dnssec−signzone − DNSSEC zone signing tool

dnssec−signzone [−a] [−c class] [−d directory] [−D]
[−E engine] [−e end−time] [−f output−file] [−g] [−h]
[−K directory] [−k key] [−L serial] [−l domain]
[−i interval] [−I input−format] [−j jitter]
[−N soa−serial−format] [−o origin] [−O output−format] [−P]
[−p] [−R] [−r randomdev] [−S] [−s start−time] [−T ttl] [−t]
[−u] [−v level] [−X extended end−time] [−x] [−z] [−3 salt]
[−H iterations] [−A] {zonefile} [key...]

     dnssec−signzone signs a zone. It generates NSEC and
RRSIG records and produces a signed version of the zone. The
security status of delegations from the signed zone (that
is, whether the child zones are secure or not) is determined
by the presence or absence of a keyset file for each child

     Verify all generated signatures.

     −c class
     Specifies the DNS class of the zone.

     Compatibility mode: Generate a keyset−zonename file in
     addition to dsset−zonename when signing a zone, for use
     by older versions of dnssec−signzone.

     −d directory
     Look for dsset− or keyset− files in directory.

     Output only those record types automatically managed by
     dnssec−signzone, i.e. RRSIG, NSEC, NSEC3 and NSEC3PARAM
     records. If smart signing (−S) is used, DNSKEY records
     are also included. The resulting file can be included
     in the original zone file with $INCLUDE. This option
     cannot be combined with −O raw or serial number

     −E engine
     Uses a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for the crypto
     operations it supports, for instance signing with
     private keys from a secure key store. When compiled
     with PKCS#11 support it defaults to pkcs11; the empty
     name resets it to no engine.

     Generate DS records for child zones from dsset− or


     keyset− file. Existing DS records will be removed.

     −K directory
     Key repository: Specify a directory to search for
     DNSSEC keys. If not specified, defaults to the current

     −k key
     Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any
     key flags. This option may be specified multiple times.

     −l domain
     Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and
     DS sets. The domain is appended to the name of the

     −s start−time
     Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG
     records become valid. This can be either an absolute or
     relative time. An absolute start time is indicated by a
     number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation; 20000530144500
     denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A relative
     start time is indicated by +N, which is N seconds from
     the current time. If no start−time is specified, the
     current time minus 1 hour (to allow for clock skew) is

     −e end−time
     Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG
     records expire. As with start−time, an absolute time is
     indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation. A time relative
     to the start time is indicated with +N, which is N
     seconds from the start time. A time relative to the
     current time is indicated with now+N. If no end−time is
     specified, 30 days from the start time is used as a
     default.  end−time must be later than start−time.

     −X extended end−time
     Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG
     records for the DNSKEY RRset will expire. This is to be
     used in cases when the DNSKEY signatures need to
     persist longer than signatures on other records; e.g.,
     when the private component of the KSK is kept offline
     and the KSK signature is to be refreshed manually.

     As with start−time, an absolute time is indicated in
     YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation. A time relative to the start
     time is indicated with +N, which is N seconds from the
     start time. A time relative to the current time is
     indicated with now+N. If no extended end−time is
     specified, the value of end−time is used as the
     default. (end−time, in turn, defaults to 30 days from
     the start time.)  extended end−time must be later than


     −f output−file
     The name of the output file containing the signed zone.
     The default is to append .signed to the input filename.
     If output−file is set to "−", then the signed zone is
     written to the standard output, with a default output
     format of "full".

     Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to

     −i interval
     When a previously−signed zone is passed as input,
     records may be resigned. The interval option specifies
     the cycle interval as an offset from the current time
     (in seconds). If a RRSIG record expires after the cycle
     interval, it is retained. Otherwise, it is considered
     to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.

     The default cycle interval is one quarter of the
     difference between the signature end and start times.
     So if neither end−time or start−time are specified,
     dnssec−signzone generates signatures that are valid for
     30 days, with a cycle interval of 7.5 days. Therefore,
     if any existing RRSIG records are due to expire in less
     than 7.5 days, they would be replaced.

     −I input−format
     The format of the input zone file. Possible formats are
     "text" (default) and "raw". This option is primarily
     intended to be used for dynamic signed zones so that
     the dumped zone file in a non−text format containing
     updates can be signed directly. The use of this option
     does not make much sense for non−dynamic zones.

     −j jitter
     When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime,
     all RRSIG records issued at the time of signing expires
     simultaneously. If the zone is incrementally signed,
     i.e. a previously−signed zone is passed as input to the
     signer, all expired signatures have to be regenerated
     at about the same time. The jitter option specifies a
     jitter window that will be used to randomize the
     signature expire time, thus spreading incremental
     signature regeneration over time.

     Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits
     validators and servers by spreading out cache
     expiration, i.e. if large numbers of RRSIGs don’t
     expire at the same time from all caches there will be
     less congestion than if all validators need to refetch
     at mostly the same time.


     −L serial
     When writing a signed zone to ’raw’ format, set the
     "source serial" value in the header to the specified
     serial number. (This is expected to be used primarily
     for testing purposes.)

     −n ncpus
     Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one
     thread is started for each detected CPU.

     −N soa−serial−format
     The SOA serial number format of the signed zone.
     Possible formats are "keep" (default), "increment" and

               Do not modify the SOA serial number.

               Increment the SOA serial number using RFC
               1982 arithmetics.

               Set the SOA serial number to the number of
               seconds since epoch.

     −o origin
     The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone
     file is assumed to be the origin.

     −O output−format
     The format of the output file containing the signed
     zone. Possible formats are "text" (default) "full",
     which is text output in a format suitable for
     processing by external scripts, and "raw" or "raw=N",
     which store the zone in a binary format for rapid
     loading by named.  "raw=N" specifies the format version
     of the raw zone file: if N is 0, the raw file can be
     read by any version of named; if N is 1, the file can
     be read by release 9.9.0 or higher. The default is 1.

     Use pseudo−random data when signing the zone. This is
     faster, but less secure, than using real random data.
     This option may be useful when signing large zones or
     when the entropy source is limited.

     Disable post sign verification tests.

     The post sign verification test ensures that for each
     algorithm in use there is at least one non revoked self
     signed KSK key, that all revoked KSK keys are self
     signed, and that all records in the zone are signed by


     the algorithm. This option skips these tests.

     Remove signatures from keys that no longer exist.

     Normally, when a previously−signed zone is passed as
     input to the signer, and a DNSKEY record has been
     removed and replaced with a new one, signatures from
     the old key that are still within their validity period
     are retained. This allows the zone to continue to
     validate with cached copies of the old DNSKEY RRset.
     The −R forces dnssec−signzone to remove all orphaned

     −r randomdev
     Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating
     system does not provide a /dev/random or equivalent
     device, the default source of randomness is keyboard
     input.  randomdev specifies the name of a character
     device or file containing random data to be used
     instead of the default. The special value keyboard
     indicates that keyboard input should be used.

     Smart signing: Instructs dnssec−signzone to search the
     key repository for keys that match the zone being
     signed, and to include them in the zone if appropriate.

     When a key is found, its timing metadata is examined to
     determine how it should be used, according to the
     following rules. Each successive rule takes priority
     over the prior ones:

               If no timing metadata has been set for the
               key, the key is published in the zone and
               used to sign the zone.

               If the key’s publication date is set and is
               in the past, the key is published in the

               If the key’s activation date is set and in
               the past, the key is published (regardless of
               publication date) and used to sign the zone.

               If the key’s revocation date is set and in
               the past, and the key is published, then the
               key is revoked, and the revoked key is used
               to sign the zone.

               If either of the key’s unpublication or
               deletion dates are set and in the past, the
               key is NOT published or used to sign the
               zone, regardless of any other metadata.


     −T ttl
     Specifies a TTL to be used for new DNSKEY records
     imported into the zone from the key repository. If not
     specified, the default is the TTL value from the zone’s
     SOA record. This option is ignored when signing without
     −S, since DNSKEY records are not imported from the key
     repository in that case. It is also ignored if there
     are any pre−existing DNSKEY records at the zone apex,
     in which case new records’ TTL values will be set to
     match them, or if any of the imported DNSKEY records
     had a default TTL value. In the event of a a conflict
     between TTL values in imported keys, the shortest one
     is used.

     Print statistics at completion.

     Update NSEC/NSEC3 chain when re−signing a previously
     signed zone. With this option, a zone signed with NSEC
     can be switched to NSEC3, or a zone signed with NSEC3
     can be switch to NSEC or to NSEC3 with different
     parameters. Without this option, dnssec−signzone will
     retain the existing chain when re−signing.

     −v level
     Sets the debugging level.

     Only sign the DNSKEY RRset with key−signing keys, and
     omit signatures from zone−signing keys. (This is
     similar to the dnssec−dnskey−kskonly yes; zone option
     in named.)

     Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign.
     This causes KSK−flagged keys to sign all records, not
     just the DNSKEY RRset. (This is similar to the
     update−check−ksk no; zone option in named.)

     −3 salt
     Generate an NSEC3 chain with the given hex encoded
     salt. A dash (salt) can be used to indicate that no
     salt is to be used when generating the NSEC3 chain.

     −H iterations
     When generating an NSEC3 chain, use this many
     interations. The default is 10.

     When generating an NSEC3 chain set the OPTOUT flag on
     all NSEC3 records and do not generate NSEC3 records for
     insecure delegations.


     Using this option twice (i.e., −AA) turns the OPTOUT
     flag off for all records. This is useful when using the
     −u option to modify an NSEC3 chain which previously had
     OPTOUT set.

     The file containing the zone to be signed.

     Specify which keys should be used to sign the zone. If
     no keys are specified, then the zone will be examined
     for DNSKEY records at the zone apex. If these are found
     and there are matching private keys, in the current
     directory, then these will be used for signing.

     The following command signs the example.com zone with
the DSA key generated by dnssec−keygen
(Kexample.com.+003+17247). Because the −S option is not
being used, the zone’s keys must be in the master file
(db.example.com). This invocation looks for dsset files, in
the current directory, so that DS records can be imported
from them (−g).

     % dnssec−signzone −g −o example.com db.example.com \

     In the above example, dnssec−signzone creates the file
db.example.com.signed. This file should be referenced in a
zone statement in a named.conf file.

     This example re−signs a previously signed zone with
default parameters. The private keys are assumed to be in
the current directory.

     % cp db.example.com.signed db.example.com
     % dnssec−signzone −o example.com db.example.com

     dnssec−keygen(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference
Manual, RFC 4033.

     Internet Systems Consortium


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Inc. ("ISC")
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