DVDRECORD(1)                Schily´s USER COMMANDS                DVDRECORD(1)

       dvdrecord - record audio or data Compact Discs and DVDs from a master

       dvdrecord [ general options ] dev=device [ track options ]

       Cdrecord is used to record data or audio Compact Discs on an Orange
       Book CD-Recorder.

       The device refers to scsibus/target/lun of the CD-Recorder.
       Communication on SunOS is done with the SCSI general driver scg.  Other
       operating systems are using a library simulation of this driver.
       Possible syntax is: dev= scsibus,target,lun or dev= target,lun.  In the
       latter case, the CD-Recorder has to be connected to the default SCSI
       bus of the machine.  Scsibus, target and lun are integer numbers.  Some
       operating systems or SCSI transport implementations may require to
       specify a filename in addition.  In this case the correct syntax for
       the device is: dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun or dev=
       devicename:target,lun.  If the name of the device node that has been
       specified on such a system refers to exactly one SCSI device, a
       shorthand in the form dev= devicename:@ or dev= devicename:@,lun may be
       used instead of dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun.

       To access remote SCSI devices, you need to prepend the SCSI device name
       by a remote device indicator. The remote device indicator is either
       REMOTE:user@host: or  REMOTE:host:
       A valid remote SCSI device name may be: REMOTE:user@host: to allow
       remote SCSI bus scanning or REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the SCSI
       device at host connected to SCSI bus # 1,target 0 lun 0.

       To make dvdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev=
       devicename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as is hides OS specific
       knowledge about device names from the user.  A specific OS must not
       necessarily support a way to specify a real device file name nor a way
       to specify scsibus,target,lun.

       Scsibus 0 is the default SCSI bus on the machine. Watch the boot
       messages for more information or look into /var/adm/messages for more
       information about the SCSI configuration of your machine.  If you have
       problems to figure out what values for scsibus,target,lun should be
       used, try the -scanbus option of dvdrecord described below.

       If a file /etc/dvdrecord.conf exists, the parameter to the dev= option
       may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES section).

       On SVr4 compliant systems, dvdrecord uses the the real time class to
       get the highest scheduling priority that is possible (higher than all
       kernel processes).  On systems with POSIX real time scheduling
       dvdrecord uses real time scheduling too, but may not be able to gain a
       priority that is higher than all kernel processes.

       In Track At Once mode, each track corresponds to a single file that
       contains the prepared data for that track.  If the argument is `-',
       standard input is used for that track.  Only one track may be taken
       from stdin.

       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

              Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment the level of general verbosity by one.  This is used
              e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI command transport
              by one.  This helps to debug problems during the writing
              process, that occur in the CD-Recorder.  If you get
              incomprehensible error messages you should use this flag to get
              more detailed output.  -VV will show data buffer content in
              addition.  Using -V or -VV slows down the process and may be the
              reason for a buffer underrun.

       debug=#, -d
              Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#) or increment the
              misc debug level by one (with -d). If you specify -dd, this
              equals to debug=2.  This may help to find problems while opening
              a driver for libscg as well as with sector sizes and sector
              types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may be the
              reason for a buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
              Tell the scg-driver to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI
              commands are running.

       -silent, -s
              Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.

       -force Force to continue on some errors.  This option currently
              implements some tricks that will allow you to blank bad CD-RW

       -dummy The CD-Recorder will go through all steps of the recording
              process, but the laser is turned off during this procedure.  It
              is recommended to run several tests before actually writing to a
              Compact Disk, if the timing and load response of the system is
              not known.

       -dao   Set Disk At Once mode.  This currently only works with MMC
              drives that support Session At Once mode.

       -raw   Set RAW writing mode.  Using this option defaults to -raw96r.

              Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
              of raw P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
              bytes.  This is the preferred raw writing mode as it gives best
              control over the CD writing process.

              Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
              of packed P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
              bytes.  This is the less preferred raw writing mode as only a
              few recorders support it and some of these recorders have bugs
              in the firmware implementation.  Don't use this mode if your
              recorder supports -raw96r or -raw16.

       -raw16 Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 6 bytes
              of P-Q subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.
              If a recorder does not support -raw96r, this is the preferred
              raw writing mode.  It does not allow to write CD-Text or
              CD+Grahpics but it is the only raw writing mode in cheap CD
              writers.  As these cheap writers in most cases do not support
              -dao mode.  Don't use this mode if your recorder supports

       -multi Allow multi session CD's to be made. This flag needs to be
              present on all sessions of a multi session disk, except you want
              to create a session that will be the last session on the media.
              The fixation will be done in a way that allows the CD-Recorder
              to append additional sessions later. This is done by generation
              a TOC with a link to the next program area. The so generated
              media is not 100% compatible to manufactured CD's (except for
              CDplus).  Use only for recording of multi session CD's.  If this
              option is present, the default track type is CD-ROM XA mode 2.
              The Sony drives have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2.
              You have to specify the -data option in order to create multi
              session disks on these drives.  As long as dvdrecord does not
              have a coder for converting data sectors to audio sectors, you
              need to force CD-ROM sectors by including the -data option if
              you like to record a multisession disk in DAO/SAO mode.  Not all
              drives allow multisession CD's in DAO/SAO mode.

              Retrieve multi session info in a form suitable for mkisofs-1.10
              or later.

              This option makes only sense with a CD that contains at least
              one closed session and is appendable (not finally closed yet).
              Some drives create error messages if you try to get the multi
              session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       -toc   Retrieve and print out the table of content or PMA of a CD.
              With this option, dvdrecord will work with CD-R drives and with
              CD-ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve and print out the ATIP (absolute Time in Pregroove)
              info of a CD recordable or CD rewritable media.  With this
              option, dvdrecord will try to retrieve the ATIP info. If the
              actual drive does not support to read the ATIP info, it may be
              that only a reduced set of information records or even nothing
              is displayed. Only a limited number of MMC compliant drives
              support to read the ATIP info.

              If dvdrecord is able to retrieve the lead-in start time for the
              first session, it will try to decode and print the manufacturer
              info from the media.

       -fix   The disk will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-Reader will
              be written).  This may be used, if for some reason the disk has
              been written but not fixated. This option currently does not
              work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the tracks. This may be
              used to create an audio disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can
              usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive but there are
              audio CD players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before
              trying to open the SCSI driver. This allows dvdrecord to read
              it's input from a pipe even when writing additional sessions to
              a multi session disk.  When writing another session to a multi
              session disk, mkisofs needs to read the old session from the
              device before writing output.  This cannot be done if dvdrecord
              opens the SCSI driver at the same time.

       -load  Load the media and exit. This only works with a tray loading
              mechanism but seems to be useful when using the Kodak disk

       -eject Eject disk after doing the work.  Some Devices (e.g. Philips)
              need to eject the medium before creating a new disk. Doing a
              -dummy test and immediately creating a real disk would not work
              on these devices.

              Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.  # is an
              integer, representing a multiple of the audio speed.  This is
              about 150 KB/s for CD-ROM and about 172 KB/s for CD-Audio.  If
              no speed option is present, dvdrecord will try to get the speed
              value from the CDR_SPEED environment.  If your drive has
              problems with speed=2 or speed=4, you should try speed=0.

              Blank a CD-RW and exit or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
              blanking type may be one of:

              help        Display a list of possible blanking types.

              all         Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

              fast        Minimally blank the disk. This results in erasing
                          the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

              track       Blank a track.

              unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

              trtail      Blank the tail of a track.

              unclose     Unclose last session.

              session     Blank the last session.
       If used together with the -force flag, this option may be used to blank
       CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that you may need to
       specify blank=all because some drives will not continue with certain
       types of bad CD-RW disks. Note also that cdecord does it's best if the
       -force flag is used but it finally depends on the drive's firmware
       whether the blanking operation will succeed or not.

       fs=#   Set the fifo (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same
              method as in dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing
              the size is taken in bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a
              number is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m', `s' of
              `f', the size is multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or
              2352.  If the size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*',
              multiplication of the two numbers is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k
              will specify a fifo size of 630 kBytes.

              The size specified by the fs= argument includes the shared
              memory that is needed for administration. This is at least one
              page of memory.  If no fs= option is present, dvdrecord will try
              to get the fifo size value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.
              The default fifo size is currently 4 MB.

              The fifo is used to increase buffering for the real time writing
              process.  It allows to run a pipe from mkisofs directly into
              dvdrecord.  If the fifo is active and a pipe from mkisofs into
              dvdrecord is used to create a CD, dvdrecord will abort prior to
              do any modifications on the disk if mkisofs dies before it
              starts writing.  The recommended fifo size is between 4 and 32
              MBytes.  As a rule of thumb, the fifo size should be at least
              equal to the size of the internal buffer of the CD-Recorder and
              no more than half of the physical amount of RAM available in the
              machine.  If the fifo size is big enough, the fifo statistics
              will print a fifo empty count of zero and the fifo min fill is
              not below 20%.  It is not wise to use too much space for the
              fifo. If you need more than 8 MB to write a CD on an idle
              machine, your machine is either underpowered, has hardware
              problems or is mis-configured.  The sun4c architecture (e.g. a
              Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page table entries for 16 MBytes
              per process. Using more than 14 MBytes for the fifo may cause
              the operating system in this case to spend much time to
              constantly reload the MMU tables. Newer machines from Sun do not
              have this MMU hardware problem. I have no information on PC-
              hardware reflecting this problem.

              If you have buffer underruns or similar problems and observe a
              zero fifo empty count, you have hardware problems. The fifo size
              in this case is sufficient.

              Sets the SCSI target for the CD-Recorder, see notes above.  A
              typical device specification is dev=6,0 .  If a filename must be
              provided together with the numerical target specification, the
              filename is implementation specific.  The correct filename in
              this case can be found in the system specific manuals of the
              target operating system.  On a FreeBSD system without CAM
              support, you need to use the control device (e.g.
              /dev/rcd0.ctl).  A correct device specification in this case may
              be dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

              On Linux, drives connected to a parallel port adapter are mapped
              to a virtual SCSI bus. Different adapters are mapped to
              different targets on this virtual SCSI bus.

              If no dev option is present, dvdrecord will try to get the
              device from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

              If the argument to the dev= option does not contain the
              characters ',', '/', '@' or ':', it is interpreted as an label
              name that may be found in the file /etc/dvdrecord.conf (see
              FILES section).

              Set the default SCSI command timeout value to # seconds.  The
              default SCSI command timeout is the minimum timeout used for
              sending SCSI commands.  If a SCSI command fails due to a
              timeout, you may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout
              above the timeout value of the failed command.  If the command
              runs correctly with a raised command timeout, please report the
              better timeout value and the corresponding command to the author
              of the program.  If no timeout option is present, a default
              timeout of 40 seconds is used.

              Allows to use a user supplied driver name for the device.  To
              get a list of possible drivers use driver=help.  The reason for
              the existence of this option is to allow users to use dvdrecord
              with drives that are similar to supported drives but not known
              directly by dvdrecord.  Use this option with extreme care. If a
              wrong driver is used for a device, the possibility of creating
              corrupted disks is high.  The minimum problem related to a wrong
              driver is that the -speed or -dummy will not work.

              There are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and
              dvd_simul.  These driver entries are designed to make timing
              tests at any speed or timing tests for drives that do not
              support the -dummy option.  The simulation drivers implement a
              drive with a buffer size of 1MB that can be changed via the
              CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE environment variable.  The simulation driver
              correctly simulates even a buffer underrun condition.  If the
              -dummy option is present, the simulation is not aborted in case
              of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
              Set driver specific options. The options are specified a comma
              separated list.  To get a list of valid options use
              driveropts=help together with the -checkdrive option.  Currently
              only the burnfree option is implemented to support Buffer
              Underrun Free writing with drives that support Buffer Underrun
              Free technology.  This may be called: Sanyo BURN-Proof, Ricoh
              Just-Link or similar.

              Checks if a driver for the current drive is present and exit.
              If the drive is a known drive, dvdrecord uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives as
              obtained from mode page 0x2A. Values marked with kB use 1000
              bytes as kilo-byte, values marked with KB use 1024 bytes as

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

              Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry
              strings. This option may be used to find SCSI address of the CD-
              Recorder on a system.  The numbers printed out as labels are
              computed by: bus * 100 + target

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder is located. This
              works not on all operating systems.

              Allow dvdrecord to write more than the official size of a
              medium. This feature is usually called overburning and depends
              on the fact that most blank media may hold more space than the
              official size. As the official size of the lead-out area on the
              disk is 90 seconds (6750 sectors) and a disk usually works if
              there are at least 150 sectors of lead out, all media may be
              overburned by at least 88 seconds (6600 sectors).  Most CD
              recorders only do overburning in DAO mode. Known exceptions are
              TEAC CD-R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502. There is
              no guarantee that your drive supports overburning at all.  Make
              a test to check if your drive implements the feature.

              Ignore the known size of the medium. This options should be used
              with extreme care, it exists only for debugging purposes don't
              use it for other reasons.  It is not needed to write disks with
              more than the nominal capacity.  This option implies -overburn.

              Use *.inf files to overwrite audio options.  If this option is
              used, the pregap size information is read from the *.inf file
              that is associated with the file that contains the audio data
              for a track.

              Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track number
              1.  This option currently only makes sense with the TEAC drive
              when creating track-at-once disks without the 2 second silence
              before each track.
              This option may go away in future.

              Set Packet writing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

              Set the paket size to #, forces fixed packet mode.  This is an
              experimental interface.

              Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet
              writing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

              Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       -text  Write CD-Text created by cdrecord and based on information taken
              from a file that contains ascii information for the text
              strings. Currently only the format in the *.inf files created by
              cdda2wav is supported. You need to use the -useinfo option in
              addition in order to tell cdrecord to read these files. If you
              like to write your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf files
              with a text editor and change the field that are relevant for

              Write CD-Text based on information found in the binary file
              filename.  This file must contain information in a data format
              defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the Red Book. The
              four byte size header that is defined in the SCSI standard is
              optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
              ambiguous.  This is the best option to be used to copy CD-Text
              data from existing CDs that already carry CD-Text information.
              To get data in a format suitable for this option use cdrecord
              -vv -toc to extract the information from disk.

       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

              Set the International Standard Recording Number for the next
              track to ISRC_number.

              Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
              separated list of numbers that are counting from index 1. The
              first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
              must be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75 seconds)
              that represent the start of the indices. An index list in the
              form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
              2 100 seconds from the start of the track and index 3 200
              seconds from the start of the track.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-DA (similar to Red Book) audio format.  The file with data
              for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
              44100 samples/s.  The byte order should be the following: MSB
              left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and so on. The
              track should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to
              put the master image of an audio track on a raw disk because
              data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording

              If a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a
              structured audio data file.  Cdrecord assumes that the file in
              this case is a Sun audio file or a Microsoft .WAV file and
              extracts the audio data from the files by skipping over the non-
              audio header information.  In all other cases, dvdrecord will
              only work correctly if the audio data stream does not have any
              header.  Because many structured audio files do not have an
              integral number of blocks (1/75th second) in length, it is often
              necessary to specify the -pad option as well.  dvdrecord
              recognizes that audio data in a .WAV file is stored in Intel
              (little-endian) byte order, and will automatically byte-swap the
              data if the CD recorder requires big-endian data.  Cdrecord will
              reject any audio file that does not match the Red Book
              requirements of 16-bit stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100

              Using other structured audio data formats as input to dvdrecord
              will usually work if the structure of the data is the structure
              described above (raw pcm data in big-endian byte order).
              However, if the data format includes a header, you will hear a
              click at the start of a track.

              If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, dvdrecord
              defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and
              to -data for all other files.

       -swab  If this flag is present, audio data is assumed to be in byte-
              swapped (little-endian) order.  Some types of CD-Writers e.g.
              Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
              be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
              audio data to be presented in the big-endian (network) byte
              order normally used by the SCSI protocol.  Cdrecord knows if a
              CD-Recorder needs audio data in big- or little-endian order, and
              corrects the byte order of the data stream to match the needs of
              the recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data stream
              is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

              Note that the verbose output of dvdrecord will show you if
              swapping is necessary to make the byte order of the input data
              fit the required byte order of the recorder.  Cdrecord will not
              show you if the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data is a multiple of
              2048 bytes.  The file with track data should contain an ISO-9660
              or Rock Ridge filesystem image (see mkisofs for more details).
              If the track data is an ufs filesystem image, fragment size
              should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CR-drives with 2 KB
              sector size to to be used for reading.

              -data is the default, if no other flag is present.

              If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, dvdrecord
              defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and
              to -data for all other files.

       -mode2 If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM mode 2 format. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM XA mode 1 format. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM XA mode 2 format. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

       -cdi   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CDI format. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

              Use the ISO-9660 file system size as the size of the next track.
              This option is needed if you want dvdrecord to directly read the
              image of a track from a raw disk partition or from a TAO master
              CD. In the first case the option -isosize is needed to limit the
              size of the CD to the size of the ISO filesystem.  In the second
              case the option -isosize is needed to prevent dvdrecord from
              reading the two run out blocks that are appended by each CD-
              recorder in track at once mode. These two run out blocks cannot
              be read and would cause a buffer under run that would cause a
              defective copy.  Do not use this option on files created by
              mkisofs and in case dvdrecord reads the track data from stdin.
              In the first case, you would prevent dvdrecord from writing the
              amount of padding that has been appended by mkisofs and in the
              latter case, it will not work because stdin is not seekable.

              If -isosize is used for a track, dvdrecord will automatically
              add padding for this track as if the -pad option has been used
              but the amount of padding may be less than the padding written
              by mkisofs.  Note that if you use -isosize on a track that
              contains Sparc boot information, the boot information will be

              Note also that this option cannot be used to determine the size
              of a file system if the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will be
              added to the end of this and each subsequent data track.  In
              this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
              It will remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.  If the
              -pad option refers to an audio track, dvdrecord will pad the
              audio data to be a multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data
              padding is done with binary zeroes which is equal to absolute

              -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

              Set the amount of data to be appended as padding to the next
              track to #.  Opposed to the behavior of the -pad option, the
              value for padsize= is reset to zero for each new track.  See fs=
              option for possible arguments.  Use this option if your CD-drive
              is not able to read the last sectors of a track or if you want
              to be able to read the CD on a Linux system with the ISO-9660
              filesystem read ahead bug.  If an empty file is used for track
              data, this option may be used to create a disk that is entirely
              made of padding.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

              Allow all subsequent tracks to violate the Read Book track
              length standard which requires a minimum track length of 4
              seconds.  This option is only useful when used in DAO mode.  Not
              all drives support this feature. The drive must be accept the
              resulting CUE sheet.

              Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
              least 4 seconds.

              Set the  pre-gap size for the next track.  This option currently
              only makes sense with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once
              disks without the 2 second silence before each track.
              This option may go away in future.

              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks will indicate that the audio data has been sampled with
              50/15 µsec preemphasis.  The data, however is not modified
              during the process of transferring from file to disk.  This
              option has no effect on data tracks.

              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks will indicate that the audio data has been mastered with
              linear data - this is the default.

       -copy  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission to be copied without limit.  This option has no
              effect on data tracks.

              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission to be copied only once for personal use - this is the

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              no permission to be copied anymore.

              If the master image for the next track has been stored on a raw
              disk, use this option to specify the valid amount of data on
              this disk. If the image of the next track is stored in a regular
              file, the size of that file is taken to determine the length of
              this track.  If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem image
              use the -isosize option to determine the length of that
              filesystem image.
              In Disk at Once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC
              programming interface, even in Track at Once mode, dvdrecord
              needs to know the size of each track before starting to write
              the disk.  Cdrecord now checks this and aborts before starting
              to write.  If this happens you will need to run mkisofs -print-
              size before and use the output as an argument to the tsize=
              option of dvdrecord.
              See fs= option for possible arguments.

       For all examples below, it will be assumed that the CD-Recorder is
       connected to the primary SCSI bus of the machine. The SCSI target id is
       set to 2.

       To record a pure CD-ROM at double speed, using data from the file

           dvdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To create an image for a ISO 9660 filesystem with Rock Ridge

           mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to CD on Solaris:

           mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       On Linux:

           mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
           ls -lR /mnt
           umount /mnt

       If the overall speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of
       the filesystem is not too complex, dvdrecord will run without creating
       an image of the ISO 9660 filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

           mkisofs -R /master/tree | dvdrecord -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The recommended minimum fifo size for running this pipeline is 4
       MBytes.  As the default fifo size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs only be
       present if you want to use a different fifo size.  If your system is
       loaded, you should run mkisofs in the real time class too.  To raise
       the priority of mkisofs replace the command

           mkisofs -R /master/tree
           priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

           nice --18 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on systems that don't have UNIX International compliant realtime

       Cdrecord runs at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run mkisofs at no
       more than priority 58. On other systems, you should run mkisofs at no
       less than nice --18.

       Creating a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested on
       a Sparcstation-2 with a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed
       when the machine was not loaded.  A faster machine may be able to
       handle quad speed also in the loaded case.

       To record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with each track
       contained in a file named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

           dvdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To check if it will be ok to use double speed for the example above.
       Use the dummy write option:

           dvdrecord -v -dummy speed=2 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from cdimage.raw
       on the first track, the other tracks being audio tracks from the files
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

           dvdrecord -v -dummy dev=2,0 cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting
       to write, first run

           mkisofs -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

           mkisofs -R /master/tree | dvdrecord speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of mkisofs.

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

           cdda2wav -v255 -D2,0 -B -Owav

       and then run

           dvdrecord -v dev=2,0 -dao -useinfo  *.wav

              This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the
              open call of the SCSI transport library or a label in the file

              Sets the default speed value for writing (see also -speed

              Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              Default values can be set for the following options in
              /etc/dvdrecord.conf.  For example: CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m or

                     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
                     to the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
                     in the file /etc/dvdrecord.conf that allows to identify a
                     specific drive on the system.

                     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also -speed

                     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              Any other label
                     is an identifier for a specific drive on the system.
                     Such an identifier may not contain the characters ',',
                     '/', '@' or ':'.

                     Each line that follows a label contains a TAB separated
                     list of items.  Currently, three items are recognized:
                     the SCSI ID of the drive, the default speed that should
                     be used for this drive and the default FIFO size that
                     should be used for this drive. The values for speed and
                     fifosize may be set to -1 to tell dvdrecord to use the
                     global defaults.  A typical line may look this way:

                     teac1= 0,5,0   4    8m

                     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1   -1

                     This tells dvdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at
                     scsibus 0, target 5, lun 0 and should be used with speed
                     4 and a FIFO size of 8 MB.  A second drive may be found
                     at scsibus 1, target 6, lun 0 and uses the default speed
                     and the default FIFO size.

       cdda2wav(1), readcd(1), scg(7), fbk(7), mkisofs(8).

       On Solaris you need to stop the volume management if you like to use
       the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even things like dvdrecord
       -scanbus will not work if the volume management is running.

       Disks made in Track At Once mode are not suitable as a master for
       direct mass production by CD manufacturers.  You will need the disk at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At Once will normally be read in all CD players. Some old audio CD
       players however may produce a two second click between two audio

       The minimal size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write
       smaller tracks, the CD-Recorder will add dummy blocks. This is not an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       Dvdrecord has been tested on a Pioneer DVD-RW DVR-103, Firmware 1.55.
       It is based on Cdrecord which has been tested on an upgraded Philips
       CDD-521 recorder at single and double speed on a SparcStation 20/502
       with no problems, slower computer systems should work also.  The newer
       Philips/HP/Plasmon/Grundig drives as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and CDR-102
       work also. The Plasmon RF-4100 work, but has not tested in multi
       session.  A Philips CDD-521 that has not been upgraded will not work.
       The Sony CDU-924 has been tested, but does not support XA-mode2 in
       hardware.  The sony therefore cannot create conforming multi session
       disks.  The Ricoh RO-1420C works, but some people seem to have problems
       to use them with speed=2, try speed=0 in this case.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming drives are
       supported in single and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the -dummy option turned on if you are using dvdrecord on an unknown
       system. Writing a CD is a realtime process.  NFS will not always
       deliver constantly the needed data rates.  If you want to use dvdrecord
       with CD-images that are located on a NFS mounted filesystem, be sure
       that the fifo size is big enough.  I used Dvdrecord with with medium
       load on a SS20/502 and even at quad speed on a Sparcstation-2 which was
       heavily loaded, but it is recommended to leave the system as lightly
       loaded as possible while writing a CD.  If you want to make sure that
       buffer underrungs are not caused by your source disk, you may use the

           dvdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.  Dvdrecord needs
       to run as root to get access to the /dev/scg?  device nodes and to be
       able to lock itself into memory.

       If you don't want to allow users to become root on your system,
       dvdrecord may safely be installed suid root. This allows all users or a
       group of users with no root privileges to use dvdrecord.  Dvdrecord in
       this case checks, if the real user would have been able to read the
       specified files.  To give all user access to use dvdrecord, enter:

            chown root /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord
            chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users access to dvdrecord enter:

            chown root /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord
            chgrp cdburners /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord
            chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never give write permissions for non root users to the /dev/scg?
       devices unless you would allow anybody to read/write/format all your

       You should not connect old drives that do not support
       disconnect/reconnect to either the SCSI bus that is connected to the
       CD-Recorder or the source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and data tracks, the data should
       be on track 1 otherwise you should create a CDplus disk which is a
       multi session disk with the first session containing the audio tracks
       and the following session containing the data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more than a single data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       More information on the SCSI command set of a HP CD-Recorder can be
       found at:


       If you have more information or SCSI command manuals for currently
       unsupported CD-Recorders please contact the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-Recorder (even in the upgraded version) has
       several firmware bugs. Some of them will force you to power cycle the
       device or to reboot the machine.

       You have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort dvdrecord after you see the

       Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

              dvdrecord: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The first line gives information about the transport of the command.
       The text after the first colon gives the error text for the system call
       from the view of the kernel. It usually is: I/O error unless other
       problems happen. The next words contain a short description for the
       SCSI command that fails. The rest of the line tells you if there were
       any problems for the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.  fatal
       error means that it was not possible to transport the command (i.e. no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed

       The third line gives information on the SCSI status code returned by
       the command, if the transport of the command succeeds.  This is error
       information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The fifth line is the error text for the sense key if available,
       followed by the segment number that is only valid if the command was a
       copy command. If the error message is not directly related to the
       current command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense
       qualifier if available.  If the type of the device is known, the sense
       data is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .  The text is followed by
       the error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line prints the block number that is related to the failed
       command and text for several error flags. The block number may not be

       The eight line reports the timeout set up for this command and the time
       that the command realy needed to be finished.

       The following message is not an error:
              Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
              dvdrecord: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than the minimum size
       has been expanded to 300 sectors.

       Dvdrecord has even more options than ls.

       Dvdrecord currently only warns if the input data will not fit on the
       disk.  If you don't abort the command you will get unpredictable

       There should be an option to write index numbers for audio tracks.

       There should be a recover option to make disks usable, that have been
       written during a power failure.

       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
                      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
                      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
                      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
                      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
                      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
                      For creating the experimental packet writing support,
                      the first implementation of CD-RW blanking support, the
                      first .wav file decoder and many nice discussions on

       Chris P. Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
                      For the first implementation os a BSDI SCSI rtansport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
                      For creating the first parallel port transport
                      implementation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
                      for providing the CAM port for FreeBSD together with
                      Michael Smith (msmith@freebsd.org)

       If you want to actively take part on the development of cdrecord (on
       which dvdrecord is based), you may join the cdwriting mailing list by
       sending mail to:


       and include the word subscribe in the body.  The mail address of the
       list is:


       dvdrecord is currently maintained by bero@gnu.org.  It is based on
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin

       Additional information on cdrecord can be found on:

       If you have support questions, send them to:

       or other-cdwrite@lists.debian.org

       Of you definitly found a bug, send a mail to:

       or schilling@fokus.gmd.de

       To subscribe, use:

       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

Joerg Schilling                 Version 1.11a03                   DVDRECORD(1)