ctwm














































CTWM(1)                     General Commands Manual                    CTWM(1)



NAME
       ctwm - Claude's Tab Window Manager for the X Window System

SYNTAX
       ctwm [-display dpy] [-s] [-cfgchk] [-f initfile] [-v] [-n] [-k] [-K
       m4file] [-w [win-id]]

DESCRIPTION
       ctwm is a window manager for the X Window System.  It provides
       titlebars, shaped windows, virtual screens (workspaces), several forms
       of icon management, user-defined macro functions, click-to-type and
       pointer-driven keyboard focus, and user-specified key and pointer
       button bindings.  It is actually twm(1) (Tab Window Manager) from the
       MIT X11 distribution slightly modified to accommodate the use of
       several virtual screens (workspaces). It is heavily inspired from the
       Hewlett-Packard vuewm window manager. In addition, ctwm can use
       coloured, shaped icons and background root pixmaps in XPM format [from
       Arnaud Le Hors], any format understood by the imconv package [from the
       San Diego Supercomputer Center], and xwd files. ctwm can be compiled to
       use both, either or none of the above icon/pixmap formats.

       This program is usually started by the user's session manager or
       startup script.  When used from xdm(1) or xinit(1) without a session
       manager, ctwm is frequently executed in the foreground as the last
       client.  When run this way, exiting ctwm causes the session to be
       terminated (i.e. logged out).

       By default, application windows are surrounded by a ‘frame’ with a
       titlebar at the top and a special border around the window.  The
       titlebar contains the window's name, a rectangle that is lit when the
       window is receiving keyboard input, and function boxes known as
       ‘titlebuttons’ at the left and right edges of the titlebar.

       Pressing pointer Button1 (usually the left-most button unless it has
       been changed with xmodmap) on a titlebutton will invoke the function
       associated with the button.  In the default interface, windows are
       iconified by clicking (pressing and then immediately releasing) the
       left titlebutton (which looks like a Dot).  Conversely, windows are
       deiconified by clicking in the associated icon or entry in the icon
       manager (see description of the variable ShowIconManager and of the
       function f.showiconmgr).

       Windows are resized by pressing the right titlebutton (which resembles
       a group of nested squares), dragging the pointer over edge that is to
       be moved, and releasing the pointer when the outline of the window is
       the desired size.  Similarly, windows are moved by pressing in the
       title or highlight region, dragging a window outline to the new
       location, and then releasing when the outline is in the desired
       position.  Just clicking in the title or highlight region raises the
       window without moving it.

       When new windows are created, ctwm will honor any size and location
       information requested by the user (usually through -geometry command
       line argument or resources for the individual applications).
       Otherwise, an outline of the window's default size, its titlebar, and
       lines dividing the window into a 3x3 grid that track the pointer are
       displayed.  Clicking pointer Button1 will position the window at the
       current position and give it the default size.  Pressing pointer
       Button2 (usually the middle pointer button) and dragging the outline
       will give the window its current position but allow the sides to be
       resized as described above.  Clicking pointer Button3 (usually the
       right pointer button) will give the window its current position but
       attempt to make it long enough to touch the bottom the screen.

OPTIONS
       ctwm accepts the following command line options:

       -display dpy
               This option specifies the X server to use.

       -s      This option indicates that only the default screen (as
               specified by -display or by the DISPLAY environment variable)
               should be managed.  By default, ctwm will attempt to manage all
               screens on the display.

       -cfgchk This option causes ctwm to only try to parse the config file,
               and indicate whether errors are found.

       -f filename
               This option specifies the name of the startup file to use.
               ctwm will first try to load filename.num, where num is the
               screen number.  If it fails, it will try to load filename.  By
               default, ctwm will look in the user's home directory for files
               named .ctwmrc.num, .ctwmrc, .twmrc.num, or .twmrc (where num is
               a screen number).

       -v      This option indicates that ctwm should print error messages
               whenever an unexpected X Error event is received.  This can be
               useful when debugging applications but can be distracting in
               regular use.

       -n      This option indicates that ctwm should not filter the startup
               file through m4. Available only if ctwm is compiled with the
               USEM4 flag.

       -k      This option indicates that ctwm should keep the definitions it
               prepends to your startup file when filtering through m4 in
               /tmp.  Available only if ctwm is compiled with the USEM4 flag.

       -K m4file
               This option indicates that ctwm should keep the result of
               filtering your startup file through m4 in the named file.
               Available only if ctwm is compiled with the USEM4 flag.


       -version
               ctwm just prints its version number.


       -info   ctwm prints its detailed version and compile time options.


       -w [win-id]
               If -w is specified without a win-id value, ctwm does not take
               over the whole screen(s), instead it creates a new window that
               becomes its root window. if the win-id value is given, it is
               considered to be the id of an existing window, in which case,
               ctwm will try to use this window as root window. You can run
               any number of instantiation of ctwm at the same time. You can
               even have embedded ctwm instantiations. This is totally
               useless, but I like it. The f.adoptwindow function can be used
               to capture an existing window belonging to another ctwm. A
               possible use of such mode can be to test new configuration file
               without restarting ctwm.

       -W      This option tells ctwm not to display any welcome when
               starting.

CUSTOMIZATION
       Much of ctwm's appearance and behavior can be controlled by providing a
       startup file in one of the following locations (searched in order for
       each screen being managed when ctwm begins):

       $HOME/.ctwmrc.screennumber
               The screennumber is a small positive number (e.g. 0, 1, etc.)
               representing the screen number (e.g. the last number in the
               DISPLAY environment variable host:displaynum.screennum) that
               would be used to contact that screen of the display.  This is
               intended for displays with multiple screens of differing visual
               types.

       $HOME/.ctwmrc
               This is the usual name for an individual user's startup file.

       $HOME/.twmrc.screennumber

       $HOME/.twmrc
               The users twm startup file.

       /usr/lib/X11/twm/system.ctwmrc
               If none of the preceding files are found, ctwm will look in
               this file for a default configuration.  This is often tailored
               by the site administrator to provide convenient menus or
               familiar bindings for novice users.

       If no startup files are found, ctwm will use the built-in defaults
       described above.  The only resource used by ctwm is bitmapFilePath for
       a colon-separated list of directories to search when looking for bitmap
       files (for more information, see the Athena Widgets manual and
       xrdb(1)).

       ctwm startup files are logically broken up into three types of
       specifications:  Variables, Bindings, Menus.  The Variables section
       must come first and is used to describe the fonts, colors, cursors,
       border widths, icon and window placement, highlighting, autoraising,
       layout of titles, warping, use of the icon manager.  The Bindings
       section usually comes second and is used to specify the functions that
       should be to be invoked when keyboard and pointer buttons are pressed
       in windows, icons, titles, and frames.  The Menus section gives any
       user-defined menus (containing functions to be invoked or commands to
       be executed).

       Variable names and keywords are case-insensitive.  Strings must be
       surrounded by double quote characters (e.g. ‘blue’) and are
       case-sensitive.  A pound sign (#) outside of a string causes the
       remainder of the line in which the character appears to be treated as a
       comment.

M4 PREPROCESSING
       ctwm uses m4(1) to pre-process its setup files.  When ctwm starts up,
       it opens a file for input as described above.  But, it processes that
       file through m4 before parsing it. So, you can use m4 macros to perform
       operations at runtime.  This makes it very easy to work when you use
       many different displays, with different characteristics.  For example,
       If you want to set the lower right section of the screen to be your
       IconRegion, (see below for details on the IconRegion variable) you can
       use m4 directives and pre-defined symbols to calculate the region you
       want.  For example:
       define(IRegion, translit(eval(WIDTH/3)*eval(HEIGHT/2)+eval(WIDTH-WIDTH/3)-0, *, x))
       IconRegion  "IRegion" SOUTH EAST 75 25
       will define the lower half, and right-hand third of the screen.  The
       above makes use of symbols that are predefined in m4 by ctwm.  The
       symbols WIDTH and HEIGHT are calculated by ctwm and written into a
       temporary file for m4 to use.  The following symbols are predefined by
       ctwm:

       SERVERHOST      This variable is set to the name of the machine that is
                       running the X server.

       CLIENTHOST      The machine that is running the clients.  (ie, ctwm)

       HOSTNAME        The canonical hostname running the clients.  (ie. a
                       fully-qualified version of CLIENTHOST)

       USER            The name of the user running the program.  Gotten from
                       the environment.

       HOME            The user's home directory.  Gotten from the
                       environment.

       PIXMAP_DIRECTORY
                       The directory where the ctwm pictures are installed.

       VERSION         The X major protocol version.  As seen by
                       ProtocolVersion(3).

       REVISION        The X minor protocol revision.  As seen by
                       ProtocolRevision(3).

       VENDOR          The vendor of your X server.  For example: MIT X
                       Consortium.

       RELEASE         The release number of your X server.  For MIT X11R5,
                       this is 5.

       WIDTH           The width of your display in pixels.

       HEIGHT          The height of your display in pixels.

       X_RESOLUTION    The X resolution of your display in pixels per meter.

       Y_RESOLUTION    The Y resolution of your display in pixels per meter.

       PLANES          The number of bit planes your display supports in the
                       default root window.

       BITS_PER_RGB    The number of significant bits in an RGB color.  (log
                       base 2 of the number of distinct colors that can be
                       created.  This is often different from the number of
                       colors that can be displayed at once.)

       TWM_TYPE        Tells which twm offshoot is running.  It will always be
                       set to the string ‘ctwm’ in this program.  This is
                       useful for protecting parts of your .twmrc file that
                       ctwm proper won't understand (like WorkSpaces) so that
                       it is still usable with other twm programs.

       TWM_VERSION     Tells which ctwm version is running in the form of a
                       floating point number.

       CLASS           Your visual class.  Will return one of StaticGray,
                       GrayScale, StaticColor, PseudoColor, TrueColor,
                       DirectColor, or, if it cannot determine what you have,
                       NonStandard.


       COLOR           This will be either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.  This is just a
                       wrapper around the above definition.  Returns ‘Yes’ on
                       *Color, and ‘No’ on StaticGray and GrayScale.


       XPM             Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with XPM.


       JPEG            Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with JPEG.


       IMCONV          Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with IMCONV.


       GNOME           Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with GNOME.


       SOUNDS          Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with USE_SOUND.


       SESSION         Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with USE_SESSION.


       I18N            Is defined only if ctwm was compiled with I18N.


       TWM_CAPTIVE     This will be either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. ‘Yes’ if the current
                       ctwm is captive (flag -w), ‘No’ in the other case.


       TWM_CAPTIVE_NAME
                       Defined only if TWM_CAPTIVE is also defined. Contains
                       the name of the captive ctwm (-name flag);


       You may well find that if you research the m4(1) manual well, and
       understand the power of m4, this will be a very useful and powerful
       tool.  But, if you use any of the symbols which are predefined by m4,
       you are in severe danger!  For example, the Sun m4 predefines shift, so
       if you use that name in your .ctwmrc, you are out of luck.

       The availability of the m4 preprocessing is subject to the compilation
       define USEM4.

VARIABLES
       Many of the aspects of ctwm's user interface are controlled by
       variables that may be set in the user's startup file.  Some of the
       options are enabled or disabled simply by the presence of a particular
       keyword.  Other options require keywords, numbers, strings, or lists of
       all of these.

       Lists are surrounded by braces and are usually separated by whitespace
       or a newline.  For example:
       AutoRaise { "emacs" "XTerm" "Xmh" }
       or
       AutoRaise
       {
            "emacs"
            "XTerm"
            "Xmh"
       }
       When a variable containing a list of strings representing windows is
       searched (e.g. to determine whether or not to enable autoraise as shown
       above), a string must be an exact, case-sensitive match to the window's
       name (given by the WM_NAME window property), resource name or class
       name (both given by the WM_CLASS window property).  The preceding
       example would enable autoraise on windows named ‘emacs’ as well as any
       xterm (since they are of class ‘XTerm’) or xmh windows (which are of
       class ‘Xmh’).

       String arguments that are interpreted as filenames (see the Pixmaps,
       Cursors, and IconDirectory below) will prepend the user's directory
       (specified by the HOME environment variable) if the first character is
       a tilde (~).  If, instead, the first character is a colon (:), the name
       is assumed to refer to one of the internal bitmaps that are used to
       create the default titlebars symbols:  :xlogo or :iconify (both refer
       to the X used for the iconify button), :resize (the nested squares used
       by the resize button), and :question (the question mark used for
       non-existent bitmap files).

       The following variables may be specified at the top of a ctwm startup
       file.  Lists of window name prefix strings are indicated by win-list.
       Optional arguments are shown in square brackets:

       AlwaysOnTop { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows (all windows if the
               list is defaulted) that ctwm will try its best to maintain on
               top of others. This doesn't work in all case.


       AlwaysShowWindowWhenMovingFromWorkspaceManager
               When ReallyMoveInWorkspaceManager is present and the user is
               moving a window from the WorkSpaceMap, ctwm display the actual
               window only if it crosses the current active workspace. If
               AlwaysShowWindowWhenMovingFromWorkspaceManager is present, the
               actual window is always visible during the move, regardless of
               whether it crosses the current workspace or not. The Shift key
               toggles this behaviour.


       AlwaysSqueezeToGravity [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that ctwm should obey window gravity
               when squeezing a window even when the window has a titlebar.
               Normally, ctwm will always squeeze a window that has a titlebar
               toward the north.  The optional win-list may be used to control
               which windows this applies on.


       AnimationSpeed speed
               The speed argument is a non-negative integer. It determines the
               number of times a second animations (if any) are updated. If
               speed is 0, animations are freezed. The default value is 0.



       AutoFocusToTransients
               Transient windows get focus automatically when created.  Useful
               with programs that have keyboard shortcuts that pop up windows.


       AutoLower { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows (all windows if the
               list is defaulted) to be automatically lowered whenever the
               point leaves a window.  This action can be interactively
               enabled or disabled on individual windows using the function
               f.autolower.


       AutoOccupy
               This variable specifies that clients will automatically change
               their occupation when their name or icon name changes. The new
               occupation will be recalculated from the Occupy and OccupyAll
               fields in the .ctwmrc file.


       AutoRaise { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows (all windows if the
               list is defaulted) to be automatically raised whenever the
               pointer has come to rest in a window for the amount of time
               specified by the RaiseDelay variable. This action can be
               interactively enabled or disabled on individual windows using
               the function f.autoraise.


       AutoRaiseIcons
               Icons are raised when the cursor enters it. Useful with
               ShrinkIconTitles.


       AutoRelativeResize
               This variable indicates that dragging out a window size (either
               when initially sizing the window with pointer Button2 or when
               resizing it) should not wait until the pointer has crossed the
               window edges.  Instead, moving the pointer automatically causes
               the nearest edge or edges to move by the same amount.  This
               allows the resizing of windows that extend off the edge of the
               screen.  If the pointer is in the center of the window, or if
               the resize is begun by pressing a titlebutton, ctwm will still
               wait for the pointer to cross a window edge (to prevent
               accidents).  This option is particularly useful for people who
               like the press-drag-release method of sweeping out window
               sizes.


       AutoSqueeze { win-list }
               These windows will be auto-squeezed (see f.squeeze). i.e.
               automatically unsqueezed when they get focus, and squeezed when
               they loose it. Useful for the workspace manager. Not authorized
               for icon managers.


       BeNiceToColormap
               By defaults new colors are allocated for shadows when a 3D look
               is used, but when you specify BeNiceToColormap ctwm uses
               stipling instead of new colors, the effect is less beautiful,
               but acceptable. In this case ClearShadowContrast and
               DarkShadowContrast have no effects.


       BorderBottom pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone
               at the bottom of the screen. All constrained window functions
               (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider
               this zone as offscreen.  Default is 0.


       BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This variable specifies the default color of the border to be
               placed around all non-iconified windows, and may only be given
               within a Color or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist
               specifies a list of window and color name pairs for specifying
               particular border colors for different types of windows.  For
               example:
               BorderColor "gray50"
               {
                    "XTerm"   "red"
                    "xmh"     "green"
               }
               The default is ‘black’.


       BorderLeft pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone
               at the left of the screen. All constrained window functions
               (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider
               this zone as offscreen.  Default is 0.


       BorderResizeCursors
               This variable specifies that ctwm should use resizing cursors
               when the pointer is on the window border. To be used preferably
               when you have bound a button to f.resize in the frame context.


       BorderRight pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone
               at the right of the screen. All constrained window functions
               (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider
               this zone as offscreen.  Default is 0.


       BorderShadowDepth pixels
               This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for
               3D window borders, when UseThreeDBorders is selected.

       BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This variable specifies the default background color in the
               gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight
               hasn't been set), and may only be given within a Color or
               Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist allows per-window
               colors to be specified.  The default  is ‘white’.


       BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This variable specifies the default foreground color in the
               gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight
               hasn't been set), and may only be given within a Color or
               Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist allows per-window
               colors to be specified.  The default is ‘black’.


       BorderTop pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of a forbidden zone
               at the top of the screen. All constrained window functions
               (f.movepack, f.move with DontMoveOff, etc...) will consider
               this zone as offscreen.  Default is 0.


       BorderWidth pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border
               surrounding all client window frames if ClientBorderWidth has
               not been specified.  This value is also used to set the border
               size of windows created by ctwm (such as the icon manager).
               The default is 2.


       ButtonIndent pixels
               This variable specifies the amount by which titlebuttons should
               be indented on all sides.  Positive values cause the buttons to
               be smaller than the window text and highlight area so that they
               stand out.  Setting this and the TitleButtonBorderWidth
               variables to 0 makes titlebuttons be as tall and wide as
               possible.  The default is 1 if UseThreeDTitles is not set, 0 if
               it is set.


       CenterFeedbackWindow
               The moving and resizing information window is centered in the
               middle of the screen instead of the top left corner.


       ClearShadowContrast contrast
               Indicates to ctwm how to calculate the clear shadow color for
               3D items.  The value is a comprised between 0 and 100. The
               formula used is :
                   clear.{RGB} = (65535 - color.{RGB}) * (contrast / 100).
               Has no effect if BeNiceToColormap is active.


       ClientBorderWidth
               This variable indicates that border width of a window's frame
               should be set to the initial border width of the window, rather
               than to the value of BorderWidth.


       Color { colors-list }
               This variable specifies a list of color assignments to be made
               if the default display is capable of displaying more than
               simple black and white.  The colors-list is made up of the
               following color variables and their values: DefaultBackground,
               DefaultForeground, MenuBackground, MenuForeground,
               MenuTitleBackground, MenuTitleForeground, and MenuShadowColor.
               The following color variables may also be given a list of
               window and color name pairs to allow per-window colors to be
               specified (see BorderColor for details): BorderColor,
               IconManagerHighlight, BorderTileBackground,
               BorderTileForeground, TitleBackground, TitleForeground,
               IconBackground, IconForeground, IconBorderColor,
               IconManagerBackground, and IconManagerForeground.  For example:
               Color
               {
                    MenuBackground      "gray50"
                    MenuForeground      "blue"
                    BorderColor              "red" { "XTerm" "yellow" }
                    TitleForeground          "yellow"
                    TitleBackground          "blue"
               }
               All of these color variables may also be specified for the
               Monochrome variable, allowing the same initialization file to
               be used on both color and monochrome displays.

       ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds
               This variable specifies the length of time between button
               clicks needed to begin a constrained move operation.  Double
               clicking within this amount of time when invoking f.move will
               cause the window only be moved in a horizontal or vertical
               direction.  Setting this value to 0 will disable constrained
               moves.  The default is 400 milliseconds.

       Cursors { cursor-list }
               This variable specifies the glyphs that ctwm should use for
               various pointer cursors.  Each cursor may be defined either
               from the cursor font or from two bitmap files.  Shapes from the
               cursor font may be specified directly as:
                    cursorname     "string"
               where cursorname is one of the cursor names listed below, and
               string is the name of a glyph as found in the file
               /usr/include/X11/cursorfont.h (without the ‘XC_’ prefix).  If
               the cursor is to be defined from bitmap files, the following
               syntax is used instead:
                    cursorname     "image"   "mask"
               The image and mask strings specify the names of files
               containing the glyph image and mask in bitmap(1) form.  The
               bitmap files are located in the same manner as icon bitmap
               files.  The following example shows the default cursor
               definitions:
               Cursors
               {
                    Frame          "top_left_arrow"
                    Title          "top_left_arrow"
                    Icon      "top_left_arrow"
                    IconMgr   "top_left_arrow"
                    Move      "fleur"
                    Resize         "fleur"
                    Menu      "sb_left_arrow"
                    Button         "hand2"
                    Wait      "watch"
                    Select         "dot"
                    Destroy   "pirate"
               }

       DarkShadowContrast contrast
               Indicates to ctwm how to calculate the dark shadow color for 3D
               items.  The value is a comprised between 0 and 100. The formula
               used is :
                   dark.{RGB}  = color.{RGB} * ((100 - contrast) / 100),
               Has no effect if BeNiceToColormap is active.


       DecorateTransients
               This variable indicates that transient windows (those
               containing a WM_TRANSIENT_FOR property) should have titlebars.
               By default, transients are not reparented.


       DefaultBackground string
               This variable specifies the background color to be used for
               sizing and information windows.  The default is ‘white’.


       DefaultForeground string
               This variable specifies the foreground color to be used for
               sizing and information windows.  The default is ‘black’.


       DontIconifyByUnmapping { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows that should not be
               iconified by simply unmapping the window (as would be the case
               if IconifyByUnmapping had been set).  This is frequently used
               to force some windows to be treated as icons while other
               windows are handled by the icon manager.


       DontMoveOff
               This variable indicates that windows should not be allowed to
               be moved off the screen.  It can be overridden by the
               f.forcemove function.


       DontPaintRootWindow
               This variable tells ctwm not to paint the root window, whatever
               you told in the Workspaces specification. This is useful to
               have pixmaps in the Workspace Map but not on the root window.


       DontSave { win-list }
               These windows won't have their characteristics saved for the
               session manager.


       DontSetInactive { win-list }
               These windows won't be set to InactiveState when they become
               invisible due to a change workspace. This has been added
               because some ill-behaved clients (Frame5) don't like this.


       DontSqueezeTitle [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that titlebars should not be squeezed
               to their minimum size as described under SqueezeTitle below.
               If the optional window list is supplied, only those windows
               will be prevented from being squeezed.


       DontToggleWorkSpaceManagerState
               Turns off the feature toggling the workspace manager state
               to/from map/button state when you press ctrl and the workspace
               manager window is in focus.


       DontWarpCursorInWMap
               Tells ctwm not to warp the cursor to the corresponding actual
               window when you click in a small window in the workspace map.


       ForceIcons
               This variable indicates that icon pixmaps specified in the
               Icons variable should override any client-supplied pixmaps.


       FramePadding pixels
               This variable specifies the distance between the titlebar
               decorations (the button and text) and the window frame.  The
               default is 2 pixels if UseThreeDTitles is not set, 0 if it is
               set.


       IconBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the background color of icons, and may
               only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list.  The
               optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that
               per-window colors may be specified.  See the BorderColor
               variable for a complete description of the win-list.  The
               default is ‘white’.


       IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the color of the border used for icon
               windows, and may only be specified inside of a Color or
               Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
               See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the
               win-list.  The default is ‘black’.

       IconBorderWidth pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border
               surrounding icon windows.  The default is 2.


       IconDirectory string
               This variable specifies the directory that should be searched
               if a bitmap file cannot be found in any of the directories in
               the bitmapFilePath resource.


       IconFont string
               This variable specifies the font to be used to display icon
               names within icons.  The default is ‘variable’.


       IconForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the foreground color to be used when
               displaying icons, and may only be specified inside of a Color
               or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
               See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the
               win-list.  The default is ‘black’.


       IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that windows should be iconified by
               being unmapped without trying to map any icons.  This assumes
               that the user is will remap the window through the icon
               manager, the f.warpto function, or the TwmWindows menu.  If the
               optional win-list is provided, only those windows will be
               iconified by simply unmapping.  Windows that have both this and
               the IconManagerDontShow options set may not be accessible if no
               binding to the TwmWindows menu is set in the user's startup
               file.


       IconifyStyle string
               Where string is either "normal", "mosaic", "zoomin", "zoomout"
               or "sweep". Tells ctwm to use some fancy graphical effects when
               iconifying windows.


       IconJustification string
               Where string is either "left", "center" or "right".  Tells ctwm
               how to justify the icon image against the icon title (if any).


       IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the background color to use for icon
               manager entries, and may only be specified inside of a Color or
               Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
               See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the
               win-list.  The default is ‘white’.


       IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that the icon manager should not
               display any windows.  If the optional win-list is given, only
               those windows will not be displayed.  This variable is used to
               prevent windows that are rarely iconified (such as xclock or
               xload) from taking up space in the icon manager.


       IconManagerFont string
               This variable specifies the font to be used when displaying
               icon manager entries.  The default is ‘variable’.


       IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the foreground color to be used when
               displaying icon manager entries, and may only be specified
               inside of a Color or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is
               a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may
               be specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a complete
               description of the win-list.  The default is ‘black’.


       IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
               This variable specifies the geometry of the icon manager
               window.  The string argument is standard geometry specification
               that indicates the initial full size of the icon manager.  The
               icon manager window is then broken into columns pieces and
               scaled according to the number of entries in the icon manager.
               Extra entries are wrapped to form additional rows.  The default
               number of columns is 1.


       IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the border color to be used when
               highlighting the icon manager entry that currently has the
               focus, and can only be specified inside of a Color or
               Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
               See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the
               win-list.  The default is ‘black’.


       IconManagers { iconmgr-list }
               This variable specifies a list of icon managers to create.
               Each item in the iconmgr-list has the following format:
                    "winname" ["iconname"]   "geometry" columns
               where winname is the name of the windows that should be put
               into this icon manager, iconname is the name of that icon
               manager window's icon, geometry is a standard geometry
               specification, and columns is the number of columns in this
               icon manager as described in IconManagerGeometry.  For example:
               IconManagers
               {
                    "XTerm"   "=300x5+800+5" 5
                    "myhost"  "=400x5+100+5" 2
               }
               Clients whose name or class is ‘XTerm’ will have an entry
               created in the ‘XTerm’ icon manager.  Clients whose name was
               ‘myhost’ would be put into the ‘myhost’ icon manager.


       IconManagerShadowDepth pixels
               This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for
               3D IconManager entries, when UseThreeDIconManagers is selected.


       IconManagerShow { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows that should appear in
               the icon manager.  When used in conjunction with the
               IconManagerDontShow variable, only the windows in this list
               will be shown in the icon manager.


       IconMenuDontShow { win-list }
               Don't show the name of these windows in the TwmIcons menu.


       IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight [iconjust]
               [iconregjust] [iconregalign] [{ win-list }]

               This variable specifies an area on the root window in which
               icons are placed if no specific icon location is provided by
               the client.  The geomstring is a quoted string containing a
               standard geometry specification. If more than one IconRegion
               lines are given, icons will be put into the succeeding icon
               regions when the first is full. The vgrav argument should be
               either North or South  and is used to control whether icons are
               first filled in from the top or bottom of the icon region.
               Similarly, the hgrav argument should be either East or West and
               is used to control whether icons should be filled in from left
               or from the right. Icons are laid out within the region in a
               grid with cells gridwidth pixels wide and gridheight pixels
               high. The optional win-list argument tells ctwm that if such a
               window is iconified, and there is enough room in this icon
               region for its icon, then place it here. The optional iconjust,
               iconregjust and iconregalign can be used to give specific
               values of IconJustification, IconRegionJustification and
               IconRegionAlignement for this IconRegion.


       IconRegionAlignement string
               Where string is either "top", "center" "bottom" or "border".
               Tells ctwm how to align icons inside their place in the
               IconRegion.  If ‘border’ is given, the justification will be
               ‘top’ if the icon region gravity is ‘north’ and ‘bottom’ if the
               icon region gravity is ‘south’.


       IconRegionJustification string
               Where string is either "left", "center" "right" or "border".
               Tells ctwm how to justify icons inside their place in the
               IconRegion.  If ‘border’ is given, the justification will be
               ‘left’ if the icon region gravity is ‘west’ and ‘right’ if the
               icon region gravity is ‘east’.


       Icons { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of window names and the bitmap
               filenames that should be used as their icons.  For example:
               Icons
               {
                    "XTerm"   "xterm.icon"
                    "xfd"          "xfd_icon"
               }
               Windows that match ‘XTerm’ and would not be iconified by
               unmapping, would try to use  the icon bitmap in the file
               ‘xterm.icon’.If ForceIcons is specified, this bitmap will be
               used even if the client has requested its own icon pixmap.


       IgnoreCaseInMenuSelection
               Used when moving the pointer inside a menu with the keyboard.
               When you type a letter, the pointer goes to the next entry
               beginning with this letter. If IgnoreCaseInMenuSelection is
               present, this selection ignores the case of this first letter.


       IgnoreLockModifier
               If present, all bindings (buttons and keys) will ignore the
               LockMask. Useful if you often use caps lock, and don't want to
               define twice all your bindings.


       IgnoreModifier
               All bindings (buttons and keys) will ignore the modifiers you
               specified. It is useful when you use caps locks or num locks.
               You don't need IgnoreLockModifier any more with this option.

               IgnoreModifier { lock m2 }


       IgnoreTransient
               List of windows for which to ignore transients.

               IgnoreTransient { "Wine" }


       InterpolateMenuColors
               This variable indicates that menu entry colors should be
               interpolated between entry specified colors.  In the example
               below:
               Menu "mymenu"
               {
                    "Title"        ("black":"red")          f.title
                    "entry1"                 f.nop
                    "entry2"                 f.nop
                    "entry3"  ("white":"green")   f.nop
                    "entry4"                 f.nop
                    "entry5"  ("red":"white")          f.nop
               }
               the foreground colors for ‘entry1’ and ‘entry2’ will be
               interpolated between black and white, and the background colors
               between red and green.  Similarly, the foreground for ‘entry4’
               will be half-way between white and red, and the background will
               be half-way between green and white.

       MakeTitle { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows on which a titlebar
               should be placed and is used to request titles on specific
               windows when NoTitle has been set.

       MapWindowBackground color [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the background colors to use for small
               windows in the workspace map window and may only be specified
               inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is
               a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may
               be specified. If there is neither MapWindowBackground, nor
               MapWindowForeground the window title colors are used.

       MapWindowCurrentWorkSpace { border_color [background] [foreground]
       [bitmap] }
               Specify the appearence of the map window corresponding to the
               current workspace.

       MapWindowDefaultWorkSpace { border_color [background] [foreground]
       [bitmap] }
               Specify the appearence of the map window corresponding to the
               workspaces other than the current workspace when no root
               background information has been provided to ctwm in the
               WorkSpace command. Not used in others cases.

       MapWindowForeground color [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the foreground colors to use for small
               windows in the workspace map window and may only be specified
               inside of a Color or Monochrome list. The optional win-list is
               a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may
               be specified. If there is neither MapWindowBackground, nor
               MapWindowForeground the window title colors are used.

       MaxIconTitleWidth width
               The integer argument tells ctwm the maximun width to use for an
               icon title. If an icon title is larger than width, it is
               truncated.

       MaxWindowSize string
               This variable specifies a geometry in which the width and
               height give the maximum size for a given window.  This is
               typically used to restrict windows to the size of the screen.
               The default is ‘30000x30000’.

       MenuBackground string
               This variable specifies the background color used for menus,
               and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list.
               The default is ‘white’.

       MenuFont string
               This variable specifies the font to use when displaying menus.
               The default is ‘variable’.

       MenuForeground string
               This variable specifies the foreground color used for menus,
               and can only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list.
               The default is ‘black’.

       MenuShadowColor string
               This variable specifies the color of the shadow behind
               pull-down menus and can only be specified inside of a Color or
               Monochrome list.  The default is ‘black’.

       MenuShadowDepth pixels
               This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for
               3D menus, when UseThreeDMenus is selected.

       MenuTitleBackground string
               This variable specifies the background color for f.title
               entries in menus, and can only be specified inside of a Color
               or Monochrome list.  The default is ‘white’.

       MenuTitleForeground string
               This variable specifies the foreground color for f.title
               entries in menus and can only be specified inside of a Color or
               Monochrome list.  The default is ‘black’.

       Monochrome { colors }
               This variable specifies a list of color assignments that should
               be made if the screen has a depth of 1.  See the description of
               Color.

       MoveDelta pixels
               This variable specifies the number of pixels the pointer must
               move before the f.move function starts working.  Also see the
               f.deltastop function.  The default is zero pixels.

       MovePackResistance pixels
               This variable specifies the number of pixels of the movepack
               and movepush resistance. See f.movepack and f.movepush.

       MoveOffResistance pixels
               This variable specifies the number of pixels of the moveoff
               resistance.  If pixels is positive, DontMoveOff will only
               prevent you from going off the edge if you're within n pixels
               off the edge. If you go further, DontMoveOff gives up and lets
               you go as far as you wish.  f.forcemove still allows you to
               totally ignore DontMoveOff.  A negative value puts you back
               into ‘never moveoff’ mode (it's the default).

       NoBackingStore
               This variable indicates that ctwm's menus should not request
               backing store to minimize repainting of menus.  This is
               typically used with servers that can repaint faster than they
               can handle backing store.

       NoBorder { win-list }
               These windows won't have borders. If you want no borders on all
               windows, use the BorderWidth keyword.

       NoCaseSensitive
               This variable indicates that case should be ignored when
               sorting icon names in an icon manager.  This option is
               typically used with applications that capitalize the first
               letter of their icon name.

       NoDefaults
               This variable indicates that ctwm should not supply the default
               titlebuttons and bindings.  This option should only be used if
               the startup file contains a completely new set of bindings and
               definitions.

       NoGrabServer
               This variable indicates that ctwm should not grab the server
               when popping up menus and moving opaque windows.

       NoHighlight [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that borders should not be highlighted
               to track the location of the pointer.  If the optional win-list
               is given, highlighting will only be disabled for those windows.
               When the border is highlighted, it will be drawn in the current
               BorderColor.  When the border is not highlighted, it will be
               stippled with an gray pattern using the current
               BorderTileForeground and BorderTileBackground colors.

       NoIconTitle [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that icons should not display the icon
               name of the client.  If the optional win-list is given, only
               those clients will not have icon titles.

       NoIconManagerFocus
               This variable indicates that ctwm will not set the focus on the
               corresponding window when the pointer is in an IconManager.

       NoIconManagers
               This variable indicates that no icon manager should be created.

       NoImagesInWorkSpaceManager
               This variable turns off displaying of background images in the
               WorkSpaceMap.  Instead only the colors defined in WorkSpaces
               will be used as background in the WorkSpaceMap.

       NoMenuShadows
               This variable indicates that menus should not have drop shadows
               drawn behind them.  This is typically used with slower servers
               since it speeds up menu drawing at the expense of making the
               menu slightly harder to read.

       NoOpaqueMove { window-list }
               The counterpart of OpaqueMove. See OpaqueMove.

       NoOpaqueResize { window-list }
               The counterpart of OpaqueResize. See OpaqueResize.

       NoRaiseOnDeiconify
               This variable indicates that windows that are deiconified
               should not be raised.

       NoRaiseOnMove
               This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when
               moved.  This is typically used to allow windows to slide
               underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnResize
               This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when
               resized.  This is typically used to allow windows to be resized
               underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnWarp
               This variable indicates that windows should not be raised when
               the pointer is warped into them with the f.warpto function.  If
               this option is set, warping to an occluded window may result in
               the pointer ending up in the occluding window instead the
               desired window (which causes unexpected behavior with
               f.warpring).

       NoSaveUnders
               This variable indicates that menus should not request
               save-unders to minimize window repainting following menu
               selection.  It is typically used with displays that can repaint
               faster than they can handle save-unders.

       NoShowOccupyAll
               This variable specifies that OccupyAll windows won't be
               displayed in the WorkSpaceMap window.

       NoStackMode [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that client window requests to change
               stacking order should be ignored.  If the optional win-list is
               given, only requests on those windows will be ignored.  This is
               typically used to prevent applications from relentlessly
               popping themselves to the front of the window stack.

       NoTitle [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that windows should not have titlebars.
               If the optional win-list is given, only those windows will not
               have titlebars.  MakeTitle may be used with this option to
               force titlebars to be put on specific windows.

       NoTitleFocus
               This variable indicates that ctwm should not set keyboard input
               focus to each window as it is entered.  Normally, ctwm sets the
               focus so that focus and key events from the titlebar and icon
               managers are delivered to the application.  If the pointer is
               moved quickly and ctwm is slow to respond, input can be
               directed to the old window instead of the new.  This option is
               typically used to prevent this ‘input lag’ and to work around
               bugs in older applications that have problems with focus
               events.

       NoTitleHighlight [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that the highlight area of the
               titlebar, which is used to indicate the window that currently
               has the input focus, should not be displayed.  If the optional
               win-list is given, only those windows will not have highlight
               areas.  This and the SqueezeTitle options can be set to
               substantially reduce the amount of screen space required by
               titlebars.

       NoWarpToMenuTitle
               This variable indicates that the cursor should not be warped to
               the title of a menu which does not have room to drop down below
               the current cursor position.

       Occupy { occupy-list }
               This variable specifies which windows occupy which workspaces
               at startup.

               occupy-list consists of entries of the form :
                       [Window]   win-name { wpsc1 wspc2 ... }
               or      Workspace  wspc-name {win1 win2 ... }
               Example :
               Occupy {
                              "xload"   {"all"}
                   Window     "xterm"   {"here" "there" "elsewhere"}
                              "xv"      {"images"}
                   WorkSpace  "images"  {"xloadimage"}
               }
               Note : The Occupy declaration should come after the WorkSpaces
               declaration.


       OccupyAll { window-list }

               This variable specifies a list of windows that will occupy all
               workspaces at startup.

               window-list is a list of window names.

               Example :
               OccupyAll
               {
                   "xload"
                   "xbiff"
                   "xconsole"
               }
               Note : The OccupyAll declaration should come after the
               WorkSpaces declaration.


       OpaqueMove { window-list }
               This variable indicates that the f.move function should
               actually move the window instead of just an outline so that the
               user can immediately see what the window will look like in the
               new position.  This option is typically used on fast displays
               (particularly if NoGrabServer is set). The optional window list
               parameter indicates that only windows in this list should
               actually be moved in opaque mode. The NoOpaqueMove counterpart
               is also available.


       OpaqueMoveThreshold { threshold }
               The integer parameter is a percentage and indicates that only
               windows (elligible for opaque moving) with a surface smaller
               than this percentage of the surface of the screen should
               actually be moved in opaque mode.


       OpaqueResize { window-list }
               The opaque version of resize. Extremely resource intensive, but
               beautiful with fast server/client/network. See OpaqueMove. The
               NoOpaqueResize counterpart is also available.


       OpaqueResizeThreshold { threshold }
               The resize version of OpaqueMoveThreshold.


       OpenWindowTimeout seconds
               seconds is an integer representing a number of second. When a
               window tries to open on an unattended display, it will be
               automatically mapped after this number of seconds.


       PackNewWindows
               Use f.movepack algorithm instead of f.move when opening a new
               window.


       Pixmaps { pixmaps }
               This variable specifies a list of pixmaps that define the
               appearance of various images.  Each entry is a keyword
               indicating the pixmap to set, followed by a string giving the
               name of the bitmap file.  The following pixmaps may be
               specified:
               Pixmaps
               {
                    TitleHighlight "gray1"

               }
               The default for TitleHighlight is to use an even stipple
               pattern.


       PixmapDirectory path
               This variable specifies the path where ctwm looks to find
               non-X11 bitmap files.  Whenever you want to use a image file
               that is not an X11 bitmap, specify : xpm:filename, for xpm
               files, xwd:filename for xwd files, im:filename, for other files
               supported by the imconv package, jpeg:file for jpeg file, or
               ‘|command’ for an on the fly generated xwd file. Use the %
               character to specify an animation. path can be a colon
               separated list of directories.  Example :
               PixmapDirectory  "/usr/lib/X11/twm"
               Icons
               {
                   "Axe"    "xpm:edit.xpm"
                   "xterm"  "xpm:ball%.xpm"
               }
               N.B This is only valid if your version of ctwm has been
               compiled with the right extension (XPM, JPEG or IMCONV
               options).


       RaiseDelay milliseconds
               For windows that are to be automatically raised when the
               pointer enters (see the AutoRaise variable and the f.autoraise
               function) this variable specifies the length of time the
               pointer should rest in the window before it is raised.  The
               default is 0 milliseconds.


       RaiseOnClick
               If present a window will be raised on top of others when
               clicked on, and the ButtonPress event will be correctly
               forwarded to the client that owns this window (if it asked to).
               See RaiseOnClickButton.


       RaiseOnClickButton button_number
               Where button_number is a valid button number (generally 1 to
               3). Specify the button to use for RaiseOnClick.


       RaiseWhenAutoUnSqueeze
               Windows are raised when auto-unsqueezed (See AutoSqueeze).


       RandomPlacement [ string ]
               Where string is either ‘on’, ‘off’, ‘all’ or ‘unmapped’.  This
               variable indicates that windows with no specified geometry
               should be placed in a pseudo-random location instead of having
               the user drag out an outline. The argument ‘on’ or ‘all’ tells
               ctwm do do this for all such windows, ‘off’, not to do this,
               and ‘unmapped’, only for unmapped windows, e.g.  iconified or
               not visible in the current workspace.


       ReallyMoveInWorkspaceManager
               This keyword tells ctwm to move the actual window when the user
               is moving the small windows in the WorkSpaceMap window. If not
               present the WorkSpaceMap can be used only to modify the
               occupation of a window.


       ResizeFont string
               This variable specifies the font to be used for in the
               dimensions window when resizing windows.  The default is
               ‘fixed’.


       RestartPreviousState
               This variable indicates that ctwm should attempt to use the
               WM_STATE property on client windows to tell which windows
               should be iconified and which should be left visible.  This is
               typically used to try to regenerate the state that the screen
               was in before the previous window manager was shutdown.


       ReverseCurrentWorkspace string
               This variable tells ctwm to reverse the background and
               foreground colors in the small windows in the workspace map for
               the current workspace.


       SaveColor { colors-list }
               This variable indicates a list of color assignments to be
               stored as pixel values in the root window property
               _MIT_PRIORITY_COLORS.  Clients may elect to preserve these
               values when installing their own colormap.  Note that use of
               this mechanism is a way for an application to avoid the
               ‘technicolor’ problem, whereby useful screen objects such as
               window borders and titlebars disappear when a program's custom
               colors are installed by the window manager.  For example:
               SaveColor
               {
                       BorderColor
                       TitleBackground
                       TitleForeground
                       "red"
                       "green"
                       "blue"
               }
               This would place on the root window 3 pixel values for borders
               and titlebars, as well as the three color strings, all taken
               from the default colormap.


       ShrinkIconTitles
               A la Motif shrinking of icon titles, and expansion when mouse
               is inside icon.  The old incorrect spelling SchrinkIconTitles
               is also still accepted.


       ShortAllWindowsMenus
               Don't show WorkSpaceManager and IconManagers in the TwmWindows
               and TwmAllWindows menus.


       ShowIconManager
               This variable indicates that the icon manager window should be
               displayed when ctwm is started.  It can always be brought up
               using the f.showiconmgr function.


       ShowWorkSpaceManager
               This variable specifies that the WorkSpaceManager should be
               visible.


       SloppyFocus
               Use sloppy focus.


       SortIconManager
               This variable indicates that entries in the icon manager should
               be sorted alphabetically rather than by simply appending new
               windows to the end.


       SoundHost
               The host on which sounds should be played.  See the SOUNDS
               section.


       SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }]
               This variable indicates that ctwm should attempt to use the
               SHAPE extension to make titlebars occupy only as much screen
               space as they need, rather than extending all the way across
               the top of the window.  The optional squeeze-list may be used
               to control the location of the squeezed titlebar along the top
               of the window.  It contains entries of the form:
                    "name"         justification  num  denom
               where name is a window name, justification is either left,
               center, or right, and num and denom are numbers specifying a
               ratio giving the relative position about which the titlebar is
               justified.  The ratio is measured from left to right if the
               numerator is positive, and right to left if negative.  A
               denominator of 0 indicates that the numerator should be
               measured in pixels.  For convenience, the ratio 0/0 is the same
               as 1/2 for center and -1/1 for right.  For example:
               SqueezeTitle
               {
                    "XTerm"   left      0    0
                    "xterm1"  left      1    3
                    "xterm2"  left      2    3
                    "oclock"  center         0    0
                    "emacs"   right          0    0
               }
               The DontSqueezeTitle list can be used to turn off squeezing on
               certain titles.


       StartIconified [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that client windows should initially be
               left as icons until explicitly deiconified by the user.  If the
               optional win-list is given, only those windows will be started
               iconic.  This is useful for programs that do not support an
               -iconic command line option or resource.


       StartInMapState
               This variable specifies that the WorkSpaceManager should be
               started in its map form when created.


       StartSqueezed { win-list }
               These windows will first show up squeezed (see f.squeeze).


       StayUpMenus
               Tells ctwm to use stayup menus. These menus will stay on the
               screen when ButtonUp, if either the menu has not yet been
               entered by the pointer, or the current item is a f.title.


       SunkFocusWindowTitle
               This variable specifies that the title of the focus window (if
               exists) should be sunken instead of raised. Only valid if
               UseThreeDTitles is set.


       ThreeDBorderWidth  pixels
               The width of the 3D border in pixels, if any.


       TitleBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the background color used in titlebars,
               and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list.
               The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so
               that per-window colors may be specified.  The default is
               ‘white’.


       TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels
               This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border
               surrounding titlebuttons.  This is typically set to 0 to allow
               titlebuttons to take up as much space as possible and to not
               have a border.  The default is 1 if UseThreeDTitles is not set,
               0 if it is set.


       TitleButtonShadowDepth pixels
               This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for
               3D title buttons, when UseThreeDTitles is selected.


       TitleFont string
               This variable specifies the font used for displaying window
               names in titlebars.  The default is ‘variable’.


       TitleForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the foreground color used in titlebars,
               and may only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list.
               The optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so
               that per-window colors may be specified.  The default is
               ‘black’.


       TitleJustification string
               This keyword needs a string value. The acceptable values are :
               ‘left’, ‘center’ and ‘right’. The window titles will be
               justified according to this in the title window.


       TitlePadding pixels
               This variable specifies the distance between the various
               buttons, text, and highlight areas in the titlebar.  The
               default is 8 pixels if UseThreeDTitles is not set, 0 if it is
               set.


       TitleShadowDepth pixels
               This variable specifies the depth of the shadow ctwm uses for
               3D titles, when UseThreeDTitles is selected.


       TransientHasOccupation
               This variable specifies that transient-for and non-group leader
               windows can have their own occupation potentially different
               from their leader window. The default case is that these
               windows follow their leader, use this keyword if the default
               action doesn't please you.


       TransientOnTop percentage
               The parameter (required) is a percentage and tells ctwm to put
               transient (and non-group leader) windows always on top of their
               leader if and only if their surface is smaller than this
               fraction of the surface of their leader. The surface of a
               window is its width times its weight.


       UnknownIcon string
               This variable specifies the filename of a bitmap file to be
               used as the default icon.  This bitmap will be used as the icon
               of all clients which do not provide an icon bitmap and are not
               listed in the Icons list.


       UnmapByMovingFarAway [{ win-list }]
               These windows will be moved out of the screen instead of being
               unmapped when they become invisible due to a change workspace.
               This has been added because some ill-behaved clients (Frame5)
               don't like to be unmapped.


       UsePPosition string
               This variable specifies whether or not ctwm should honor
               program-requested locations (given by the PPosition flag in the
               WM_NORMAL_HINTS property) in the absence of a user-specified
               position.  The argument string may have one of three values:
               "off" (the default) indicating that ctwm should ignore the
               program-supplied position, "on" indicating that the position
               should be used, and "non-zero" indicating that the position
               should used if it is other than (0,0).  The latter option is
               for working around a bug in older toolkits.


       UseSunkTitlePixmap
               This makes it so the shadows are inversed for title pixmaps
               when focus is lost.  This is similar to having the
               SunkFocusWindowTitle, but it makes your xbm or 3d XPM (if any)
               sink instead of just the whole bar.


       UseThreeDBorders
               Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking window borders. The width ot the
               3D borders is ThreeDBorderWidth. The color of the 3D border is
               BorderTileBackground, and if NoHighlight is not selected, the
               border of the Focus window is BorderColor.


       UseThreeDIconManagers
               Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking IconManagers if any.


       UseThreeDMenus
               Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking menus.


       UseThreeDTitles
               Tells ctwm to use 3D-looking windows titles. In which case the
               default values of TitleButtonBorderWidth, FramePadding,
               TitlePadding and ButtonIndent are set to 0.  There are plenty
               of built-in scalable pixmaps for buttons, :xpm:menu, :xpm:dot,
               :xpm:cross, :xpm:bar, :xpm:vbar, :xpm:iconify, :xpm:resize,
               :xmp:sunkresize and :xpm:box. There are several built-in
               scalable animations for buttons : %xpm:resize, %xpm:menu-up,
               %xpm:menu-down, %xpm:resize-out-top, %xpm:resize-in-top,
               %xpm:resize-out-bot, %xpm:resize-in-bot, %xpm:maze-out,
               %xpm:maze-in, %xpm:zoom-out, %xpm:zoom-in and %xpm:zoom-inout.
               Try them to see what they look like.


       UseThreeDWMap
               Tells ctwm to use 3D for the small windows in the workspace
               map.


       VirtualScreens { geometries-list }

               This variable specifies a list of geometries for virtual
               screens. Virtual screens are designed to be used when you have
               several physical screens bound together with the Xinerama X
               extension.

               geometries-list is a list of valid geometry strings, that
               correspond to your actual physical screens.

               Example :
               VirtualScreens
               {
                   "1280x1024+0+0"
                   "1600x1200+1280+0"
               }


       WarpCursor [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that the pointer should be warped into
               windows when they are deiconified.  If the optional win-list is
               given, the pointer will only be warped when those windows are
               deiconified.


       WindowBox [{ win-list }]
               creates a new window called a box, where all the client windows
               that match the windows list are opened in, instead of the root
               window. This is useful to group small windows in the same box
               (xload for instance)
               WindowBox "xloadbox" "320x100+0-0" {
                   "xload"
               }


       WindowGeometries [{ win-list }]
               Used to give a default geometry to some clients :
               WindowGeometries {
                   "Mozilla*"       "1000x800+10+10"
                   "jpilot*"        "800x600-0-0"
               }


       WindowRing [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies a list of windows along which the
               f.warpring function cycles. If no argument is given, all the
               windows are in the ring.


       WarpRingOnScreen
               Tells ctwm that f.warpring warps pointer only to windows
               visible in the current workspace.


       WarpToDefaultMenuEntry
               (Useful only with StayUpMenus) When using StayUpMenus, and a
               menu does stays up, the pointer is warped to the default entry
               of the menu.


       WarpUnmapped
               This variable indicates that that the f.warpto function should
               deiconify any iconified windows it encounters.  This is
               typically used to make a key binding that will pop a particular
               window (such as xmh), no matter where it is.  The default is
               for f.warpto to ignore iconified windows.


       WindowRingExclude [{ win-list }]
               All listed windows will be excluded from the WarpRing.


       WMgrButtonShadowDepth depth
               Control the depth of the shadow of the workspace manager
               buttons.


       WMgrHorizButtonIndent nb_pixels
               Specifies the horizontal space, in pixel, between the buttons
               of the workspace manager (in button mode).


       WMgrVertButtonIndent nb_pixels
               Specifies the vertical space, in pixel, between the buttons of
               the workspace manager (in button mode).


       WorkSpaceFont string
               This allows you to specify the font to use for the small
               windows in the workspace manager map. (Try
               ‘-adobe-times-*-r-*--10-*-*-*-*-*-*-*’).


       WorkSpaceManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
               This variable specifies the geometry of the workspace manager
               window. The string argument is standard geometry specification
               that indicates the initial full size of the workspace manager.
               The columns argument indicates the number of columns to use for
               the workspace manager window.
               WorkSpaceManagerGeometry        "360x60+60-0" 8

       WorkSpaces { workspace-list }
               This variable specifies a list of workspaces that are created
               at startup, Where workspace-list is :
               name [{bg-button [fg-button] [bg-root] [fg-root] [pixmap-root]}]

               With :

               bg-button:
                       background color of the corresponding button in the
                       workspace manager.

               fg-button:
                       foreground color of the corresponding button in the
                       workspace manager.

               bg-root:
                       background color of the corresponding root screen.

               fg-root:
                       foreground color of the corresponding root screen.

               pixmap-root:
                       pixmap to display on the corresponding root screen,
                       either the name of a bitmap, xpm:xpmfile, xwd:xwdfile,
                       jpeg:jpgfile, im:imfile or |command_that generate_xwd.

               Example :
               WorkSpaces
               {
                 "One"   {"#686B9F" "white" "DeepSkyBlue3" "white" "jpeg:shark.jpg"}
                 "Two"   {"#619AAE" "white" "firebrick"}
                 "Three" {"#727786" "white" "MidnightBlue" "white" "xpm:ball%.xpm"}
                 "Four"  {"#727786" "white" "white" "white" "|(giftoppm | pnmtoxwd) < 2010.gif"}

                 "Five"  {"#727786" "white" "DeepSkyBlue3" "white" "plaid"}
                 "Six"   {"#619AAE" "white" "DeepSkyBlue3" "white" "xpm:background1"}
                 "Seven" {"#8C5b7A" "white" "chartreuse4"}
                 "Eight" {"#686B9F" "white" "MidnightBlue"}
               }

               The WorkSpaces declaration should come before the Occupy or
               OccupyAll declarations. The maximum number of workspaces is 32.


       XMoveGrid number
               This variable specifies the value to use to constrain window
               movement.  When moving windows around, the x coordinate will
               always be a multiple of this variable. Default is 1.
               f.forcemove ignores this variable.


       XorValue number
               This variable specifies the value to use when drawing window
               outlines for moving and resizing.  This should be set to a
               value that will result in a variety of distinguishable colors
               when exclusive-or'ed with the contents of the user's typical
               screen.  Setting this variable to 1 often gives nice results if
               adjacent colors in the default colormap are distinct.  By
               default, ctwm will attempt to cause temporary lines to appear
               at the opposite end of the colormap from the graphics.


       YMoveGrid number
               This variable specifies the value to use to constrain window
               movement.  When moving windows around, the y coordinate will
               always be a multiple of this variable. Default is 1.
               f.forcemove ignores this variable.


       Zoom [ count ]
               This variable indicates that outlines suggesting movement of a
               window to and from its iconified state should be displayed
               whenever a window is iconified or deiconified.  The optional
               count argument specifies the number of outlines to be drawn.
               The default count is 8.

       The following variables must be set after the fonts have been assigned,
       so it is usually best to put them at the end of the variables or
       beginning of the bindings sections:


       ChangeWorkspaceFunction function
               This variable specifies the function to be executed when the
               user change the current workspace (zap).


       DefaultFunction function
               This variable specifies the function to be executed when a key
               or button event is received for which no binding is provided.
               This is typically bound to f.nop, f.beep, or a menu containing
               window operations.


       DeIconifyFunction function
               This variable specifies the function to be executed when a
               window is deiconified.


       IconifyFunction function
               This variable specifies the function to be executed when a
               window is iconified.


       WindowFunction function
               This variable specifies the function to execute when a window
               is selected from the TwmWindows menu.  If this variable is not
               set, the window will be deiconified and raised.

BINDINGS
       After the desired variables have been set, functions may be attached to
       titlebuttons and key and pointer buttons.  Titlebuttons may be added
       from the left or right side and appear in the titlebar from
       left-to-right according to the order in which they are specified.  Key
       and pointer button bindings may be given in any order.

       Titlebuttons specifications must include the name of the pixmap to use
       in the button box and the function to be invoked when a pointer button
       is pressed within them:
       LeftTitleButton "bitmapname"  = function
       or
       LeftTitleButton "bitmapname" {
           Buttoni : function
           ...
           Buttonj : function
       }
       or
       RightTitleButton "bitmapname" = function
       or
       RightTitleButton "bitmapname" {
           Buttoni : function
           ...
           Buttonj : function
       }
       The bitmapname may refer to one of the  built-in bitmaps (which are
       scaled to match TitleFont) by using the appropriate colon-prefixed name
       described above.

       Key and pointer button specifications must give the modifiers that must
       be pressed, over which parts of the screen the pointer must be, and
       what function is to be invoked.  Keys are given as strings containing
       the appropriate keysym name; buttons are given as the keywords
       Button1-Button5:
       "FP1"          = modlist : context : function
       Button1   = modlist : context : function
       The modlist is any combination of the modifier names shift, control,
       lock, meta, mod1, mod2, mod3, mod4, or mod5 (which may be abbreviated
       as s, c, l, m, m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, respectively) separated by a
       vertical bar (|).  Similarly, the context is any combination of window,
       title, icon, root, frame, workspace, iconmgr, their first letters
       (iconmgr abbreviation is m), or all, separated by a vertical bar.  The
       function is any of the f.  keywords described below.  For example, the
       default startup file contains the following bindings:
       Button1   =    : root         : f.menu "TwmWindows"
       Button1   = m  : window | icon     : f.function "move-or-lower"
       Button2   = m  : window | icon     : f.iconify
       Button3   = m  : window | icon     : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button1   =    : title        : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button2   =    : title        : f.raiselower
       Button1   =    : icon         : f.function "move-or-iconify"
       Button2   =    : icon         : f.iconify
       Button1   =    : iconmgr : f.iconify
       Button2   =    : iconmgr : f.iconify
       A user who wanted to be able to manipulate windows from the keyboard
       could use the following bindings:
       "F1"      =    : all          : f.iconify
       "F2"      =    : all          : f.raiselower
       "F3"      =    : all          : f.warpring "next"
       "F4"      =    : all          : f.warpto "xmh"
       "F5"      =    : all          : f.warpto "emacs"
       "F6"      =    : all          : f.colormap "next"
       "F7"      =    : all          : f.colormap "default"
       "F20"          =    : all          : f.warptoscreen "next"
       "Left"         = m  : all          : f.backiconmgr
       "Right"   = m | s   : all          : f.forwiconmgr
       "Up"      = m  : all          : f.upiconmgr
       "Down"    = m | s   : all          : f.downiconmgr
       ctwm provides many more window manipulation primitives than can be
       conveniently stored in a titlebar, menu, or set of key bindings.
       Although a small set of defaults are supplied (unless the NoDefaults is
       specified), most users will want to have their most common operations
       bound to key and button strokes.  To do this, ctwm associates names
       with each of the primitives and provides user-defined functions for
       building higher level primitives and menus for interactively selecting
       among groups of functions.

       User-defined functions contain the name by which they are referenced in
       calls to f.function and a list of other functions to execute.  For
       example:
       Function "move-or-lower" { f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
       Function "move-or-raise" { f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
       Function "move-or-iconify"    { f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
       Function "restore-colormap"   { f.colormap "default" f.lower }
       The function name must be used in f.function exactly as it appears in
       the function specification.

       In the descriptions below, if the function is said to operate on the
       selected window, but is invoked from a root menu, the cursor will be
       changed to the Select cursor and the next window to receive a button
       press will be chosen:

       ! string
               This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.

       f.addtoworkspace string
               This function adds the selected window to the workspace whose
               name is string.

       f.adoptwindow
               This function asks for the user to select a window with the
               mouse, and then adopt this window if it doesn't belong to the
               current ctwm. Useful only with the -w flag.

       f.altcontext
               Set the alternate context. The next key or button event ctwm
               reveives will be interpreted using the alternate context. To
               define bindings in the alternate context, use the keyword alter
               in the context field of the binding command.  For example:
               "Return"= m    : all          : f.altcontext
               "n"  =    : alter        : f.nextworkspace
               "p"  =    : alter        : f.prevworkspace


       f.altkeymap number
               Set the alternate keymap number, where number is an integer
               between 1 and 5 included. The next key or button event ctwm
               reveives will be interpreted using this alternate keymap. To
               define bindings in an alternate keymap, use the keyword a
               followed by number in the modifier field of the binding
               command. For example:
               "Return"= c    : all          : f.altkeymap "1"
               "i"  = a1 : window|icon|iconmgr    : f.iconify
               "z"  = a1 : window  : f.zoom
               "d"  = a1 : window|icon  : f.delete
               "o"  = a1 : window|icon  : f.occupy
               "r"  = a1 : window|icon  : f.refresh

       When using an alternate keymaps, only the root, window, icon and
       iconmgr contexts are allowed.


       f.autolower
               This function toggles whether or not the selected window is
               lowered whenever the pointer leaves it.  See the description of
               the variable AutoLower.


       f.autoraise
               This function toggles whether or not the selected window is
               raised whenever entered by the pointer.  See the description of
               the variable AutoRaise.


       f.backmapiconmgr
               This function warps the  pointer in the same manner as
               f.backiconmgr but only stops at windows that are mapped.


       f.backiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the previous column in the
               current icon manager, wrapping back to the previous row if
               necessary.


       f.beep  This function sounds the keyboard bell.


       f.bottomzoom
               This function is similar to the f.fullzoom function, but
               resizes the window to fill only the bottom half of the screen.


       f.changesize string
               This function allows you to change the size of the focused
               window. The format of the string must be either "<border>
               <+|-><sizechange>" (where border must be one of Top, Bottom,
               Left or Right) or "<x size>x<y size>" (where the size is the
               requested new window size). The height of the window can never
               be set/changed to less than the title height + 1 (or 1 if the
               window has no title) and the width can never be set/changed to
               less than 1.

               "Right"  = c|s: all      : f.changesize "right +10"
               "Left"   = c|s: all      : f.changesize "right -10"
               "Down"   = c|s: all      : f.changesize "bottom +10"
               "Up"     = c|s: all      : f.changesize "bottom -10"

               "F1"     = c|s: all      : f.changesize "640x480"
               "F2"     = c|s: all      : f.changesize "800x600"
               "F3"     = c|s: all      : f.changesize "1024x768"


       f.circledown
               This function lowers the top-most window that occludes another
               window.


       f.circleup
               This function raises the bottom-most window that is occluded by
               another window.


       f.colormap string
               This function rotates the colormaps (obtained from the
               WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS property on the window) that ctwm will
               display when the pointer is in this window.  The argument
               string may have one of the following values: "next", "prev",
               and "default".  It should be noted here that in general, the
               installed colormap is determined by keyboard focus.  A pointer
               driven keyboard focus will install a private colormap upon
               entry of the window owning the colormap.  Using the click to
               type model, private colormaps will not be installed until the
               user presses a mouse button on the target window.

       f.deiconify
               This function deiconifies the selected window.  If the window
               is not an icon, this function does nothing.


       f.delete
               This function sends the WM_DELETE_WINDOW message to the
               selected window if the client application has requested it
               through the WM_PROTOCOLS window property.  The application is
               supposed to respond to the message by removing the indicated
               window.  If the window has not requested WM_DELETE_WINDOW
               messages, the keyboard bell will be rung indicating that the
               user should choose an alternative method.  Note this is very
               different from f.destroy.  The intent here is to delete a
               single window,  not necessarily the entire application.


       f.deleteordestroy
               First tries to delete the window (send it WM_DELETE_WINDOW
               message), or kills it, if the client doesn't accept such
               message.


       f.deltastop
               This function allows a user-defined function to be aborted if
               the pointer has been moved more than MoveDelta pixels.  See the
               example definition given for Function "move-or-raise" at the
               beginning of the section.


       f.destroy
               This function instructs the X server to close the display
               connection of the client that created the selected window.
               This should only be used as a last resort for shutting down
               runaway clients.  See also f.delete.


       f.downiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the next row in the current
               icon manger, wrapping to the beginning of the next column if
               necessary.


       f.downworkspace
               Goto the workspace immediately underneath the current workspace
               in the workspace manager. If the current workspace is the
               bottom one, goto the top one in the same column. The result
               depends on the layout of the workspace manager.


       f.exec string
               This function passes the argument string to /bin/sh for
               execution.  In multiscreen mode, if string starts a new X
               client without giving a display argument, the client will
               appear on the screen from which this function was invoked. If
               the string ‘$currentworkspace’ is present inside the string
               argument, it will be substituted with the current workspace
               name.



       f.fill string
               Where string is either : ‘right’, ‘left’, ‘top’, ‘bottom’ or
               ‘vertical’.  The current window is resized in the specified
               direction until it reaches an obstacle (either another window,
               or the screen border).  f.fill ‘vertical’ sets the window
               status to ‘zoomed’ and toggles, ie calling it again will reset
               the previous window size.


       f.fittocontent
               Can be used only with window boxes. The result is to have the
               box have the minimal size that contains all its children
               windows.


       f.focus This function toggles the keyboard focus of the server to the
               selected window, changing the focus rule from pointer-driven if
               necessary.  If the selected window already was focused, this
               function executes an f.unfocus.


       f.forcemove
               This function is like f.move except that it ignores the
               DontMoveOff variable.


       f.forwiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the next column in the
               current icon manager, wrapping to the beginning of the next row
               if necessary.


       f.forwmapiconmgr
               This function warps the  pointer in the same manner as
               f.forwiconmgr but only stops at windows that are mapped.


       f.fullzoom
               This function resizes the selected window to the full size of
               the display or else restores the original size if the window
               was already zoomed.


       f.function string
               This function executes the user-defined function whose name is
               specified by the argument string.


       f.gotoworkspace workspace_name
               This function warps you to the workspace whose name is
               workspace_name.


       f.hbzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.bottomzoom.


       f.hideiconmgr
               This function unmaps the current icon manager.


       f.hideworkspacemgr
               Unmap the WorkSpace manager.


       f.horizoom
               This variable is similar to the f.zoom function except that the
               selected window is resized to the full width of the display.


       f.htzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.topzoom.


       f.hypermove
               Use this function to ‘move’ a window between 2 captives ctwm
               (or between a captive and the root ctwm). Of course 2 ctwms are
               completely different universes. You have to go in hyperspace to
               achieve this, hence the name.


       f.hzoom This function is a synonym for f.horizoom.


       f.iconify
               This function iconifies or deiconifies the selected window or
               icon, respectively.


       f.identify
               This function displays a summary of the name and geometry of
               the selected window.  Clicking the pointer or pressing a key in
               the window will dismiss it.


       f.initsize
               This function resets a window to its initial size given by the
               WM_NORMAL_HINTS hints.


       f.jumpdown step
               This function is designed to be bound to a key, it moves the
               current window (step * {X,Y}MoveGrid) pixels downward. stopping
               if the window encounters another window or the screen border
               (ala f.pack).


       f.jumpleft step
               Leftward equivalent of f.jumpdown.


       f.jumpright step
               Rightward equivalent of f.jumpdown.


       f.jumpup step
               Upward equivalent of f.jumpdown.


       f.lefticonmgr
               This function similar to f.backiconmgr except that wrapping
               does not change rows.


       f.leftworkspace
               Goto the workspace immediately on the left of the current
               workspace in the workspace manager. If the current workspace is
               the leftest one, goto the rightest one in the same row. The
               result depends on the layout of the workspace manager.


       f.leftzoom
               This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function but
               causes the selected window is only resized to the left half of
               the display.


       f.lower This function lowers the selected window.


       f.menu string
               This function invokes the menu specified by the argument
               string.  Cascaded menus may be built by nesting calls to
               f.menu. When a menu is popped up, you can use the arrow keys to
               move the cursor around it. ‘Down’ or space goes down, ‘Up’ goes
               up, ‘Left’ pops down the menu, and ‘Right’ activates the
               current entry. The first letter of an entry name activates this
               entry (the first one if several entries match). If the first
               letter is ~ then Meta-the-second-letter activates it, if this
               first letter is ^ then Control-the-second-letter activates it,
               and if this first letter is space, then the second letter
               activates it.


       f.move  This function drags an outline of the selected window (or the
               window itself if the OpaqueMove variable is set) until the
               invoking pointer button is released.  Double clicking within
               the number of milliseconds given by ConstrainedMoveTime warps
               the pointer to the center of the window and constrains the move
               to be either horizontal or vertical depending on which grid
               line is crossed.  To abort a move, press another button before
               releasing the first button.


       f.movepack
               This function is like f.move except that it tries to avoid
               overlapping of windows. When the moving window begin to overlap
               with another window, the move is stopped. If you go too far
               over the other window (more that MovePackResistance pixels),
               the move is resumed and the moving window can overlap with the
               other window. Useful to pack windows closely.


       f.movepush
               This function is like f.move except that it tries to avoid
               overlapping of windows. When the moving window begins to
               overlap with another window, the other window is pushed. If you
               go too far over the other window (more that MovePackResistance
               pixels), there is no push and the moving window can overlap
               with the other window. Only available if OpaqueMove is active.


       f.moveresize geometry
               Takes one string argument which is a geometry with the standard
               X geometry syntax (e.g. 200x300+150-0). Sets the current window
               to the specified geometry. The width and height are to be given
               in pixel, no base size or resize increment are used.


       f.movetonextworkspace
               Move the window to the next workspace.


       f.movetoprevworkspace
               Move the window to the previous workspace.


       f.movetonextworkspaceandfollow
               Move the window to the next workspace and go to that workspace.


       f.movetoprevworkspaceandfollow
               Move the window to the previous workspace and go to that
               workspace.


       f.nexticonmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the next icon manager
               containing any windows on the current or any succeeding screen.


       f.nextworkspace
               Goto the next workspace in the list, using the order given in
               the .ctwmrc file.


       f.nop   This function does nothing and is typically used with the
               DefaultFunction or WindowFunction variables or to introduce
               blank lines in menus.


       f.occupy
               This function pops up a window for the user to choose which
               workspaces a window belongs to.


       f.occupyall
               This function makes the specified window occupy all the
               workspaces.


       f.pack string
               Where string is either : ‘right’, ‘left’, ‘top’ or ‘bottom’ The
               current window is moved in the specified direction until it
               reaches an obstacle (either another window, or the screen
               border). The pointer follows the window.


       f.previconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the previous icon manager
               containing any windows on the current or preceding screens.


       f.prevworkspace
               Goto the previous workspace in the list, using the order given
               in the .ctwmrc file.


       f.pin   Valid only in a root menu. Make a menu permanent on the screen.
               This is a toggle function, if you select it while the menu is
               already permanent, it becomes non-permanent.


       f.quit  This function causes ctwm to restore the window's borders and
               exit.  If ctwm is the first client invoked from xdm, this will
               result in a server reset.


       f.raiseicons
               This function raises all the icons in the current workspace.


       f.raise This function raises the selected window.


       f.raiselower
               This function raises the selected window to the top of the
               stacking order if it is occluded by any windows, otherwise the
               window will be lowered.


       f.removefromworkspace string
               This function removes the selected window from the workspace
               whose name is string.


       f.refresh
               This function causes all windows to be refreshed.


       f.rereadsounds
               This function causes the .ctwm-sounds file to be re-read.  See
               the SOUNDS section.


       f.resize
               This function displays an outline of the selected window.
               Crossing a border (or setting AutoRelativeResize) will cause
               the outline to begin to rubber band until the invoking button
               is released.  To abort a resize, press another button before
               releasing the first button.


       f.restart
               This function kills and restarts ctwm.


       f.restoregeometry
               Restore the current window geometry to what was saved in the
               last call to f.savegeometry.


       f.righticonmgr
               This function is similar to f.nexticonmgr except that wrapping
               does not change rows.


       f.rightworkspace
               Goto the workspace immediately on the right of the current
               workspace in the workspace manager. If the current workspace is
               the rightest one, goto the leftest one in the same row. The
               result depends on the layout of the workspace manager.


       f.rightzoom
               This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function except
               that the selected window is only resized to the right half of
               the display.


       f.ring  Selects a window and adds it to the WarpRing, or removes it if
               it was already in the ring. This command makes f.warpring  much
               more useful, by making its configuration dynamic.


       f.savegeometry
               The geometry of the current window is saved. The next call to
               f.restoregeometry will restore this window to this geometry.


       f.saveyourself
               This function sends a WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to the selected
               window if it has requested the message in its WM_PROTOCOLS
               window property.  Clients that accept this message are supposed
               to checkpoint all state associated with the window and update
               the WM_COMMAND property as specified in the ICCCM.  If the
               selected window has not selected for this message, the keyboard
               bell will be rung.


       f.separator
               Valid only in menus. The effect is to add a line separator
               between the previous and the following entry. The name selector
               part in the menu is not used (but must be present).


       f.setbuttonsstate
               Set the WorkSpace manager in button state.


       f.setmapstate
               Set the WorkSpace manager in map state.


       f.showiconmgr
               This function maps the current icon manager.


       f.sorticonmgr
               This function sorts the entries in the current icon manager
               alphabetically.  See the variable SortIconManager.


       f.showbackground
               This function unmaps all windows in the current workspace. This
               is a toggle function, if all windows are unmapped, they are all
               remapped. Better bind this function in the root context.


       f.showworkspacemgr
               Map the WorkSpace manager.


       f.slowdownanimation
               Decrease AnimationSpeed by 1.


       f.speedupanimation
               Increase AnimationSpeed by 1.


       f.squeeze
               f.squeeze squeezes a window to a null vertical size. Works only
               for windows with either a title, or a 3D border (in order to
               have something left on the screen). If the window is already
               squeezed, it is unsqueezed.


       f.startanimation
               Restart freezed animations (if any).


       f.stopanimation
               Freeze animations (if any).


       f.title This function provides a centered, unselectable item in a menu
               definition.  It should not be used in any other context.


       f.toggleoccupation string
               This function adds the selected window to the workspace whose
               name is string if it doesn't already belongs to it, and removes
               it from this workspace if not.


       f.togglesound
               Toggle sound on/off.  See the SOUNDS section.


       f.togglestate
               Toggle the state of the WorkSpace manager.


       f.toggleworkspacemgr
               Toggle the presence of the WorkSpaceManager. If it is mapped,
               it will be unmapped and vice versa.


       f.topzoom
               This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function except
               that the selected window is only resized to the top half of the
               display.



       f.unfocus
               This function resets the focus back to pointer-driven.  This
               should be used when a focused window is no longer desired.


       f.upiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the previous row in the
               current icon manager, wrapping to the last row in the same
               column if necessary.


       f.upworkspace
               Goto the workspace immediately above the current workspace in
               the workspace manager. If the current workspace is the top one,
               goto the bottom one in the same column. The result depends on
               the layout of the workspace manager.


       f.vanish
               The specified window vanishes from the current workspace if it
               occupies at least one other WorkSpace. Do nothing in the others
               cases.

       f.vlzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.leftzoom.


       f.vrzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.rightzoom.


       f.warphere win_name
               This function adds the window which has a name or class that
               matches string to the current workspace and warps the pointer
               to it. If the window is iconified, it will be deiconified if
               the variable WarpUnmapped is set or else ignored.


       f.warpring string
               This function warps the pointer to the next or previous window
               (as indicated by the argument string, which may be "next" or
               "prev") specified in the WindowRing variable.


       f.warpto string
               This function warps the pointer to the window which has a name
               or class that matches string.  If the window is iconified, it
               will be deiconified if the variable WarpUnmapped is set or else
               ignored.


       f.warptoiconmgr string
               This function warps the pointer to the icon manager entry
               associated with the window containing the pointer in the icon
               manager specified by the argument string.  If string is empty
               (i.e. ""), the current icon manager is chosen.


       f.warptoscreen string
               This function warps the pointer to the screen specified by the
               argument string.  String may be a number (e.g. "0" or "1"), the
               word "next" (indicating the current screen plus 1, skipping
               over any unmanaged screens), the word "back" (indicating the
               current screen minus 1, skipping over any unmanaged screens),
               or the word "prev" (indicating the last screen visited.

       f.winrefresh
               This function is similar to the f.refresh function except that
               only the selected window is refreshed.

       f.zoom  This function is similar to the f.fullzoom function, except
               that the only the height of the selected window is changed.

MENUS
       Functions may be grouped and interactively selected using pop-up (when
       bound to a pointer button) or pull-down (when associated with a
       titlebutton) menus.  Each menu specification contains the name of the
       menu as it will be referred to by f.menu, optional default foreground
       and background colors, the list of item names and the functions they
       should invoke, and optional foreground and background colors for
       individual items:
       Menu "menuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ]
       {
            string1   [ ("fore1":"backn")]     function1
            string2   [ ("fore2":"backn")]     function2
                 .
                 .
                 .
            stringN   [ ("foreN":"backN")]     functionN
       }

       The menuname is case-sensitive.  The optional deffore and defback
       arguments specify the foreground and background colors used on a color
       display to highlight menu entries.  The string portion of each menu
       entry will be the text which will appear in the menu.  The optional
       fore and back arguments specify the foreground and background colors of
       the menu entry when the pointer is not in the entry.  These colors will
       only be used on a color display.  The default is to use the colors
       specified by the MenuForeground and MenuBackground variables.  The
       function portion of the menu entry is one of the functions, including
       any user-defined functions, or additional menus.

       There are 3 special menus. TwmWindows contains the names of all of the
       client and ctwm-supplied windows in the current workspace.  Selecting
       an entry will cause the WindowFunction to be executed on that window.
       If WindowFunction hasn't been set, the window will be deiconified and
       raised. TwmWorkspaces contains the names of your workspaces, selecting
       an entry goto this workspace. In addition, these entries have submenus
       containing the names of all windows occupying this workspace, selecting
       such an entry executes f.warpto on this window. And finally,
       TwmAllWindows contains the names of all the windows ctwm manages.
       Selecting an entry executes f.warpto on this window.

       If an entry name begins with a ‘*’ (star), this star won't be displayed
       and the corresponding entry will be the default entry for this menu.
       When a menu has a default entry and is used as a submenu of another
       menu, this default entry action will be executed automatically when
       this submenu is selected without being displayed. It's hard to explain,
       but easy to understand.

ICONS
       ctwm supports several different ways of manipulating iconified windows.
       The common pixmap-and-text style may be laid out by hand or
       automatically arranged as described by the IconRegion variable.  In
       addition, a terse grid of icon names, called an icon manager, provides
       a more efficient use of screen space as well as the ability to navigate
       among windows from the keyboard.

       An icon manager is a window that contains names of selected or all
       windows currently on the display.  In addition to the window name, a
       small button using the default iconify symbol will be displayed to the
       left of the name when the window is iconified.  By default, clicking on
       an entry in the icon manager performs f.iconify.  To change the actions
       taken in the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when specifying
       button and keyboard bindings.

       Moving the pointer into the icon manager also directs keyboard focus to
       the indicated window (setting the focus explicitly or else sending
       synthetic events NoTitleFocus is set).  Using the f.upiconmgr,
       f.downiconmgr f.lefticonmgr, and f.righticonmgr functions, the input
       focus can be changed between windows directly from the keyboard.

SOUNDS
       If compiled with the USE_SOUND flag, ctwm is able to play sounds for
       any X event.  ctwm will look for the file .ctwm-sounds in the user's
       home directory to map every X event to a sound file to be played.

       Each line in .ctwm-sounds has the following syntax:
       {X event}: {sound file}
       The currently known X events that can be given are:
       KeyPress
       KeyRelease
       ButtonPress
       ButtonRelease
       MotionNotify
       EnterNotify
       LeaveNotify
       FocusIn
       FocusOut
       KeymapNotify
       Expose
       GraphicsExpose
       NoExpose
       VisibilityNotify
       CreateNotify
       DestroyNotify
       UnmapNotify
       MapNotify
       MapRequest
       ReparentNotify
       ConfigureNotify
       ConfigureRequest
       GravityNotify
       ResizeRequest
       CirculateNotify
       CirculateRequest
       PropertyNotify
       SelectionClear
       SelectionRequest
       SelectionNotify
       ColormapNotify
       ClientMessage
       MappingNotify
       Additionally, the following two are recognised, and represent the time
       when ctwm is started or shut down:
       Startup
       Shutdown

BUGS
       The resource manager should have been used instead of all of the window
       lists.

       The IconRegion variable should take a list.

       Double clicking very fast to get the constrained move function will
       sometimes cause the window to move, even though the pointer is not
       moved.

       If IconifyByUnmapping is on and windows are listed in
       IconManagerDontShow but not in DontIconifyByUnmapping, they may be lost
       if they are iconified and no bindings to f.menu "TwmWindows" or
       f.warpto are setup.

FILES
       $HOME/.ctwmrc.<screen number>
       $HOME/.ctwmrc
       /usr/lib/X11/twm/system.ctwmrc
       $HOME/.twmrc

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       DISPLAY This variable is used to determine which X server to use.  It
               is also set during f.exec so that programs come up on the
               proper screen.

       HOME    This variable is used as the prefix for files that begin with a
               tilde and for locating the ctwm startup file.

SEE ALSO
       X(1), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1)

COPYRIGHT
       Portions copyright 1988 Evans & Sutherland Computer Corporation;
       portions copyright 1989 Hewlett-Packard Company and the Massachusetts
       Institute of Technology,  See X(1) for a full statement of rights and
       permissions.

AUTHORS
       Tom LaStrange, Solbourne Computer; Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium; Steve
       Pitschke, Stardent Computer; Keith Packard, MIT X Consortium; Dave
       Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave Payne, Apple Computer; Claude
       Lecommandeur, Swiss Polytechnical Institute of Lausanne
       (lecom@sic.epfl.ch); Richard Levitte (richard@levitte.org).



                                  Version 3.7                          CTWM(1)