if it’s a double click. The time
           that defines a double click is given by the ConstrainedMoveTime
           variable.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       f.refresh
           This function causes all windows to be refreshed.

       f.removefromworkspace string
           This function removes the selected window from the workspace whose
           name is string.

       f.rereadsounds
           This function causes the .ctwm-sounds file to be re-read. Note that
           this will not re-read sounds set in RplaySounds in the config file.
           As a result, this function will probably go away in the future when
           .ctwm-sounds support is removed. See the SOUNDS section.

       f.rescuewindows
           If you somehow managed to move a window out of sight, calling this
           function will check all windows and icons on currently visible
           virtual screens, and those that are (nearly) out of the bounds of
           their virtual screen will be brought completely inside (if that
           fits).

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       f.resize
           This function displays an outline of the selected window. Crossing
           a border (or setting AutoRelativeResize) will cause the outline to
           begin to rubber band until the invoking button is released. To
           abort a resize, press another button before releasing the first
           button.

       f.restart
           This function kills and restarts ctwm.

       f.restoregeometry
           Restore the current window geometry to what was saved in the last
           call to f.savegeometry.

       f.righticonmgr
           This function is similar to f.nexticonmgr except that wrapping does
           not change rows.

       f.rightworkspace
           Goto the workspace immediately on the right of the current
           workspace in the workspace manager. If the current workspace is the
           rightest one, goto the leftest one in the same row. The result
           depends on the layout of the workspace manager.

       f.rightzoom
           This function stretches the right side of the window out to the
           right edge of the screen, or restores the original size if the
           window was already rightzoom’d.

       f.ring
           Selects a window and adds it to the WarpRing, or removes it if it
           was already in the ring. This command makes f.warpring much more
           useful, by making its configuration dynamic.

       f.savegeometry
           The geometry of the current window is saved. The next call to
           f.restoregeometry will restore this window to this geometry.

       f.saveyourself
           This function sends a WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to the selected
           window if it has requested the message in its WM_PROTOCOLS window
           property. Clients that accept this message are supposed to
           checkpoint all state associated with the window and update the
           WM_COMMAND property as specified in the ICCCM. If the selected
           window has not selected for this message, the keyboard bell will be
           rung.

       f.separator
           Valid only in menus. The effect is to add a line separator between
           the previous and the following entry. The name selector part in the
           menu is not used (but must be present).

       f.setbuttonsstate
           Set the WorkSpace manager in button state.

       f.setmapstate
           Set the WorkSpace manager in map state.

       f.setpriority "value"
           Set the window’s priority to value (enclosed between double
           quotes). If value is directly followed by < or b, the window is
           placed below other windows of the given priority. Otherwise it is
           placed above. See OnTopPriority variable for details.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       f.showbackground
           This function unmaps all windows in the current workspace. This is
           a toggle function, if all windows are unmapped, they are all
           remapped. Better bind this function in the root context.

       f.showiconmgr
           This function maps the current icon manager.

       f.showworkspacemgr
           Map the WorkSpace manager.

       f.slowdownanimation
           Decrease AnimationSpeed by 1.

       f.sorticonmgr
           This function sorts the entries in the current icon manager
           alphabetically. See the variable SortIconManager.

       f.speedupanimation
           Increase AnimationSpeed by 1.

       f.squeeze
           f.squeeze squeezes a window to a null vertical size. Works only for
           windows with either a title, or a 3D border (in order to have
           something left on the screen). If the window is already squeezed,
           it is unsqueezed.

       f.startanimation
           Restart freezed animations (if any).

       f.stopanimation
           Freeze animations (if any).

       f.switchpriority
           Switch the window’s priority, independently of its ability to
           switch automatically. X-ref OnTopPriority and PrioritySwitching
           variables.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       f.tinylower, f.tinyraise
           These two functions allow you to raise/lower a window "one step" at
           a time. For instance, f.tinyraise will bring the current window
           just above the lowest one that’s hiding it. These two functions are
           not subject to priority-switching.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       f.title
           This function provides a centered, unselectable item in a menu
           definition. It should not be used in any other context.

       f.toggleoccupation string
           This function adds the selected window to the workspace whose name
           is string if it doesn’t already belongs to it, and removes it from
           this workspace if not.

       f.togglesound
           Toggle sound on/off. See the SOUNDS section.

       f.togglestate
           Toggle the state of the WorkSpace manager.

       f.toggleworkspacemgr
           Toggle the presence of the WorkSpaceManager. If it is mapped, it
           will be unmapped and vice versa.

       f.topzoom
           This function stretches the top side of the window out to the top
           edge of the screen, or restores the original size if the window was
           already topzoom’d.

       f.trace string
           Used for handling dumping debug output. If a filename is given in
           string, begins writing output to that file; if string is "stderr"
           writes to stderr. If debug file is already open, calling f.trace
           again closes it.

           This is probably only useful if you’re doing development on ctwm.

       f.twmrc
           Alias for f.restart.

       f.unfocus
           This function resets the focus back to pointer-driven. This should
           be used when a focused window is no longer desired.

       f.unsqueeze
           Is to f.squeeze what f.deiconify is to f.iconify.

           First appeared in 4.0.0.

       f.upiconmgr
           This function warps the pointer to the previous row in the current
           icon manager, wrapping to the last row in the same column if
           necessary.

       f.upworkspace
           Goto the workspace immediately above the current workspace in the
           workspace manager. If the current workspace is the top one, goto
           the bottom one in the same column. The result depends on the layout
           of the workspace manager.

       f.vanish
           The specified window vanishes from the current workspace if it
           occupies at least one other WorkSpace. Do nothing in the others
           cases.

       f.version
           This function causes the ctwm version window to be displayed. This
           window will be displayed until a pointer button is pressed or the
           pointer is moved from one window to another.

       f.vlzoom
           This function is a synonym for f.leftzoom.

       f.vrzoom
           This function is a synonym for f.rightzoom.

       f.warphere win_name
           This function adds the window which has a name or class that
           matches string to the current workspace and warps the pointer to
           it. If the window is iconified, it will be deiconified if the
           variable WarpUnmapped is set or else ignored.

       f.warpring string
           This function warps the pointer to the next or previous window (as
           indicated by the argument string, which may be "next" or "prev")
           specified in the WindowRing variable.

       f.warpto string
           This function warps the pointer to the window which has a name or
           class that matches string. If the window is iconified, it will be
           deiconified if the variable WarpUnmapped is set or else ignored.

       f.warptoiconmgr string
           This function warps the pointer to the icon manager entry
           associated with the window containing the pointer in the icon
           manager specified by the argument string. If string is empty (i.e.
           ""), the current icon manager is chosen.

       f.warptoscreen string
           This function warps the pointer to the screen specified by the
           argument string. The argument may be a number (e.g. "0" or "1"),
           the word "next" (indicating the current screen plus 1, skipping
           over any unmanaged screens), the word "back" (indicating the
           current screen minus 1, skipping over any unmanaged screens), or
           the word "prev" (indicating the last screen visited).

       f.winrefresh
           This function is similar to the f.refresh function except that only
           the selected window is refreshed.

       f.zoom
           This function stretches the window so that it covers the whole
           height of the screen, or restores the original size if the window
           was already zoom’d. It’s the vertical counterpart fo f.horizoom;
           perhaps f.vertzoom would be a better name...

MENUS
       Functions may be grouped and interactively selected using pop-up (when
       bound to a pointer button) or pull-down (when associated with a
       titlebutton) menus. Each menu specification contains the name of the
       menu as it will be referred to by f.menu, optional default foreground
       and background colors, the list of item names and the functions they
       should invoke, and optional foreground and background colors for
       individual items:

           Menu "menuname" [ ("deffg":"defbg") ]
           {
               string1  [ ("fg1":"bg1") ]  function1
               string2  [ ("fg2":"bg2") ]  function2
                   .
                   .
                   .
               stringN  [ ("fgN":"bgN") ]  functionN
           }

       The menuname is case-sensitive. The optional deffg and defbg arguments
       specify the foreground and background colors used on a color display to
       highlight menu entries. The string portion of each menu entry will be
       the text which will appear in the menu. The optional fgN and bgN
       arguments specify the foreground and background colors of the menu
       entry when the pointer is not in the entry. These colors will only be
       used on a color display. The default is to use the colors specified by
       the MenuForeground and MenuBackground variables. The function portion
       of the menu entry is one of the functions, including any user-defined
       functions, or additional menus.

       If an entry name begins with a “*” (star), this star won’t be displayed
       and the corresponding entry will be the default entry for this menu.
       When a menu has a default entry and is used as a submenu of another
       menu, this default entry action will be executed automatically when
       this submenu is selected without being displayed. It’s hard to explain,
       but easy to understand.

   Special Menus
       There are several special menus.

       TwmWindows contains the names of all of the client and ctwm-supplied
       windows in the current workspace. Selecting an entry will cause the
       WindowFunction to be executed on that window. If WindowFunction hasn’t
       been set, the window will be deiconified and raised.

       TwmVisible lists those windows which are currently deiconified (first
       appeared in 3.7). TwmIcons lists only those which are currently
       iconified.

       TwmAllWindows and TwmAllIcons act similarly to the non-All variants
       described above, except that they show windows in all workspaces,
       rather than just the current one.

       TwmWorkspaces contains the names of your workspaces, selecting an entry
       goto this workspace. In addition, these entries have submenus
       containing the names of all windows occupying this workspace, selecting
       such an entry executes f.warpto on this window.

       TwmKeys lists all the keybindings in the root context that invoke
       f.exec. First appeared in 3.7.

ICONS
       ctwm supports several different ways of manipulating iconified windows.
       The common pixmap-and-text style may be laid out by hand or
       automatically arranged as described by the IconRegion variable. In
       addition, a terse grid of icon names, called an icon manager, provides
       a more efficient use of screen space as well as the ability to navigate
       among windows from the keyboard.

       An icon manager is a window that contains names of selected or all
       windows currently on the display. In addition to the window name, a
       small button using the default iconify symbol will be displayed to the
       left of the name when the window is iconified. By default, clicking on
       an entry in the icon manager performs f.iconify. To change the actions
       taken in the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when specifying
       button and keyboard bindings.

       Moving the pointer into the icon manager also directs keyboard focus to
       the indicated window (setting the focus explicitly or else sending
       synthetic events NoTitleFocus is set). Using the f.upiconmgr,
       f.downiconmgr f.lefticonmgr, and f.righticonmgr functions, the input
       focus can be changed between windows directly from the keyboard.

X WINDOW PROPERTIES
       As a window manager, ctwm reads and sets a huge variety of properties
       on the windows it manages and the windows it creates. Most of that is
       beyond the scope of user documentation. However, a few points are worth
       mentioning.

   Window Naming
       Windows get their names via X properties. There are two types of names;
       the window name (which is what shows up in the titlebar, the f.identify
       window, etc), and the icon name (which shows up on the icon and on the
       icon manager).

       Prior to 4.0.2, ctwm only supported the standard ICCCM properties for
       setting the window and icon names. These are WM_NAME for the window
       name, and WM_ICON_NAME for the icon name. As of 4.0.2, ctwm also
       supports the EWMH versions of these, which are _NET_WM_NAME and
       _NET_WM_ICON_NAME. If the EWMH variants exist, they’re used in
       preference to the older ICCCM style.

       As of 4.0.2, ctwm also supports an additional pair of properties;
       CTWM_WM_NAME and CTWM_WM_ICON_NAME, which override all the others.
       These are specifically intended for the user to manually set, not for
       programs to set themselves. This allows the user to override programs
       that name themselves unhelpfully, or to otherwise label things to their
       liking.

       You can set these via any method you’d use to set window properties.
       From the command line, the xprop(1) tool is widely available, if a
       little clunky. So, for instance, to set the icon name of a window
       (changing how it looks in the icon manager), but leave the window name
       alone as the program itself normally sets it (leaving the titlebar
       normal), you could run a command like:

           xprop -f CTWM_WM_ICON_NAME 8u -set CTWM_WM_ICON_NAME "I hate this window"

       and then click the window you want to set it on. Unfortunately,
       xprop(1) does require you to specify the property name when defining
       the format, as well as when setting it, so it’s a little ugly. The 8u
       means you’re giving a UTF-8 string. Other possible formats are 8s for a
       plain 7-bit STRING (i.e, plain ASCII), and 8t for “internationalized”
       ICCCM-style COMPOUND_TEXT. Usually you’d just use UTF-8 though. xprop
       -remove CTWM_WM_ICON_NAME and click would let you undo it and go back
       to the normal naming. See the xprop(1) manual for more.

SOUNDS
       If built with the USE_SOUND option, ctwm is able to play sounds for any
       X event. This may be configured in two ways.

       As of 4.0.0, the sounds may be configured in the ctwmrc with the
       RplaySounds config parameter. See above for details.

       If that is not found, or in older versions, ctwm will look for the file
       .ctwm-sounds in the user’s home directory to map every X event to a
       sound file to be played. Each line in .ctwm-sounds has the following
       syntax:

           {X event}: {sound file}

       If RplaySounds is given in the config file, and .ctwm-sounds exists, a
       warning will be given, and the contents of .ctwm-sounds will be
       ignored. All support for .ctwm-sounds will be removed in a future
       version, leaving only the ctwmrc configuration method available

       However configured, the currently known X events that can be given are:

           KeyPress
           KeyRelease
           ButtonPress
           ButtonRelease
           MotionNotify
           EnterNotify
           LeaveNotify
           FocusIn
           FocusOut
           KeymapNotify
           Expose
           GraphicsExpose
           NoExpose
           VisibilityNotify
           CreateNotify
           DestroyNotify
           UnmapNotify
           MapNotify
           MapRequest
           ReparentNotify
           ConfigureNotify
           ConfigureRequest
           GravityNotify
           ResizeRequest
           CirculateNotify
           CirculateRequest
           PropertyNotify
           SelectionClear
           SelectionRequest
           SelectionNotify
           ColormapNotify
           ClientMessage
           MappingNotify

       Additionally, the following two are recognised, and represent the time
       when ctwm is started or shut down:

           Startup
           Shutdown

BUGS
       The resource manager should have been used instead of all of the window
       lists.

       Double clicking very fast to get the constrained move function will
       sometimes cause the window to move, even though the pointer is not
       moved.

       If IconifyByUnmapping is on and windows are listed in
       IconManagerDontShow but not in DontIconifyByUnmapping, they may be lost
       if they are iconified and no bindings to f.menu "TwmWindows" or
       f.warpto are setup.

FILES
       See earlier Customization section.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       DISPLAY
           This variable is used to determine which X server to use. It is
           also set during f.exec so that programs come up on the proper
           screen.

       HOME
           This variable is used as the prefix for files that begin with a
           tilde and for locating the ctwm startup file.

SEE ALSO
       X(1), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1)

COPYRIGHT
       Portions copyright 1988 Evans & Sutherland Computer Corporation;
       portions copyright 1989 Hewlett-Packard Company and the Massachusetts
       Institute of Technology,  See X(1) for a full statement of rights and
       permissions.

       See COPYRIGHT file in distribution for more information.

AUTHORS
   TWM
       Tom LaStrange, Solbourne Computer; Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium; Steve
       Pitschke, Stardent Computer; Keith Packard, MIT X Consortium; Dave
       Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave Payne, Apple Computer.

   CTWM
       Claude Lecommandeur, Swiss Polytechnical Institute of Lausanne
       (lecom@sic.epfl.ch); Richard Levitte (richard@levitte.org); Matthew
       Fuller (fullermd@over-yonder.net); and many other contributors.

VERSION
       This manual is build for ctwm 4.0.3.



                                  2019-07-21                           CTWM(1)