curl

curl(1)                           Curl Manual                          curl(1)



NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl is a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the
       supported protocols (HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, DICT, TELNET, LDAP
       or FILE). The command is designed to work without user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user
       authentication, ftp upload, HTTP post, SSL (https:) connections,
       cookies, file transfer resume and more. As you will see below, the
       amount of features will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by libcurl for all transfer-related features. See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The URL syntax is protocol dependent. You'll find a detailed
       description in RFC 2396.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs by writing part sets
       within braces as in:

        http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
        ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       No nesting of the sequences is supported at the moment, but you can use
       several ones next to each other:

        http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line. They will be
       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

       Curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that getting many files from the same server will not do multiple
       connects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only done
       on files specified on a single command line and cannot be used between
       separate curl invokes.

OPTIONS
       -a/--append
              (FTP) When used in an FTP upload, this will tell curl to append
              to the target file instead of overwriting it. If the file
              doesn't exist, it will be created.

              If this option is used twice, the second one will disable append
              mode again.

       -A/--user-agent <agent string>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
              Some badly done CGIs fail if its not set to "Mozilla/4.0".  To
              encode blanks in the string, surround the string with single
              quote marks.  This can also be set with the -H/--header option
              of course.

              If this option is set more than once, the last one will be the
              one that's used.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
              and use the most secure one the remote site claims it supports.
              This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-
              headers, thus inducing an extra network round-trip. This is used
              instead of setting a specific authentication method, which you
              can do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and --negotiate. (Added
              in 7.10.6)

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       -b/--cookie <name=data>
              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is
              supposedly the data previously received from the server in a
              "Set-Cookie:" line.  The data should be in the format
              "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

              If no '=' letter is used in the line, it is treated as a
              filename to use to read previously stored cookie lines from,
              which should be used in this session if they match. Using this
              method also activates the "cookie parser" which will make curl
              record incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you're using
              this in combination with the -L/--location option. The file
              format of the file to read cookies from should be plain HTTP
              headers or the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

              NOTE that the file specified with -b/--cookie is only used as
              input. No cookies will be stored in the file. To store cookies,
              use the -c/--cookie-jar option or you could even save the HTTP
              headers to a file using -D/--dump-header!

              If this option is set more than once, the last one will be the
              one that's used.

       -B/--use-ascii
              Use ASCII transfer when getting an FTP file or LDAP info. For
              FTP, this can also be enforced by using an URL that ends with
              ";type=A". This option causes data sent to stdout to be in text
              mode for win32 systems.

              If this option is used twice, the second one will disable ASCII
              usage.

       --basic
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication. This is the
              default and this option is usually pointless, unless you use it
              to override a previously set option that sets a different
              authentication method (such as --ntlm, --digest and
              --negotiate). (Added in 7.10.6)

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
              of ciphers must be using valid ciphers. Read up on SSL cipher
              list details on this URL:
              http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

              If this option is used several times, the last one will override
              the others.

       --compressed
              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms
              libcurl supports, and return the uncompressed document.  If this
              option is used and the server sends an unsupported encoding,
              Curl will report an error.

              If this option is used several times, each occurrence will
              toggle it on/off.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow the connection to the
              server to take.  This only limits the connection phase, once
              curl has connected this option is of no more use. See also the
              -m/--max-time option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -c/--cookie-jar <file name>
              Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies after a
              completed operation. Curl writes all cookies previously read
              from a specified file as well as all cookies received from
              remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no file will be
              written. The file will be written using the Netscape cookie file
              format. If you set the file name to a single dash, "-", the
              cookies will be written to stdout.

              NOTE If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole
              curl operation won't fail or even report an error clearly. Using
              -v will get a warning displayed, but that is the only visible
              feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

              If this option is used several times, the last specfied file
              name will be used.

       -C/--continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at the given offset.
              The given offset is the exact number of bytes that will be
              skipped counted from the beginning of the source file before it
              is transfered to the destination.  If used with uploads, the ftp
              server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to
              resume the transfer. It then uses the given output/input files
              to figure that out.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
              When used in conjunction with the -o option, curl will create
              the necessary local directory hierarchy as needed. This option
              creates the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing else. If
              the -o file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions already
              exist, no dir will be created.

              To create remote directories when using FTP, try --ftp-create-
              dirs.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable crlf
              converting.

       -d/--data <data>
              (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST request to the HTTP
              server, in a way that can emulate as if a user has filled in a
              HTML form and pressed the submit button. Note that the data is
              sent exactly as specified with no extra processing (with all
              newlines cut off).  The data is expected to be "url-encoded".
              This will cause curl to pass the data to the server using the
              content-type application/x-www-form-urlencoded. Compare to
              -F/--form. If this option is used more than once on the same
              command line, the data pieces specified will be merged together
              with a separating &-letter. Thus, using '-d name=daniel -d
              skill=lousy' would generate a post chunk that looks like
              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
              file name to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read
              the data from stdin.  The contents of the file must already be
              url-encoded. Multiple files can also be specified. Posting data
              from a file named 'foobar' would thus be done with --data
              @foobar".

              To post data purely binary, you should instead use the --data-
              binary option.

              -d/--data is the same as --data-ascii.

              If this option is used several times, the ones following the
              first will append data.

       --data-ascii <data>
              (HTTP) This is an alias for the -d/--data option.

              If this option is used several times, the ones following the
              first will append data.

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data in a similar manner as --data-ascii does,
              although when using this option the entire context of the posted
              data is kept as-is. If you want to post a binary file without
              the strip-newlines feature of the --data-ascii option, this is
              for you.

              If this option is used several times, the ones following the
              first will append data.

       --digest
              (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is a
              authentication that prevents the password from being sent over
              the wire in clear text. Use this in combination with the normal
              -u/--user option to set user name and password. See also --ntlm,
              --negotiate and --anyauth for related options. (Added in curl
              7.10.6)

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands
              when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
              attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with this
              option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT are
              extensions to the original FTP protocol, may not work on all
              servers but enable more functionality in a better way than the
              traditional PORT command. (Aded in 7.10.5)

              If this option is used several times, each occurrence will
              toggle this on/off.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPSV command when
              doing passive FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
              attempt to use EPSV before PASV, but with this option, it will
              not try using EPSV.

              If this option is used several times, each occurrence will
              toggle this on/off.

       -D/--dump-header <file>
              Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

              This option is handy to use when you want to store the headers
              that a HTTP site sends to you. Cookies from the headers could
              then be read in a second curl invoke by using the -b/--cookie
              option! The -c/--cookie-jar option is however a better way to
              store cookies.

              When used on FTP, the ftp server response lines are considered
              being "headers" and thus are saved there.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -e/--referer <URL>
              (HTTP) Sends the "Referer Page" information to the HTTP server.
              This can also be set with the -H/--header flag of course.  When
              used with -L/--location you can append ";auto" to the referer
              URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL when it
              follows a Location: header. The ";auto" string can be used
              alone, even if you don't set an initial referer.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --environment
              (RISC OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using the
              names the -w option supports, to easier allow extraction of
              useful information after having run curl.

              If this option is used several times, each occurrence will
              toggle this on/off.

       --egd-file <file>
              (HTTPS) Specify the path name to the Entropy Gathering Daemon
              socket. The socket is used to seed the random engine for SSL
              connections. See also the --random-file option.

       -E/--cert <certificate[:password]>
              (HTTPS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file when
              getting a file with HTTPS. The certificate must be in PEM
              format.  If the optional password isn't specified, it will be
              queried for on the terminal. Note that this certificate is the
              private key and the private certificate concatenated!

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cert-type <type>
              (SSL) Tells curl what certificate type the provided certificate
              is in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
              (HTTPS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to
              verify the peer. The file may contain multiple CA certificates.
              The certificate(s) must be in PEM format.

              curl recognizes the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
              if that is set, and uses the given path as a path to a CA cert
              bundle. This option overrides that variable.

              The windows version of curl will automatically look for a CA
              certs file named ´curl-ca-bundle.crt´, either in the same
              directory as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or
              in any folder along your PATH.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
              (HTTPS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate directory to
              verify the peer. The certificates must be in PEM format, and the
              directory must have been processed using the c_rehash utility
              supplied with openssl. Using --capath can allow curl to make
              https connections much more efficiently than using --cacert if
              the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -f/--fail
              (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server errors. This
              is mostly done like this to better enable scripts etc to better
              deal with failed attempts. In normal cases when a HTTP server
              fails to deliver a document, it returns a HTML document stating
              so (which often also describes why and more). This flag will
              prevent curl from outputting that and fail silently instead.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              silent failure.

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP) When an FTP URL/operation uses a path that doesn't
              currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of curl is
              to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to create
              missing directories. (Added in 7.10.7)

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              silent failure.

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP) Use PASV when transfering. PASV is the internal default
              behavior, but using this option can be used to override a
              previos --ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              silent failure.

       --ftp-ssl
              (FTP) Make the FTP connection switch to use SSL/TLS. (Added in
              7.11.0)

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              silent failure.

       -F/--form <name=content>
              (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled in form in which a user
              has pressed the submit button. This causes curl to POST data
              using the content-type multipart/form-data according to RFC1867.
              This enables uploading of binary files etc. To force the
              'content' part to be be a file, prefix the file name with an @
              sign. To just get the content part from a file, prefix the file
              name with the letter <. The difference between @ and < is then
              that @ makes a file get attached in the post as a file upload,
              while the < makes a text field and just get the contents for
              that text field from a file.

              Example, to send your password file to the server, where
              'password' is the name of the form-field to which /etc/passwd
              will be the input:

              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

              To read the file's content from stdin insted of a file, use -
              where the file name should've been. This goes for both @ and <
              constructs.

              You can also tell curl what Content-Type to use for the file
              upload part, by using 'type=', in a manner similar to:

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       -g/--globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set
              this option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[]
              without having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note that
              these letters are not normal legal URL contents but they should
              be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G/--get
              When used, this option will make all data specified with
              -d/--data or --data-binary to be used in a HTTP GET request
              instead of the POST request that otherwise would be used. The
              data will be appended to the URL with a '?'  separator.

              If used in combination with -I, the POST data will instead be
              appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

              If used multiple times, nothing special happens.

       -h/--help
              Usage help.

       -H/--header <header>
              (HTTP) Extra header to use when getting a web page. You may
              specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you should add
              a custom header that has the same name as one of the internal
              ones curl would use, your externally set header will be used
              instead of the internal one. This allows you to make even
              trickier stuff than curl would normally do. You should not
              replace internally set headers without knowing perfectly well
              what you're doing. Replacing an internal header with one without
              content on the right side of the colon will prevent that header
              from appearing.

              See also the -A/--user-agent and -e/--referer options.

              This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove
              multiple headers.

       -i/--include
              (HTTP) Include the HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header
              includes things like server-name, date of the document, HTTP-
              version and more...

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              header include.

       --interface <name>
              Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can enter
              interface name, IP address or host name. An example could look
              like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -I/--head
              (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature
              the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header
              of a document. When used on a FTP or FILE file, curl displays
              the file size and last modification time only.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              header only.

       -j/--junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
              option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will
              basicly have the same effect as if a new session is started.
              Typical browsers always discard session cookies when they're
              closed down. (Added in 7.9.7)

              If this option is used several times, each occurrence will
              toggle this on/off.

       -k/--insecure
              (SSL) This option explicitly allows curl to perform "insecure"
              SSL connections and transfers. Starting with curl 7.10, all SSL
              connections will be attempted to be made secure by using the CA
              certificate bundle installed by default. This makes all
              connections considered "insecure" to fail unless -k/--insecure
              is used.

              If this option is used twice, the second time will again disable
              it.

       --key <key>
              (SSL) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your private
              key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key-type <type>
              (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key
              provided private key is. DER, PEM and ENG are supported.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --krb4 <level>
              (FTP) Enable kerberos4 authentication and use. The level must be
              entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential' or
              'private'. Should you use a level that is not one of these,
              'private' will instead be used.

              This option requiures that the library was built with kerberos4
              support. This is not very common. Use -V/--version to see if
              your curl supports it.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -K/--config <config file>
              Specify which config file to read curl arguments from. The
              config file is a text file in which command line arguments can
              be written which then will be used as if they were written on
              the actual command line. Options and their parameters must be
              specified on the same config file line. If the parameter is to
              contain white spaces, the parameter must be inclosed within
              quotes.  If the first column of a config line is a '#'
              character, the rest of the line will be treated as a comment.

              Specify the filename as '-' to make curl read the file from
              stdin.

              Note that to be able to specify a URL in the config file, you
              need to specify it using the --url option, and not by simply
              writing the URL on its own line. So, it could look similar to
              this:

              url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify the maximum transfer rate you want curl to use. This
              feature is useful if you have a limited pipe and you'd like your
              transfer not use your entire bandwidth.

              The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is
              appended.  Appending 'k' or 'K' will count the number as
              kilobytes, 'm' or M' makes it megabytes while 'g' or 'G' makes
              it gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

              If you are also using the -Y/--speed-limit option, that option
              will take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting
              slightly, to help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

              This option was introduced in curl 7.10.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l/--list-only
              (FTP) When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a name-
              only view.  Especially useful if you want to machine-parse the
              contents of an FTP directory since the normal directory view
              doesn't use a standard look or format.

              This option causes an FTP NLST command to be sent.  Some FTP
              servers list only files in their response to NLST; they do not
              include subdirectories and symbolic links.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable list
              only.

       -L/--location
              (HTTP/HTTPS) If the server reports that the requested page has a
              different location (indicated with the header line Location:)
              this flag will let curl attempt to reattempt the get on the new
              place. If used together with -i/--include or -I/--head, headers
              from all requested pages will be shown. If authentication is
              used, curl will only send its credentials to the initial host,
              so if a redirect takes curl to a different host, it won't
              intercept the user+password. See also --location-trusted on how
              to change this.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              location following.

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L/--location, but will allow sending the name
              + password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may
              or may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you
              do a site to which you'll send your authentication info (which
              is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              location following.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to download. If
              the file requested is larger than this value, the transfer will
              not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

              NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to download, and
              for such files this option has no effect even if the file
              transfer ends up being larger than this given limit. This
              concerns both FTP and HTTP transfers.

       -m/--max-time <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow the whole operation to
              take.  This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from
              hanging for hours due to slow networks or links going down.
              This doesn't work fully in win32 systems.  See also the
              --connect-timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -M/--manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -n/--netrc
              Makes curl scan the .netrc file in the user's home directory for
              login name and password. This is typically used for ftp on unix.
              If used with http, curl will enable user authentication. See
              netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details on the file format. Curl will not
              complain if that file hasn't the right permissions (it should
              not be world nor group readable). The environment variable
              "HOME" is used to find the home directory.

              A quick and very simple example of how to setup a .netrc to
              allow curl to ftp to the machine host.domain.com with user name
              'myself' and password

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              netrc usage.

       --netrc-optional
              Very similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage
              optional and not mandatory as the --netrc does.

       --negotiate
              (HTTP) Enables GSS-Negotiate authentication. The GSS-Negotiate
              method was designed by Microsoft and is used in their web
              aplications. It is primarily meant as a support for Kerberos5
              authentication but may be also used along with another
              authentication methods. For more information see IETF draft
              draft-brezak-spnego-http-04.txt. (Added in 7.10.6)

              This option requiures that the library was built with GSSAPI
              support. This is not very common. Use -V/--version to see if
              your version supports GSS-Negotiate.

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       -N/--no-buffer
              Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work
              situations, curl will use a standard buffered output stream that
              will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not
              necessarily exactly when the data arrives.  Using this option
              will disable that buffering.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again switch on
              buffering.

       --ntlm (HTTP) Enables NTLM authentication. The NTLM authentication
              method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
              It is a proprietary protocol, reversed engineered by clever
              people and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind
              of behavior should not be endorsed, you should encourage
              everyone who uses NTLM to switch to a public and documented
              authentication method instead. Such as Digest. (Added in 7.10.6)

              If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then
              use --proxy-ntlm.

              This option requiures that the library was built with SSL
              support. Use -V/--version to see if your curl supports NTLM.

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences
              make no difference.

       -o/--output <file>
              Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or
              [] to fetch multiple documents, you can use '#' followed by a
              number in the <file> specifier. That variable will be replaced
              with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in:

                curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

                curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

              You may use this option as many times as you have number of
              URLs.

              See also the --create-dirs option to create the local
              directories dynamically.

       -O/--remote-name
              Write output to a local file named like the remote file we get.
              (Only the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut
              off.)

              You may use this option as many times as you have number of
              URLs.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSL) Pass phrase for the private key

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --proxy-basic
              Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a
              remote host. Basic is the default authentication method curl
              uses with proxies.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              proxy HTTP Basic authentication.

       --proxy-digest
              Tells curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
              a remote host.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              proxy HTTP Digest.

       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote
              host.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              proxy HTTP NTLM.

       -p/--proxytunnel
              When an HTTP proxy is used (-x/--proxy), this option will cause
              non-HTTP protocols to attempt to tunnel through the proxy
              instead of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The
              tunnel approach is made with the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and
              requires that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port
              number curl wants to tunnel through to.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              proxy tunnel.

       -P/--ftp-port <address>
              (FTP) Reverses the initiator/listener roles when connecting with
              ftp. This switch makes Curl use the PORT command instead of
              PASV. In practice, PORT tells the server to connect to the
              client's specified address and port, while PASV asks the server
              for an ip address and port to connect to. <address> should be
              one of:

              interface
                     i.e "eth0" to specify which interface's IP address you
                     want to use  (Unix only)

              IP address
                     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify exact IP number

              host name
                     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify machine

              -      (any single-letter string) to make it pick the machine's
                     default

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
       Disable the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt to use the
       EPRT command instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really
       PORT++.

       -q     If used as the first parameter on the command line, the
              $HOME/.curlrc file will not be read and used as a config file.

       -Q/--quote <comand>
              (FTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP server. Quote
              commands are sent BEFORE the transfer is taking place. To make
              commands take place after a successful transfer, prefix them
              with a dash '-'. You may specify any amount of commands to be
              run before and after the transfer. If the server returns failure
              for one of the commands, the entire operation will be aborted.
              You must send syntactically correct FTP commands as RFC959
              defines.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --random-file <file>
              (HTTPS) Specify the path name to file containing what will be
              considered as random data. The data is used to seed the random
              engine for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

       -r/--range <range>
              (HTTP/FTP) Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial document) from a
              HTTP/1.1 or FTP server. Ranges can be specified in a number of
              ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500      specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

              500-700,600-799
                        specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies two separate 100 bytes ranges(*)(H)

       (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with a multipart
       response!

       You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this
       feature enabled, so that when you attempt to get a range, you'll
       instead get the whole document.

       FTP range downloads only support the simple syntax 'start-stop'
       (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). It depends on the non-RFC
       command SIZE.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -R/--remote-time
              When used, this will make libcurl attempt to figure out the
              timestamp of the remote file, and if that is available make the
              local file get that same timestamp.

              If this option is used twice, the second time disables this
              again.

       -s/--silent
              Silent mode. Don't show progress meter or error messages.  Makes
              Curl mute.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              mute.

       -S/--show-error
              When used with -s it makes curl show error message if it fails.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable show
              error.

       --socks <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy. If the port number is not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Option added in 7.11.1)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x/--proxy, as they
              are mutually exclusive.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If
              the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.
              This option has no point when you're using a shell with decent
              redirecting capabilities.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man
              page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

              If this option is used several times, each occurance toggles
              this on/off.

       -t/--telnet-option <OPT=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       -T/--upload-file <file>
              This transfers the specified local file to the remote URL. If
              there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the
              local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last
              directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name or
              curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file
              name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to
              fail. If this is used on a http(s) server, the PUT command will
              be used.

              Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of a
              given file.

              Before 7.10.8, when this option was used several times, the last
              one was used.

              In curl 7.10.8 and later, you can specify one -T for each URL on
              the command line. Each -T + URL pair specifies what to upload
              and to where. curl also supports "globbing" of the -T argument,
              meaning that you can upload multiple files to a single URL by
              using the same URL globbing style supported in the URL, like
              this:

              curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

              or even

              curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

       --trace <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              (Added in 7.9.7)

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
              including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
              only shows the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output
              that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              (Added in 7.9.7)

       -u/--user <user:password>
              Specify user and password to use for server authentication.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -U/--proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify user and password to use for proxy authentication.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --url <URL>
              Specify a URL to fetch. This option is mostly handy when you
              want to specify URL(s) in a config file.

              This option may be used any number of times. To control where
              this URL is written, use the -o/--output or the -O/--remote-name
              options.

       -v/--verbose
              Makes the fetching more verbose/talkative. Mostly usable for
              debugging. Lines starting with '>' means data sent by curl, '<'
              means data received by curl that is hidden in normal cases and
              lines starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl.

              Note that if you want to see HTTP headers in the output,
              -i/--include might be option you're looking for.

              If you think this option still doesn't give you enough details,
              consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable
              verbose.

       -V/--version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The first line includes the full version of curl, libcurl and
              other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

              The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
              that libcurl reports to support.

              The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
              libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              krb4   Krb4 for ftp is supported.

              SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

              libz   Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP is
                     supported.

              NTLM   NTLM authenticaion is supported.

              GSS-Negotiate
                     Negotiate authenticaion is supported.

              Debug  This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables
                     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc. For curl-
                     developers only!

              AsynchDNS
                     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

              SPNEGO SPNEGO Negotiate authenticaion is supported.

              Largefile
                     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger
                     than 2GB.

              IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

       -w/--write-out <format>
              Defines what to display after a completed and successful
              operation. The format is a string that may contain plain text
              mixed with any number of variables. The string can be specified
              as "string", to get read from a particular file you specify it
              "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format from stdin you
              write "@-".

              The variables present in the output format will be substituted
              by the value or text that curl thinks fit, as described below.
              All variables are specified like %{variable_name} and to output
              a normal % you just write them like %%. You can output a newline
              by using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              NOTE: The %-letter is a special letter in the win32-environment,
              where all occurrences of % must be doubled when using this
              option.

              Available variables are at this point:

              url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is mostly
                             meaningful if you've told curl to follow
                             location: headers.

              http_code      The numerical code that was found in the last
                             retrieved HTTP(S) page.

              time_total     The total time, in seconds, that the full
                             operation lasted. The time will be displayed with
                             millisecond resolution.

              time_namelookup
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start
                             until the name resolving was completed.

              time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from the start
                             until the connect to the remote host (or proxy)
                             was completed.

              time_pretransfer
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start
                             until the file transfer is just about to begin.
                             This includes all pre-transfer commands and
                             negotiations that are specific to the particular
                             protocol(s) involved.

              time_starttransfer
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start
                             until the first byte is just about to be
                             transfered. This includes time_pretransfer and
                             also the time the server needs to calculate the
                             result.

              size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

              size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

              size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded
                             headers.

              size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent in the
                             HTTP request.

              speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for
                             the complete download.

              speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl measured for
                             the complete upload.

              content_type   The Content-Type of the requested document, if
                             there was any. (Added in 7.9.5)

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x/--proxy <proxyhost[:port]>
              Use specified HTTP proxy. If the port number is not specified,
              it is assumed at port 1080.

              This option overrides existing environment variables that sets
              proxy to use. If there's an environment variable setting a
              proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it.

              Note that all operations that are performed over a HTTP proxy
              will transparantly be converted to HTTP. It means that certain
              protocol specific operations might not be available. This is not
              the case if you can tunnel through the proxy, as done with the
              -p/--proxytunnel option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -X/--request <command>
              (HTTP) Specifies a custom request to use when communicating with
              the HTTP server.  The specified request will be used instead of
              the standard GET. Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for details
              and explanations.

              (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
              doing file lists with ftp.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -y/--speed-time <time>
              If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during
              a speed-time period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is
              used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -y.

              This option controls transfers and thus will not affect slow
              connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try the --connect-
              timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -Y/--speed-limit <speed>
              If a download is slower than this given speed, in bytes per
              second, for speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time is
              set with -Y and is 30 if not set.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -z/--time-cond <date expression>
              (HTTP) Request to get a file that has been modified later than
              the given time and date, or one that has been modified before
              that time. The date expression can be all sorts of date strings
              or if it doesn't match any internal ones, it tries to get the
              time from a given file name instead! See the GNU date(1) or
              curl_getdate(3) man pages for date expression details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for
              a document that is older than the given date/time, default is a
              document that is newer than the specified date/time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -Z/--max-redirs <num>
              Set maximum number of redirection-followings allowed. If
              -L/--location is used, this option can be used to prevent curl
              from following redirections "in absurdum".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -0/--http1.0
              (HTTP) Forces curl to issue its requests using HTTP 1.0 instead
              of using its internally preferred: HTTP 1.1.

       -1/--tlsv1
              (HTTPS) Forces curl to use TSL version 1 when negotiating with a
              remote TLS server.

       -2/--sslv2
              (HTTPS) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating with a
              remote SSL server.

       -3/--sslv3
              (HTTPS) Forces curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a
              remote SSL server.

       -4/--ipv4
              If libcurl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP
              versions (which it is if it is ipv6-capable), this option tells
              libcurl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only. (Added in
              7.10.8)

       -6/--ipv6
              If libcurl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP
              versions (which it is if it is ipv6-capable), this option tells
              libcurl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only. (Added in
              7.10.8)

       -#/--progress-bar
              Make curl display progress information as a progress bar instead
              of the default statistics.

              If this option is used twice, the second will again disable the
              progress bar.

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
              Default config file.


ENVIRONMENT
       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       FTP_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use for FTP.

       GOPHER_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use for GOPHER.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
              list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy. If set
              to a asterisk

EXIT CODES
       There exists a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding
       error messages that may appear during bad conditions. At the time of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
              protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformat. The syntax was not correct.

       4      URL user malformatted. The user-part of the URL syntax was not
              correct.

       5      Couldn't resolve proxy. The given proxy host could not be
              resolved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      FTP weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't
              parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login.

       10     FTP user/password incorrect. Either one or both were not
              accepted by the server.

       11     FTP weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
              PASS request.

       12     FTP weird USER reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
              USER request.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
              PASV request.

       14     FTP weird 227 format. Curl couldn't parse the 227-line the
              server sent.

       15     FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got in the
              227-line.

       16     FTP can't reconnect. Couldn't connect to the host we got in the
              227-line.

       17     FTP couldn't set binary. Couldn't change transfer method to
              binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transfered.

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or
              similar) command failed.

       20     FTP write error. The transfer was reported bad by the server.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP page not retrieved. The requested url was not found or
              returned another error with the HTTP error code being 400 or
              above. This return code only appears if -f/--fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or
              similar.

       24     Malformed user. User name badly specified.

       25     FTP couldn't STOR file. The server denied the STOR operation,
              used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation timeout. The specified time-out period was reached
              according to the conditions.

       29     FTP couldn't set ASCII. The server returned an unknown reply.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers
              support the PORT command, try doing a transfer using PASV
              instead!

       31     FTP couldn't use REST. The REST command failed. This command is
              used for resumed FTP transfers.

       32     FTP couldn't use SIZE. The SIZE command failed. The command is
              an extension to the original FTP spec RFC 959.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     FTP bad download resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted
              download.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       40     Library not found. The LDAP library was not found.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the
              operation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       44     Internal error. A function was called in a bad order.

       45     Interface error. A specified outgoing interface could not be
              used.

       46     Bad password entered. An error was signaled when the password
              was entered.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the
              maximum amount.

       48     Unknown TELNET option specified.

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The remote peer's SSL certificate wasn't ok

       52     The server didn't reply anything, which here is considered an
              error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default

       55     Failed sending network data

       56     Failure in receiving network data

       57     Share is in use (internal error)

       58     Problem with the local certificate

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher

       60     Problem with the CA cert (path? permission?)

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding

       62     Invalid LDAP URL

       63     Maximum file size exceeded

       XX     There will appear more error codes here in future releases. The
              existing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of contributors
       is found in the separate THANKS file.

WWW
       http://curl.haxx.se

FTP
       ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1), snarf(1)



Curl 7.12                         3 May 2004                           curl(1)