dup

DUP(2)                     Linux Programmer's Manual                    DUP(2)



NAME
       dup, dup2, dup3 - duplicate a file descriptor

SYNOPSIS
       #include <unistd.h>

       int dup(int oldfd);
       int dup2(int oldfd, int newfd);

       #define _GNU_SOURCE             /* See feature_test_macros(7) */
       #include <fcntl.h>              /* Obtain O_* constant definitions */
       #include <unistd.h>

       int dup3(int oldfd, int newfd, int flags);

DESCRIPTION
       The dup() system call creates a copy of the file descriptor oldfd,
       using the lowest-numbered unused file descriptor for the new
       descriptor.

       After a successful return, the old and new file descriptors may be used
       interchangeably.  They refer to the same open file description (see
       open(2)) and thus share file offset and file status flags; for example,
       if the file offset is modified by using lseek(2) on one of the file
       descriptors, the offset is also changed for the other.

       The two file descriptors do not share file descriptor flags (the close-
       on-exec flag).  The close-on-exec flag (FD_CLOEXEC; see fcntl(2)) for
       the duplicate descriptor is off.

   dup2()
       The dup2() system call performs the same task as dup(), but instead of
       using the lowest-numbered unused file descriptor, it uses the file
       descriptor number specified in newfd.  If the file descriptor newfd was
       previously open, it is silently closed before being reused.

       The steps of closing and reusing the file descriptor newfd are
       performed atomically.  This is important, because trying to implement
       equivalent functionality using close(2) and dup() would be subject to
       race conditions, whereby newfd might be reused between the two steps.
       Such reuse could happen because the main program is interrupted by a
       signal handler that allocates a file descriptor, or because a parallel
       thread allocates a file descriptor.

       Note the following points:

       *  If oldfd is not a valid file descriptor, then the call fails, and
          newfd is not closed.

       *  If oldfd is a valid file descriptor, and newfd has the same value as
          oldfd, then dup2() does nothing, and returns newfd.

   dup3()
       dup3() is the same as dup2(), except that:

       *  The caller can force the close-on-exec flag to be set for the new
          file descriptor by specifying O_CLOEXEC in flags.  See the
          description of the same flag in open(2) for reasons why this may be
          useful.

       *  If oldfd equals newfd, then dup3() fails with the error EINVAL.

RETURN VALUE
       On success, these system calls return the new file descriptor.  On
       error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS
       EBADF  oldfd isn't an open file descriptor.

       EBADF  newfd is out of the allowed range for file descriptors (see the
              discussion of RLIMIT_NOFILE in getrlimit(2)).

       EBUSY  (Linux only) This may be returned by dup2() or dup3() during a
              race condition with open(2) and dup().

       EINTR  The dup2() or dup3() call was interrupted by a signal; see
              signal(7).

       EINVAL (dup3()) flags contain an invalid value.

       EINVAL (dup3()) oldfd was equal to newfd.

       EMFILE The per-process limit on the number of open file descriptors has
              been reached (see the discussion of RLIMIT_NOFILE in
              getrlimit(2)).

VERSIONS
       dup3() was added to Linux in version 2.6.27; glibc support is available
       starting with version 2.9.

CONFORMING TO
       dup(), dup2(): POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, SVr4, 4.3BSD.

       dup3() is Linux-specific.

NOTES
       The error returned by dup2() is different from that returned by
       fcntl(..., F_DUPFD, ...)  when newfd is out of range.  On some systems,
       dup2() also sometimes returns EINVAL like F_DUPFD.

       If newfd was open, any errors that would have been reported at close(2)
       time are lost.  If this is of concern, then—unless the program is
       single-threaded and does not allocate file descriptors in signal
       handlers—the correct approach is not to close newfd before calling
       dup2(), because of the race condition described above.  Instead, code
       something like the following could be used:

           /* Obtain a duplicate of 'newfd' that can subsequently
              be used to check for close() errors; an EBADF error
              means that 'newfd' was not open. */

           tmpfd = dup(newfd);
           if (tmpfd == -1 && errno != EBADF) {
               /* Handle unexpected dup() error */
           }

           /* Atomically duplicate 'oldfd' on 'newfd' */

           if (dup2(oldfd, newfd) == -1) {
               /* Handle dup2() error */
           }

           /* Now check for close() errors on the file originally
              referred to by 'newfd' */

           if (tmpfd != -1) {
               if (close(tmpfd) == -1) {
                   /* Handle errors from close */
               }
           }

SEE ALSO
       close(2), fcntl(2), open(2)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 5.03 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.



Linux                             2017-09-15                            DUP(2)