ncurses(3X)                                                        ncurses(3X)

       ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package

       #include <curses.h>

       The ncurses library routines give the user a terminal-independent
       method of updating character screens with reasonable optimization.
       This implementation is “new curses” (ncurses) and is the approved
       replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses, which has been discontinued.
       This describes ncurses version 5.9 (patch 20140222).

       The ncurses library emulates the curses library of System V Release 4
       UNIX, and XPG4 (X/Open Portability Guide) curses (also known as XSI
       curses).  XSI stands for X/Open System Interfaces Extension.  The
       ncurses library is freely redistributable in source form.  Differences
       from the SVr4 curses are summarized under the EXTENSIONS and
       PORTABILITY sections below and described in detail in the respective
       EXTENSIONS, PORTABILITY and BUGS sections of individual man pages.

       The ncurses library also provides many useful extensions, i.e.,
       features which cannot be implemented by a simple add-on library but
       which require access to the internals of the library.

       A program using these routines must be linked with the -lncurses
       option, or (if it has been generated) with the debugging library
       -lncurses_g.  (Your system integrator may also have installed these
       libraries under the names -lcurses and -lcurses_g.)  The ncurses_g
       library generates trace logs (in a file called 'trace' in the current
       directory) that describe curses actions.  See also the section on

       The ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad
       manipulation; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input;
       control over terminal and curses input and output options; environment
       query routines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys; terminfo
       capabilities; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.

       The library uses the locale which the calling program has initialized.
       That is normally done with setlocale:

             setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

       If the locale is not initialized, the library assumes that characters
       are printable as in ISO-8859-1, to work with certain legacy programs.
       You should initialize the locale and not rely on specific details of
       the library when the locale has not been setup.

       The function initscr or newterm must be called to initialize the
       library before any of the other routines that deal with windows and
       screens are used.  The routine endwin must be called before exiting.

       To get character-at-a-time input without echoing (most interactive,
       screen oriented programs want this), the following sequence should be

             initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

             intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
             keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before a curses program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be
       set and its initialization strings, if defined, must be output.  This
       can be done by executing the @TPUT@ init command after the shell
       environment variable TERM has been exported.  @TSET@(1) is usually
       responsible for doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]

       The ncurses library permits manipulation of data structures, called
       windows, which can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays of
       characters representing all or part of a CRT screen.  A default window
       called stdscr, which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied.
       Others may be created with newwin.

       Note that curses does not handle overlapping windows, that's done by
       the panel(3X) library.  This means that you can either use stdscr or
       divide the screen into tiled windows and not using stdscr at all.
       Mixing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.

       Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *.  These data
       structures are manipulated with routines described here and elsewhere
       in the ncurses manual pages.  Among those, the most basic routines are
       move and addch.  More general versions of these routines are included
       with names beginning with w, allowing the user to specify a window.
       The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.

       After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh is called, telling
       curses to make the user's CRT screen look like stdscr.  The characters
       in a window are actually of type chtype, (character and attribute data)
       so that other information about the character may also be stored with
       each character.

       Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.  These are windows
       which are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose contents
       need not be completely displayed.  See curs_pad(3X) for more

       In addition to drawing characters on the screen, video attributes and
       colors may be supported, causing the characters to show up in such
       modes as underlined, in reverse video, or in color on terminals that
       support such display enhancements.  Line drawing characters may be
       specified to be output.  On input, curses is also able to translate
       arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single
       values.  The video attributes, line drawing characters, and input
       values use names, defined in <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE,
       and KEY_LEFT.

       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the
       program is executing in a window environment, line and column
       information in the environment will override information read by
       terminfo.  This would affect a program running in an AT&T 630 layer,
       for example, where the size of a screen is changeable (see

       If the environment variable TERMINFO is defined, any program using
       curses checks for a local terminal definition before checking in the
       standard place.  For example, if TERM is set to att4424, then the
       compiled terminal definition is found in


       (The a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid creation of
       huge directories.)  However, if TERMINFO is set to $HOME/myterms,
       curses first checks


       and if that fails, it then checks


       This is useful for developing experimental definitions or when write
       permission in /usr/share/misc/terminfo is not available.

       The integer variables LINES and COLS are defined in <curses.h> and will
       be filled in by initscr with the size of the screen.  The constants
       TRUE and FALSE have the values 1 and 0, respectively.

       The curses routines also define the WINDOW * variable curscr which is
       used for certain low-level operations like clearing and redrawing a
       screen containing garbage.  The curscr can be used in only a few

   Routine and Argument Names
       Many curses routines have two or more versions.  The routines prefixed
       with w require a window argument.  The routines prefixed with p require
       a pad argument.  Those without a prefix generally use stdscr.

       The routines prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to
       before performing the appropriate action.  The mv routines imply a call
       to move before the call to the other routine.  The coordinate y always
       refers to the row (of the window), and x always refers to the column.
       The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y
       coordinates.  The window argument is always specified before the

       In each case, win is the window affected, and pad is the pad affected;
       win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the value TRUE
       or FALSE; bf is always of type bool.  Most of the data types used in
       the library routines, such as WINDOW, SCREEN, bool, and chtype are
       defined in <curses.h>.  Types used for the terminfo routines such as
       TERMINAL are defined in <term.h>.

       This manual page describes functions which may appear in any
       configuration of the library.  There are two common configurations of
       the library:

                   the "normal" library, which handles 8-bit characters.  The
                   normal (8-bit) library stores characters combined with
                   attributes in chtype data.

                   Attributes alone (no corresponding character) may be stored
                   in chtype or the equivalent attr_t data.  In either case,
                   the data is stored in something like an integer.

                   Each cell (row and column) in a WINDOW is stored as a

                   the so-called "wide" library, which handles multibyte
                   characters (see the section on ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS).
                   The "wide" library includes all of the calls from the
                   "normal" library.  It adds about one third more calls using
                   data types which store multibyte characters:

                        corresponds to chtype.  However it is a structure,
                        because more data is stored than can fit into an
                        integer.  The characters are large enough to require a
                        full integer value - and there may be more than one
                        character per cell.  The video attributes and color
                        are stored in separate fields of the structure.

                        Each cell (row and column) in a WINDOW is stored as a

                        stores a "wide" character.  Like chtype, this may be
                        an integer.

                        stores a wchar_t or WEOF - not the same, though both
                        may have the same size.

                   The "wide" library provides new functions which are
                   analogous to functions in the "normal" library.  There is a
                   naming convention which relates many of the normal/wide
                   variants: a "_w" is inserted into the name.  For example,
                   waddch becomes wadd_wch.

   Routine Name Index
       The following table lists each curses routine and the name of the
       manual page on which it is described.  Routines flagged with `*' are
       ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.

                     curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
                     COLOR_PAIR              curs_color(3X)
                     PAIR_NUMBER             curs_attr(3X)
                     _nc_free_and_exit       curs_memleaks(3X)*
                     _nc_freeall             curs_memleaks(3X)*
                     _nc_tracebits           curs_trace(3X)*
                     _traceattr              curs_trace(3X)*
                     _traceattr2             curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracechar              curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracechtype            curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracechtype2           curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracedump              curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracef                 curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracemouse             curs_trace(3X)*
                     add_wch                 curs_add_wch(3X)
                     add_wchnstr             curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     add_wchstr              curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     addch                   curs_addch(3X)
                     addchnstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                     addchstr                curs_addchstr(3X)
                     addnstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                     addnwstr                curs_addwstr(3X)
                     addstr                  curs_addstr(3X)
                     addwstr                 curs_addwstr(3X)
                     assume_default_colors   default_colors(3X)*
                     attr_get                curs_attr(3X)
                     attr_off                curs_attr(3X)
                     attr_on                 curs_attr(3X)
                     attr_set                curs_attr(3X)
                     attroff                 curs_attr(3X)
                     attron                  curs_attr(3X)
                     attrset                 curs_attr(3X)
                     baudrate                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     beep                    curs_beep(3X)
                     bkgd                    curs_bkgd(3X)
                     bkgdset                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                     bkgrnd                  curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     bkgrndset               curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     border                  curs_border(3X)

                     border_set              curs_border_set(3X)
                     box                     curs_border(3X)
                     box_set                 curs_border_set(3X)
                     can_change_color        curs_color(3X)
                     cbreak                  curs_inopts(3X)
                     chgat                   curs_attr(3X)
                     clear                   curs_clear(3X)
                     clearok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                     clrtobot                curs_clear(3X)
                     clrtoeol                curs_clear(3X)
                     color_content           curs_color(3X)
                     color_set               curs_attr(3X)
                     copywin                 curs_overlay(3X)
                     curs_set                curs_kernel(3X)
                     curses_version          curs_extend(3X)*
                     def_prog_mode           curs_kernel(3X)
                     def_shell_mode          curs_kernel(3X)
                     define_key              define_key(3X)*
                     del_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                     delay_output            curs_util(3X)
                     delch                   curs_delch(3X)
                     deleteln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                     delscreen               curs_initscr(3X)
                     delwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     derwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     doupdate                curs_refresh(3X)
                     dupwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     echo                    curs_inopts(3X)
                     echo_wchar              curs_add_wch(3X)
                     echochar                curs_addch(3X)
                     endwin                  curs_initscr(3X)
                     erase                   curs_clear(3X)
                     erasechar               curs_termattrs(3X)
                     erasewchar              curs_termattrs(3X)
                     filter                  curs_util(3X)
                     flash                   curs_beep(3X)
                     flushinp                curs_util(3X)
                     get_wch                 curs_get_wch(3X)
                     get_wstr                curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     getattrs                curs_attr(3X)
                     getbegx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getbegy                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getbegyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                     getbkgd                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                     getbkgrnd               curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     getcchar                curs_getcchar(3X)
                     getch                   curs_getch(3X)
                     getcurx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getcury                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getmaxx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getmaxy                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getmaxyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                     getmouse                curs_mouse(3X)*
                     getn_wstr               curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     getnstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                     getparx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getpary                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                     getparyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                     getstr                  curs_getstr(3X)
                     getsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                     getwin                  curs_util(3X)
                     getyx                   curs_getyx(3X)
                     halfdelay               curs_inopts(3X)
                     has_colors              curs_color(3X)
                     has_ic                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                     has_il                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                     has_key                 curs_getch(3X)*

                     hline                   curs_border(3X)
                     hline_set               curs_border_set(3X)
                     idcok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                     idlok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                     immedok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                     in_wch                  curs_in_wch(3X)
                     in_wchnstr              curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     in_wchstr               curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     inch                    curs_inch(3X)
                     inchnstr                curs_inchstr(3X)
                     inchstr                 curs_inchstr(3X)
                     init_color              curs_color(3X)
                     init_pair               curs_color(3X)
                     initscr                 curs_initscr(3X)
                     innstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                     innwstr                 curs_inwstr(3X)
                     ins_nwstr               curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     ins_wch                 curs_ins_wch(3X)
                     ins_wstr                curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     insch                   curs_insch(3X)
                     insdelln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                     insertln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                     insnstr                 curs_insstr(3X)
                     insstr                  curs_insstr(3X)
                     instr                   curs_instr(3X)
                     intrflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                     inwstr                  curs_inwstr(3X)
                     is_cleared              curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_idcok                curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_idlok                curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_immedok              curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_keypad               curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_leaveok              curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_linetouched          curs_touch(3X)
                     is_nodelay              curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_notimeout            curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_scrollok             curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_syncok               curs_opaque(3X)*
                     is_term_resized         resizeterm(3X)*
                     is_wintouched           curs_touch(3X)
                     isendwin                curs_initscr(3X)
                     key_defined             key_defined(3X)*
                     key_name                curs_util(3X)
                     keybound                keybound(3X)*
                     keyname                 curs_util(3X)
                     keyok                   keyok(3X)*
                     keypad                  curs_inopts(3X)
                     killchar                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     killwchar               curs_termattrs(3X)
                     leaveok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                     longname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     mcprint                 curs_print(3X)*
                     meta                    curs_inopts(3X)
                     mouse_trafo             curs_mouse(3X)*
                     mouseinterval           curs_mouse(3X)*
                     mousemask               curs_mouse(3X)*
                     move                    curs_move(3X)
                     mvadd_wch               curs_add_wch(3X)
                     mvadd_wchnstr           curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     mvadd_wchstr            curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     mvaddch                 curs_addch(3X)
                     mvaddchnstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvaddchstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvaddnstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvaddnwstr              curs_addwstr(3X)
                     mvaddstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvaddwstr               curs_addwstr(3X)

                     mvchgat                 curs_attr(3X)
                     mvcur                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                     mvdelch                 curs_delch(3X)
                     mvderwin                curs_window(3X)
                     mvget_wch               curs_get_wch(3X)
                     mvget_wstr              curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     mvgetch                 curs_getch(3X)
                     mvgetn_wstr             curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     mvgetnstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvgetstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvhline                 curs_border(3X)
                     mvhline_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                     mvin_wch                curs_in_wch(3X)
                     mvin_wchnstr            curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     mvin_wchstr             curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     mvinch                  curs_inch(3X)
                     mvinchnstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvinchstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvinnstr                curs_instr(3X)
                     mvinnwstr               curs_inwstr(3X)
                     mvins_nwstr             curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     mvins_wch               curs_ins_wch(3X)
                     mvins_wstr              curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     mvinsch                 curs_insch(3X)
                     mvinsnstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                     mvinsstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                     mvinstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                     mvinwstr                curs_inwstr(3X)
                     mvprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                     mvscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                     mvvline                 curs_border(3X)
                     mvvline_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                     mvwadd_wch              curs_add_wch(3X)
                     mvwadd_wchnstr          curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     mvwadd_wchstr           curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     mvwaddch                curs_addch(3X)
                     mvwaddchnstr            curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvwaddchstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvwaddnstr              curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvwaddnwstr             curs_addwstr(3X)
                     mvwaddstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvwaddwstr              curs_addwstr(3X)
                     mvwchgat                curs_attr(3X)
                     mvwdelch                curs_delch(3X)
                     mvwget_wch              curs_get_wch(3X)
                     mvwget_wstr             curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     mvwgetch                curs_getch(3X)
                     mvwgetn_wstr            curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     mvwgetnstr              curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvwgetstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvwhline                curs_border(3X)
                     mvwhline_set            curs_border_set(3X)
                     mvwin                   curs_window(3X)
                     mvwin_wch               curs_in_wch(3X)
                     mvwin_wchnstr           curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     mvwin_wchstr            curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     mvwinch                 curs_inch(3X)
                     mvwinchnstr             curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvwinchstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvwinnstr               curs_instr(3X)
                     mvwinnwstr              curs_inwstr(3X)
                     mvwins_nwstr            curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     mvwins_wch              curs_ins_wch(3X)
                     mvwins_wstr             curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     mvwinsch                curs_insch(3X)
                     mvwinsnstr              curs_insstr(3X)
                     mvwinsstr               curs_insstr(3X)

                     mvwinstr                curs_instr(3X)
                     mvwinwstr               curs_inwstr(3X)
                     mvwprintw               curs_printw(3X)
                     mvwscanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                     mvwvline                curs_border(3X)
                     mvwvline_set            curs_border_set(3X)
                     napms                   curs_kernel(3X)
                     newpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                     newterm                 curs_initscr(3X)
                     newwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     nl                      curs_outopts(3X)
                     nocbreak                curs_inopts(3X)
                     nodelay                 curs_inopts(3X)
                     noecho                  curs_inopts(3X)
                     nofilter                curs_util(3X)*
                     nonl                    curs_outopts(3X)
                     noqiflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                     noraw                   curs_inopts(3X)
                     notimeout               curs_inopts(3X)
                     overlay                 curs_overlay(3X)
                     overwrite               curs_overlay(3X)
                     pair_content            curs_color(3X)
                     pechochar               curs_pad(3X)
                     pnoutrefresh            curs_pad(3X)
                     prefresh                curs_pad(3X)
                     printw                  curs_printw(3X)
                     putp                    curs_terminfo(3X)
                     putwin                  curs_util(3X)
                     qiflush                 curs_inopts(3X)
                     raw                     curs_inopts(3X)
                     redrawwin               curs_refresh(3X)
                     refresh                 curs_refresh(3X)
                     reset_prog_mode         curs_kernel(3X)
                     reset_shell_mode        curs_kernel(3X)
                     resetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                     resizeterm              resizeterm(3X)*
                     restartterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                     ripoffline              curs_kernel(3X)
                     savetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                     scanw                   curs_scanw(3X)
                     scr_dump                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scr_init                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scr_restore             curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scr_set                 curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scrl                    curs_scroll(3X)
                     scroll                  curs_scroll(3X)
                     scrollok                curs_outopts(3X)
                     set_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                     set_term                curs_initscr(3X)
                     setcchar                curs_getcchar(3X)
                     setscrreg               curs_outopts(3X)
                     setsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                     setterm                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                     setupterm               curs_terminfo(3X)
                     slk_attr                curs_slk(3X)*
                     slk_attr_off            curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attr_on             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attr_set            curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attroff             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attron              curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attrset             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_clear               curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_color               curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_init                curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_label               curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_noutrefresh         curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_refresh             curs_slk(3X)

                     slk_restore             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_set                 curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_touch               curs_slk(3X)
                     standend                curs_attr(3X)
                     standout                curs_attr(3X)
                     start_color             curs_color(3X)
                     subpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                     subwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     syncok                  curs_window(3X)
                     term_attrs              curs_termattrs(3X)
                     termattrs               curs_termattrs(3X)
                     termname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     tgetent                 curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgetflag                curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgetnum                 curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgetstr                 curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgoto                   curs_termcap(3X)
                     tigetflag               curs_terminfo(3X)
                     tigetnum                curs_terminfo(3X)
                     tigetstr                curs_terminfo(3X)
                     timeout                 curs_inopts(3X)
                     touchline               curs_touch(3X)
                     touchwin                curs_touch(3X)
                     tparm                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                     tputs                   curs_termcap(3X)
                     tputs                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                     trace                   curs_trace(3X)*
                     typeahead               curs_inopts(3X)
                     unctrl                  curs_util(3X)
                     unget_wch               curs_get_wch(3X)
                     ungetch                 curs_getch(3X)
                     ungetmouse              curs_mouse(3X)*
                     untouchwin              curs_touch(3X)
                     use_default_colors      default_colors(3X)*
                     use_env                 curs_util(3X)
                     use_extended_names      curs_extend(3X)*
                     use_legacy_coding       legacy_coding(3X)*
                     use_tioctl              curs_util(3X)
                     vid_attr                curs_terminfo(3X)
                     vid_puts                curs_terminfo(3X)
                     vidattr                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                     vidputs                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                     vline                   curs_border(3X)
                     vline_set               curs_border_set(3X)
                     vw_printw               curs_printw(3X)
                     vw_scanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                     vwprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                     vwscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                     wadd_wch                curs_add_wch(3X)
                     wadd_wchnstr            curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     wadd_wchstr             curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                     waddch                  curs_addch(3X)
                     waddchnstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                     waddchstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                     waddnstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                     waddnwstr               curs_addwstr(3X)
                     waddstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                     waddwstr                curs_addwstr(3X)
                     wattr_get               curs_attr(3X)
                     wattr_off               curs_attr(3X)
                     wattr_on                curs_attr(3X)
                     wattr_set               curs_attr(3X)
                     wattroff                curs_attr(3X)
                     wattron                 curs_attr(3X)
                     wattrset                curs_attr(3X)
                     wbkgd                   curs_bkgd(3X)
                     wbkgdset                curs_bkgd(3X)

                     wbkgrnd                 curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     wbkgrndset              curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     wborder                 curs_border(3X)
                     wborder_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                     wchgat                  curs_attr(3X)
                     wclear                  curs_clear(3X)
                     wclrtobot               curs_clear(3X)
                     wclrtoeol               curs_clear(3X)
                     wcolor_set              curs_attr(3X)
                     wcursyncup              curs_window(3X)
                     wdelch                  curs_delch(3X)
                     wdeleteln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                     wecho_wchar             curs_add_wch(3X)
                     wechochar               curs_addch(3X)
                     wenclose                curs_mouse(3X)*
                     werase                  curs_clear(3X)
                     wget_wch                curs_get_wch(3X)
                     wget_wstr               curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     wgetbkgrnd              curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                     wgetch                  curs_getch(3X)
                     wgetn_wstr              curs_get_wstr(3X)
                     wgetnstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                     wgetstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                     whline                  curs_border(3X)
                     whline_set              curs_border_set(3X)
                     win_wch                 curs_in_wch(3X)
                     win_wchnstr             curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     win_wchstr              curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                     winch                   curs_inch(3X)
                     winchnstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                     winchstr                curs_inchstr(3X)
                     winnstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                     winnwstr                curs_inwstr(3X)
                     wins_nwstr              curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     wins_wch                curs_ins_wch(3X)
                     wins_wstr               curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                     winsch                  curs_insch(3X)
                     winsdelln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                     winsertln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                     winsnstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                     winsstr                 curs_insstr(3X)
                     winstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                     winwstr                 curs_inwstr(3X)
                     wmouse_trafo            curs_mouse(3X)*
                     wmove                   curs_move(3X)
                     wnoutrefresh            curs_refresh(3X)
                     wprintw                 curs_printw(3X)
                     wredrawln               curs_refresh(3X)
                     wrefresh                curs_refresh(3X)
                     wresize                 wresize(3X)*
                     wscanw                  curs_scanw(3X)
                     wscrl                   curs_scroll(3X)
                     wsetscrreg              curs_outopts(3X)
                     wstandend               curs_attr(3X)
                     wstandout               curs_attr(3X)
                     wsyncdown               curs_window(3X)
                     wsyncup                 curs_window(3X)
                     wtimeout                curs_inopts(3X)
                     wtouchln                curs_touch(3X)
                     wunctrl                 curs_util(3X)
                     wvline                  curs_border(3X)
                     wvline_set              curs_border_set(3X)

       Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and an integer
       value other than ERR upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted
       in the routine descriptions.

       As a general rule, routines check for null pointers passed as
       parameters, and handle this as an error.

       All macros return the value of the w version, except setscrreg,
       wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, and getmaxyx.  The return values of
       setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, and getmaxyx are undefined
       (i.e., these should not be used as the right-hand side of assignment

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.

       The following environment symbols are useful for customizing the
       runtime behavior of the ncurses library.  The most important ones have
       been already discussed in detail.

            The debugging library checks this environment variable when the
            application has redirected output to a file.  The variable's
            numeric value is used for the baudrate.  If no value is found,
            ncurses uses 9600.  This allows testers to construct repeatable
            test-cases that take into account costs that depend on baudrate.

       CC   When set, change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the
            cmdch capability) of the loaded terminfo entries to the value of
            this variable.  Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.

            Because this name is also used in development environments to
            represent the C compiler's name, ncurses ignores it if it does not
            happen to be a single character.

            Specify the width of the screen in characters.  Applications
            running in a windowing environment usually are able to obtain the
            width of the window in which they are executing.  If neither the
            COLUMNS value nor the terminal's screen size is available, ncurses
            uses the size which may be specified in the terminfo database
            (i.e., the cols capability).

            It is important that your application use a correct size for the
            screen.  This is not always possible because your application may
            be running on a host which does not honor NAWS (Negotiations About
            Window Size), or because you are temporarily running as another
            user.  However, setting COLUMNS and/or LINES overrides the
            library's use of the screen size obtained from the operating

            Either COLUMNS or LINES symbols may be specified independently.
            This is mainly useful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal
            descriptions, e.g., xterm which commonly specifies a 65 line
            screen.  For best results, lines and cols should not be specified
            in a terminal description for terminals which are run as

            Use the use_env function to disable all use of external
            environment (but not including system calls) to determine the
            screen size.  Use the use_tioctl function to update COLUMNS or
            LINES to match the screen size obtained from system calls or the
            terminal database.

            Specifies the total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will
            await a character sequence, e.g., a function key.  The default
            value, 1000 milliseconds, is enough for most uses.  However, it is
            made a variable to accommodate unusual applications.

            The most common instance where you may wish to change this value
            is to work with slow hosts, e.g., running on a network.  If the
            host cannot read characters rapidly enough, it will have the same
            effect as if the terminal did not send characters rapidly enough.
            The library will still see a timeout.

            Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences
            received from the xterm.  If your application makes heavy use of
            multiple-clicking, you may wish to lengthen this default value
            because the timeout applies to the composed multi-click event as
            well as the individual clicks.

            In addition to the environment variable, this implementation
            provides a global variable with the same name.  Portable
            applications should not rely upon the presence of ESCDELAY in
            either form, but setting the environment variable rather than the
            global variable does not create problems when compiling an

       HOME Tells ncurses where your home directory is.  That is where it may
            read and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:


            Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in characters.  See
            COLUMNS for a detailed description.

            This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies the order of
            buttons on the mouse.  OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse
            inconsistently from other platforms:

            1 = left
            2 = right
            3 = middle.

            This variable lets you customize the mouse.  The variable must be
            three numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321.  If it is
            not specified, ncurses uses 132.

            Override the compiled-in assumption that the terminal's default
            colors are white-on-black (see default_colors(3X)).  You may set
            the foreground and background color values with this environment
            variable by proving a 2-element list: foreground,background.  For
            example, to tell ncurses to not assume anything about the colors,
            set this to "-1,-1".  To make it green-on-black, set it to "2,0".
            Any positive value from zero to the terminfo max_colors value is

            This applies only to ncurses configured to use the GPM interface.

            If present, the environment variable is a list of one or more
            terminal names against which the TERM environment variable is
            matched.  Setting it to an empty value disables the GPM interface;
            using the built-in support for xterm, etc.

            If the environment variable is absent, ncurses will attempt to
            open GPM if TERM contains "linux".

            Ncurses may use tabs as part of the cursor movement optimization.
            In some cases, your terminal driver may not handle these properly.
            Set this environment variable to disable the feature.  You can
            also adjust your stty settings to avoid the problem.

            Some terminals use a magic-cookie feature which requires special
            handling to make highlighting and other video attributes display
            properly.  You can suppress the highlighting entirely for these
            terminals by setting this environment variable.

            Most of the terminal descriptions in the terminfo database are
            written for real "hardware" terminals.  Many people use terminal
            emulators which run in a windowing environment and use curses-
            based applications.  Terminal emulators can duplicate all of the
            important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do not have the
            same limitations.  The chief limitation of a hardware terminal
            from the standpoint of your application is the management of
            dataflow, i.e., timing.  Unless a hardware terminal is interfaced
            into a terminal concentrator (which does flow control), it (or
            your application) must manage dataflow, preventing overruns.  The
            cheapest solution (no hardware cost) is for your program to do
            this by pausing after operations that the terminal does slowly,
            such as clearing the display.

            As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have
            delay times embedded.  You may wish to use these descriptions, but
            not want to pay the performance penalty.

            Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING environment variable to disable all but
            mandatory padding.  Mandatory padding is used as a part of special
            control sequences such as flash.

            This setting is obsolete.  Before changes

            •   started with 5.9 patch 20120825 and

            •   continued though 5.9 patch 20130126

            ncurses enabled buffered output during terminal initialization.
            This was done (as in SVr4 curses) for performance reasons.  For
            testing purposes, both of ncurses and certain applications, this
            feature was made optional.  Setting the NCURSES_NO_SETBUF variable
            disabled output buffering, leaving the output in the original
            (usually line buffered) mode.

            In the current implementation, ncurses performs its own buffering
            and does not require this workaround.  It does not modify the
            buffering of the standard output.

            The reason for the change was to make the behavior for interrupts
            and other signals more robust.  One drawback is that certain
            nonconventional programs would mix ordinary stdio calls with
            ncurses calls and (usually) work.  This is no longer possible
            since ncurses is not using the buffered standard output but its
            own output (to the same file descriptor).  As a special case, the
            low-level calls such as putp still use the standard output.  But
            high-level curses calls do not.

            During initialization, the ncurses library checks for special
            cases where VT100 line-drawing (and the corresponding alternate
            character set capabilities) described in the terminfo are known to
            be missing.  Specifically, when running in a UTF-8 locale, the
            Linux console emulator and the GNU screen program ignore these.
            Ncurses checks the TERM environment variable for these.  For other
            special cases, you should set this environment variable.  Doing
            this tells ncurses to use Unicode values which correspond to the
            VT100 line-drawing glyphs.  That works for the special cases
            cited, and is likely to work for terminal emulators.

            When setting this variable, you should set it to a nonzero value.
            Setting it to zero (or to a nonnumber) disables the special check
            for "linux" and "screen".

            As an alternative to the environment variable, ncurses checks for
            an extended terminfo capability U8.  This is a numeric capability
            which can be compiled using tic -x.  For example

            # linux console, if patched to provide working
            # VT100 shift-in/shift-out, with corresponding font.
            linux-vt100|linux console with VT100 line-graphics,
                    U8#0, use=linux,

            # uxterm with vt100Graphics resource set to false
            xterm-utf8|xterm relying on UTF-8 line-graphics,
                    U8#1, use=xterm,

            The name "U8" is chosen to be two characters, to permit it to be
            used by applications that use ncurses' termcap interface.

            During initialization, the ncurses debugging library checks the
            NCURSES_TRACE environment variable.  If it is defined, to a
            numeric value, ncurses calls the trace function, using that value
            as the argument.

            The argument values, which are defined in curses.h, provide
            several types of information.  When running with traces enabled,
            your application will write the file trace to the current

       TERM Denotes your terminal type.  Each terminal type is distinct,
            though many are similar.

            If the ncurses library has been configured with termcap support,
            ncurses will check for a terminal's description in termcap form if
            it is not available in the terminfo database.

            The TERMCAP environment variable contains either a terminal
            description (with newlines stripped out), or a file name telling
            where the information denoted by the TERM environment variable
            exists.  In either case, setting it directs ncurses to ignore the
            usual place for this information, e.g., /etc/termcap.

            Overrides the directory in which ncurses searches for your
            terminal description.  This is the simplest, but not the only way
            to change the list of directories.  The complete list of
            directories in order follows:

            •   the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any, is searched

            •   the directory specified by the TERMINFO environment variable

            •   $HOME/.terminfo

            •   directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS environment variable

            •   one or more directories whose names are configured and
                compiled into the ncurses library, i.e.,

                •   @TERMINFO_DIRS@ (corresponding to the TERMINFO_DIRS

                •   /usr/share/misc/terminfo (corresponding to the TERMINFO

            Specifies a list of directories to search for terminal
            descriptions.  The list is separated by colons (i.e., ":") on
            Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.

            All of the terminal descriptions are in terminfo form.  Normally
            these are stored in a directory tree, using subdirectories named
            by the first letter of the terminal names therein.

            If ncurses is built with a hashed database, then each entry in
            this list can also be the path of the corresponding database file.

            If ncurses is built with a support for reading termcap files
            directly, then an entry in this list may be the path of a termcap

            If TERMCAP does not hold a file name then ncurses checks the
            TERMPATH environment variable.  This is a list of filenames
            separated by spaces or colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on
            OS/2 EMX.

            If the TERMPATH environment variable is not set, ncurses looks in
            the files /etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and
            $HOME/.termcap, in that order.

       The library may be configured to disregard the following variables when
       the current user is the superuser (root), or if the application uses
       setuid or setgid permissions:

              $TERMINFO, $TERMINFO_DIRS, $TERMPATH, as well as $HOME.

       Several different configurations are possible, depending on the
       configure script options used when building ncurses.  There are a few
       main options whose effects are visible to the applications developer
       using ncurses:

            The standard include for ncurses is as noted in SYNOPSIS:

            #include <curses.h>

            This option is used to avoid filename conflicts when ncurses is
            not the main implementation of curses of the computer.  If ncurses
            is installed disabling overwrite, it puts its headers in a
            subdirectory, e.g.,

            #include <ncurses/curses.h>

            It also omits a symbolic link which would allow you to use
            -lcurses to build executables.

            The configure script renames the library and (if the
            --disable-overwrite option is used) puts the header files in a
            different subdirectory.  All of the library names have a "w"
            appended to them, i.e., instead of


            you link with


            You must also define _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED when compiling for the
            wide-character library to use the extended (wide-character)
            functions.  The curses.h file which is installed for the wide-
            character library is designed to be compatible with the normal
            library's header.  Only the size of the WINDOW structure differs,
            and very few applications require more than a pointer to WINDOWs.
            If the headers are installed allowing overwrite, the wide-
            character library's headers should be installed last, to allow
            applications to be built using either library from the same set of




            The shared and normal (static) library names differ by their
            suffixes, e.g., and libncurses.a.  The debug and
            profiling libraries add a "_g" and a "_p" to the root names
            respectively, e.g., libncurses_g.a and libncurses_p.a.

            The trace function normally resides in the debug library, but it
            is sometimes useful to configure this in the shared library.
            Configure scripts should check for the function's existence rather
            than assuming it is always in the debug library.

            directory containing initialization files for the terminal
            capability database /usr/share/misc/terminfo terminal capability

       terminfo(5) and related pages whose names begin "curs_" for detailed
       routine descriptions.

       The ncurses library can be compiled with an option (-DUSE_GETCAP) that
       falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap file if the terminal setup
       code cannot find a terminfo entry corresponding to TERM.  Use of this
       feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire
       termcap compiler in the ncurses startup code, at significant cost in
       core and startup cycles.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for capturing mouse events on
       certain terminals (including xterm).  See the curs_mouse(3X) manual
       page for details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window
       resizing events, e.g., when running in an xterm.  See the
       resizeterm(3X) and wresize(3X) manual pages for details.  In addition,
       the library may be configured with a SIGWINCH handler.

       The ncurses library extends the fixed set of function key capabilities
       of terminals by allowing the application designer to define additional
       key sequences at runtime.  See the define_key(3X) key_defined(3X), and
       keyok(3X) manual pages for details.

       The ncurses library can exploit the capabilities of terminals which
       implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and SGR 49 controls, which allow an
       application to reset the terminal to its original foreground and
       background colors.  From the users' perspective, the application is
       able to draw colored text on a background whose color is set
       independently, providing better control over color contrasts.  See the
       default_colors(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes a function for directing application
       output to a printer attached to the terminal device.  See the
       curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library is intended to be BASE-level conformant with XSI
       Curses.  The EXTENDED XSI Curses functionality (including color
       support) is supported.

       A small number of local differences (that is, individual differences
       between the XSI Curses and ncurses calls) are described in PORTABILITY
       sections of the library man pages.

       Unlike other implementations, this one checks parameters such as
       pointers to WINDOW structures to ensure they are not null.  The main
       reason for providing this behavior is to guard against programmer
       error.  The standard interface does not provide a way for the library
       to tell an application which of several possible errors were detected.
       Relying on this (or some other) extension will adversely affect the
       portability of curses applications.

       This implementation also contains several extensions:

       •   The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
           See the curs_getch(3X) manual page for details.

       •   The routine slk_attr is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in
           SVr4.  See the curs_slk(3X) manual page for details.

       •   The routines getmouse, mousemask, ungetmouse, mouseinterval, and
           wenclose relating to mouse interfacing are not part of XPG4, nor
           are they present in SVr4.  See the curs_mouse(3X) manual page for

       •   The routine mcprint was not present in any previous curses
           implementation.  See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       •   The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
           See the wresize(3X) manual page for details.

       •   The WINDOW structure's internal details can be hidden from
           application programs.  See curs_opaque(3X) for the discussion of
           is_scrollok, etc.

       •   This implementation can be configured to provide rudimentary
           support for multi-threaded applications.  See curs_threads(3X) for

       •   This implementation can also be configured to provide a set of
           functions which improve the ability to manage multiple screens.
           See curs_sp_funcs(3X) for details.

       In historic curses versions, delays embedded in the capabilities cr,
       ind, cub1, ff and tab activated corresponding delay bits in the UNIX
       tty driver.  In this implementation, all padding is done by sending NUL
       bytes.  This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows the
       interface to the UNIX kernel significantly and increases the package's
       portability correspondingly.

       The header file <curses.h> automatically includes the header files
       <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.

       If standard output from a ncurses program is re-directed to something
       which is not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard error.
       This was an undocumented feature of AT&T System V Release 3 curses.

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.