dnssec-keygen

DNSSEC-KEYGEN(8)                     BIND 9                     DNSSEC-KEYGEN(8)



NAME
       dnssec-keygen - DNSSEC key generation tool

SYNOPSIS
       dnssec-keygen [-3] [-A date/offset] [-a algorithm] [-b keysize] [-C] [-c
       class] [-D date/offset] [-d bits] [-D sync date/offset] [-E engine] [-f
       flag] [-G] [-g generator] [-h] [-I date/offset] [-i interval] [-K
       directory] [-k policy] [-L ttl] [-l file] [-n nametype] [-P date/offset]
       [-P sync date/offset] [-p protocol] [-q] [-R date/offset] [-S key] [-s
       strength] [-T rrtype] [-t type] [-V] [-v level] {name}

DESCRIPTION
       dnssec-keygen generates keys for DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as defined in RFC
       2535 and RFC 4034. It can also generate keys for use with TSIG
       (Transaction Signatures) as defined in RFC 2845, or TKEY (Transaction
       Key) as defined in RFC 2930.

       The name of the key is specified on the command line. For DNSSEC keys,
       this must match the name of the zone for which the key is being
       generated.

       The dnssec-keymgr command acts as a wrapper around dnssec-keygen,
       generating and updating keys as needed to enforce defined security
       policies such as key rollover scheduling. Using dnssec-keymgr may be
       preferable to direct use of dnssec-keygen.

OPTIONS
       -3     Use an NSEC3-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC key. If this
              option is used with an algorithm that has both NSEC and NSEC3
              versions, then the NSEC3 version will be used; for example,
              dnssec-keygen -3a RSASHA1 specifies the NSEC3RSASHA1 algorithm.

       -a algorithm
              Selects the cryptographic algorithm. For DNSSEC keys, the value of
              algorithm must be one of RSASHA1, NSEC3RSASHA1, RSASHA256,
              RSASHA512, ECDSAP256SHA256, ECDSAP384SHA384, ED25519 or ED448. For
              TKEY, the value must be DH (Diffie Hellman); specifying his value
              will automatically set the -T KEY option as well.

              These values are case insensitive. In some cases, abbreviations
              are supported, such as ECDSA256 for ECDSAP256SHA256 and ECDSA384
              for ECDSAP384SHA384. If RSASHA1 is specified along with the -3
              option, then NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used instead.

              This parameter must be specified except when using the -S option,
              which copies the algorithm from the predecessor key.

              In prior releases, HMAC algorithms could be generated for use as
              TSIG keys, but that feature has been removed as of BIND 9.13.0.
              Use tsig-keygen to generate TSIG keys.

       -b keysize
              Specifies the number of bits in the key. The choice of key size
              depends on the algorithm used. RSA keys must be between 1024 and
              4096 bits. Diffie Hellman keys must be between 128 and 4096 bits.
              Elliptic curve algorithms don't need this parameter.

              If the key size is not specified, some algorithms have pre-defined
              defaults. For example, RSA keys for use as DNSSEC zone signing
              keys have a default size of 1024 bits; RSA keys for use as key
              signing keys (KSKs, generated with -f KSK) default to 2048 bits.

       -C     Compatibility mode: generates an old-style key, without any timing
              metadata. By default, dnssec-keygen will include the key's
              creation date in the metadata stored with the private key, and
              other dates may be set there as well (publication date, activation
              date, etc). Keys that include this data may be incompatible with
              older versions of BIND; the -C option suppresses them.

       -c class
              Indicates that the DNS record containing the key should have the
              specified class. If not specified, class IN is used.

       -d bits
              Key size in bits. For the algorithms RSASHA1, NSEC3RSASA1,
              RSASHA256 and RSASHA512 the key size must be in range 1024-4096.
              DH size is between 128 and 4096. This option is ignored for
              algorithms ECDSAP256SHA256, ECDSAP384SHA384, ED25519 and ED448.

       -E engine
              Specifies the cryptographic hardware to use, when applicable.

              When BIND is built with OpenSSL PKCS#11 support, this defaults to
              the string "pkcs11", which identifies an OpenSSL engine that can
              drive a cryptographic accelerator or hardware service module. When
              BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography
              (--enable-native-pkcs11), it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11
              provider library specified via "--with-pkcs11".

       -f flag
              Set the specified flag in the flag field of the KEY/DNSKEY record.
              The only recognized flags are KSK (Key Signing Key) and REVOKE.

       -G     Generate a key, but do not publish it or sign with it. This option
              is incompatible with -P and -A.

       -g generator
              If generating a Diffie Hellman key, use this generator. Allowed
              values are 2 and 5. If no generator is specified, a known prime
              from RFC 2539 will be used if possible; otherwise the default is
              2.

       -h     Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
              dnssec-keygen.

       -K directory
              Sets the directory in which the key files are to be written.

       -k policy
              Create keys for a specific dnssec-policy.  If a policy uses
              multiple keys, dnssec-keygen will generate multiple keys.  This
              will also create a ".state" file to keep track of the key state.

              This option creates keys according to the dnssec-policy
              configuration, hence it cannot be used together with many of the
              other options that dnssec-keygen provides.

       -L ttl Sets the default TTL to use for this key when it is converted into
              a DNSKEY RR. If the key is imported into a zone, this is the TTL
              that will be used for it, unless there was already a DNSKEY RRset
              in place, in which case the existing TTL would take precedence. If
              this value is not set and there is no existing DNSKEY RRset, the
              TTL will default to the SOA TTL. Setting the default TTL to 0 or
              none is the same as leaving it unset.

       -l file
              Provide a configuration file that contains a dnssec-policy
              statement (matching the policy set with -k).

       -n nametype
              Specifies the owner type of the key. The value of nametype must
              either be ZONE (for a DNSSEC zone key (KEY/DNSKEY)), HOST or
              ENTITY (for a key associated with a host (KEY)), USER (for a key
              associated with a user(KEY)) or OTHER (DNSKEY). These values are
              case insensitive. Defaults to ZONE for DNSKEY generation.

       -p protocol
              Sets the protocol value for the generated key, for use with -T
              KEY. The protocol is a number between 0 and 255. The default is 3
              (DNSSEC). Other possible values for this argument are listed in
              RFC 2535 and its successors.

       -q     Quiet mode: Suppresses unnecessary output, including progress
              indication. Without this option, when dnssec-keygen is run
              interactively to generate an RSA or DSA key pair, it will print a
              string of symbols to stderr indicating the progress of the key
              generation. A '.' indicates that a random number has been found
              which passed an initial sieve test; '+' means a number has passed
              a single round of the Miller-Rabin primality test; a space means
              that the number has passed all the tests and is a satisfactory
              key.

       -S key Create a new key which is an explicit successor to an existing
              key.  The name, algorithm, size, and type of the key will be set
              to match the existing key. The activation date of the new key will
              be set to the inactivation date of the existing one. The
              publication date will be set to the activation date minus the
              prepublication interval, which defaults to 30 days.

       -s strength
              Specifies the strength value of the key. The strength is a number
              between 0 and 15, and currently has no defined purpose in DNSSEC.

       -T rrtype
              Specifies the resource record type to use for the key. rrtype must
              be either DNSKEY or KEY. The default is DNSKEY when using a DNSSEC
              algorithm, but it can be overridden to KEY for use with SIG(0).

       -t type
              Indicates the use of the key, for use with -T  KEY. type must be
              one of AUTHCONF, NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF. The default is
              AUTHCONF. AUTH refers to the ability to authenticate data, and
              CONF the ability to encrypt data.

       -V     Prints version information.

       -v level
              Sets the debugging level.

TIMING OPTIONS
       Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS. If the
       argument begins with a '+' or '-', it is interpreted as an offset from
       the present time. For convenience, if such an offset is followed by one
       of the suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi', then the offset is
       computed in years (defined as 365 24-hour days, ignoring leap years),
       months (defined as 30 24-hour days), weeks, days, hours, or minutes,
       respectively. Without a suffix, the offset is computed in seconds. To
       explicitly prevent a date from being set, use 'none' or 'never'.

       -P date/offset
              Sets the date on which a key is to be published to the zone. After
              that date, the key will be included in the zone but will not be
              used to sign it. If not set, and if the -G option has not been
              used, the default is "now".

       -P sync date/offset
              Sets the date on which CDS and CDNSKEY records that match this key
              are to be published to the zone.

       -A date/offset
              Sets the date on which the key is to be activated. After that
              date, the key will be included in the zone and used to sign it. If
              not set, and if the -G option has not been used, the default is
              "now". If set, if and -P is not set, then the publication date
              will be set to the activation date minus the prepublication
              interval.

       -R date/offset
              Sets the date on which the key is to be revoked. After that date,
              the key will be flagged as revoked. It will be included in the
              zone and will be used to sign it.

       -I date/offset
              Sets the date on which the key is to be retired. After that date,
              the key will still be included in the zone, but it will not be
              used to sign it.

       -D date/offset
              Sets the date on which the key is to be deleted. After that date,
              the key will no longer be included in the zone. (It may remain in
              the key repository, however.)

       -D sync date/offset
              Sets the date on which the CDS and CDNSKEY records that match this
              key are to be deleted.

       -i interval
              Sets the prepublication interval for a key. If set, then the
              publication and activation dates must be separated by at least
              this much time. If the activation date is specified but the
              publication date isn't, then the publication date will default to
              this much time before the activation date; conversely, if the
              publication date is specified but activation date isn't, then
              activation will be set to this much time after publication.

              If the key is being created as an explicit successor to another
              key, then the default prepublication interval is 30 days;
              otherwise it is zero.

              As with date offsets, if the argument is followed by one of the
              suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi', then the interval is
              measured in years, months, weeks, days, hours, or minutes,
              respectively. Without a suffix, the interval is measured in
              seconds.

GENERATED KEYS
       When dnssec-keygen completes successfully, it prints a string of the form
       Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii to the standard output. This is an identification string
       for the key it has generated.

       • nnnn is the key name.

       • aaa is the numeric representation of the algorithm.

       • iiiii is the key identifier (or footprint).

       dnssec-keygen creates two files, with names based on the printed string.
       Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.key contains the public key, and
       Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private contains the private key.

       The .key file contains a DNSKEY or KEY record. When a zone is being
       signed by named or dnssec-signzone -S, DNSKEY records are included
       automatically. In other cases, the .key file can be inserted into a zone
       file manually or with a $INCLUDE statement.

       The .private file contains algorithm-specific fields. For obvious
       security reasons, this file does not have general read permission.

EXAMPLE
       To generate an ECDSAP256SHA256 zone-signing key for the zone example.com,
       issue the command:

       dnssec-keygen -a ECDSAP256SHA256 example.com

       The command would print a string of the form:

       Kexample.com.+013+26160

       In this example, dnssec-keygen creates the files
       Kexample.com.+013+26160.key and Kexample.com.+013+26160.private.

       To generate a matching key-signing key, issue the command:

       dnssec-keygen -a ECDSAP256SHA256 -f KSK example.com

SEE ALSO
       dnssec-signzone(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 2539, RFC
       2845, RFC 4034.

AUTHOR
       Internet Systems Consortium

COPYRIGHT
       2020, Internet Systems Consortium



9.16.10                            2020-12-21                   DNSSEC-KEYGEN(8)