ed

ED(1)                       General Commands Manual                      ED(1)



NAME
       ed - text editor

SYNOPSIS
       ed [ - ] [ -o ] [ file ]

DESCRIPTION
       Ed is a venerable text editor.

       If a file argument is given, ed simulates an command (see below) on
       that file: it is read into ed's buffer so that it can be edited.  The
       options are

       -      Suppress the printing of character counts by and commands and of
              the confirming by commands.

       -o     (for output piping) Write all output to the standard error file
              except writing by commands.  If no file is given, make
              /dev/stdout the remembered file; see the command below.

       Ed operates on a `buffer', a copy of the file it is editing; changes
       made in the buffer have no effect on the file until a (write) command
       is given.  The copy of the text being edited resides in a temporary
       file called the buffer.

       Commands to ed have a simple and regular structure: zero, one, or two
       addresses followed by a single character command, possibly followed by
       parameters to the command.  These addresses specify one or more lines
       in the buffer.  Missing addresses are supplied by default.

       In general, only one command may appear on a line.  Certain commands
       allow the addition of text to the buffer.  While ed is accepting text,
       it is said to be in input mode.  In this mode, no commands are
       recognized; all input is merely collected.  Input mode is left by
       typing a period alone at the beginning of a line.

       Ed supports the regular expression notation described in regexp(7).
       Regular expressions are used in addresses to specify lines and in one
       command (see s below) to specify a portion of a line which is to be
       replaced.  If it is desired to use one of the regular expression
       metacharacters as an ordinary character, that character may be preceded
       by `\'.  This also applies to the character bounding the regular
       expression (often and to itself.

       To understand addressing in ed it is necessary to know that at any time
       there is a current line.  Generally, the current line is the last line
       affected by a command; however, the exact effect on the current line is
       discussed under the description of each command.  Addresses are
       constructed as follows.

       1.     The character customarily called `dot', addresses the current
              line.

       2.     The character addresses the last line of the buffer.

       3.     A decimal number n addresses the n-th line of the buffer.

       4.     ´x addresses the line marked with the name x, which must be a
              lower-case letter.  Lines are marked with the command.

       5.     A regular expression enclosed in slashes ( addresses the line
              found by searching forward from the current line and stopping at
              the first line containing a string that matches the regular
              expression.  If necessary the search wraps around to the
              beginning of the buffer.

       6.     A regular expression enclosed in queries addresses the line
              found by searching backward from the current line and stopping
              at the first line containing a string that matches the regular
              expression.  If necessary the search wraps around to the end of
              the buffer.

       7.     An address followed by a plus sign or a minus sign followed by a
              decimal number specifies that address plus (resp. minus) the
              indicated number of lines.  The plus sign may be omitted.

       8.     An address followed by (or followed by a regular expression
              enclosed in slashes specifies the first matching line following
              (or preceding) that address.  The search wraps around if
              necessary.  The may be omitted, so addresses the first line in
              the buffer with an Enclosing the regular expression in reverses
              the search direction.

       9.     If an address begins with or the addition or subtraction is
              taken with respect to the current line; e.g. is understood to
              mean

       10.    If an address ends with or then 1 is added (resp. subtracted).
              As a consequence of this rule and rule 9, the address refers to
              the line before the current line.  Moreover, trailing and
              characters have cumulative effect, so refers to the current line
              less 2.

       11.    To maintain compatibility with earlier versions of the editor,
              the character in addresses is equivalent to

       Commands may require zero, one, or two addresses.  Commands which
       require no addresses regard the presence of an address as an error.
       Commands which accept one or two addresses assume default addresses
       when insufficient are given.  If more addresses are given than a
       command requires, the last one or two (depending on what is accepted)
       are used.

       Addresses are separated from each other typically by a comma They may
       also be separated by a semicolon In this case the current line is set
       to the previous address before the next address is interpreted.  If no
       address precedes a comma or semicolon, line 1 is assumed; if no address
       follows, the last line of the buffer is assumed.  The second address of
       any two-address sequence must correspond to a line following the line
       corresponding to the first address.

       In the following list of ed commands, the default addresses are shown
       in parentheses.  The parentheses are not part of the address, but are
       used to show that the given addresses are the default.  `Dot' means the
       current line.

       (.)a
       <text>
       .      Read the given text and append it after the addressed line.  Dot
              is left on the last line input, if there were any, otherwise at
              the addressed line.  Address is legal for this command; text is
              placed at the beginning of the buffer.

       (.,.)b[+-][pagesize][pln]
              Browse.  Print a `page', normally 20 lines.  The optional
              (default) or specifies whether the next or previous page is to
              be printed.  The optional pagesize is the number of lines in a
              page.  The optional or causes printing in the specified format,
              initially Pagesize and format are remembered between commands.
              Dot is left at the last line displayed.

       (.,.)c
       <text>
       .      Change.  Delete the addressed lines, then accept input text to
              replace these lines.  Dot is left at the last line input; if
              there were none, it is left at the line preceding the deleted
              lines.

       (.,.)d Delete the addressed lines from the buffer.  Dot is set to the
              line following the last line deleted, or to the last line of the
              buffer if the deleted lines had no successor.

       e filename
              Edit.  Delete the entire contents of the buffer; then read the
              named file into the buffer.  Dot is set to the last line of the
              buffer.  The number of characters read is typed.  The file name
              is remembered for possible use in later or commands.  If
              filename is missing, the remembered name is used.

       E filename
              Unconditional see below.

       f filename
              Print the currently remembered file name.  If filename is given,
              the currently remembered file name is first changed to filename.

       (1,$)g/regular expression/command list
       (1,$)g/regular expression/
       (1,$)g/regular expression
              Global.  First mark every line which matches the given
              regularexpression.  Then for every such line, execute the
              command list with dot initially set to that line.  A single
              command or the first of multiple commands appears on the same
              line with the global command.  All lines of a multi-line list
              except the last line must end with The `.' terminating input
              mode for an command may be omitted if it would be on the last
              line of the command list.  The commands and are not permitted in
              the command list.  Any character other than space or newline may
              be used instead of to delimit the regular expression.  The
              second and third forms mean g/regular expression/p.

       (.)i
       <text>
       .      Insert the given text before the addressed line.  Dot is left at
              the last line input, or, if there were none, at the line before
              the addressed line.  This command differs from the a command
              only in the placement of the text.

       (.,.+1)j
              Join the addressed lines into a single line; intermediate
              newlines are deleted.  Dot is left at the resulting line.

       (.)kx  Mark the addressed line with name x, which must be a lower-case
              letter.  The address form ´x then addresses this line.

       (.,.)l List.  Print the addressed lines in an unambiguous way: a tab is
              printed as a backspace as backslashes as and non-printing
              characters as a backslash, an and four hexadecimal digits.  Long
              lines are folded, with the second and subsequent sub-lines
              indented one tab stop.  If the last character in the line is a
              blank, it is followed by An may be appended, like to any non-I/O
              command.

       (.,.)ma
              Move.  Reposition the addressed lines after the line addressed
              by a.  Dot is left at the last moved line.

       (.,.)n Number.  Perform prefixing each line with its line number and a
              tab.  An may be appended, like to any non-I/O command.

       (.,.)p Print the addressed lines.  Dot is left at the last line
              printed.  A appended to any non-I/O command causes the then
              current line to be printed after the command is executed.

       (.,.)P This command is a synonym for

       q      Quit the editor.  No automatic write of a file is done.  A or
              command is considered to be in error if the buffer has been
              modified since the last or command.

       Q      Quit unconditionally.

       ($)r filename
              Read in the given file after the addressed line.  If no filename
              is given, the remembered file name is used.  The file name is
              remembered if there were no remembered file name already.  If
              the read is successful, the number of characters read is
              printed.  Dot is left at the last line read from the file.

       (.,.)sn/regular expression/replacement/
       (.,.)sn/regular expression/replacement/g
       (.,.)sn/regular expression/replacement
              Substitute.  Search each addressed line for an occurrence of the
              specified regular expression.  On each line in which n matches
              are found (n defaults to 1 if missing), the nth matched string
              is replaced by the replacement specified.  If the global
              replacement indicator appears after the command, all subsequent
              matches on the line are also replaced.  It is an error for the
              substitution to fail on all addressed lines.  Any character
              other than space or newline may be used instead of to delimit
              the regular expression and the replacement.  Dot is left at the
              last line substituted.  The third form means
              sn/regular expression/replacement/p.  The second may be omitted
              if the replacement is empty.

              An ampersand appearing in the replacement is replaced by the
              string matching the regular expression.  The characters \n,
              where n is a digit, are replaced by the text matched by the n-th
              regular subexpression enclosed between and When nested
              parenthesized subexpressions are present, n is determined by
              counting occurrences of starting from the left.

              A literal or newline may be included in a replacement by
              prefixing it with

       (.,.)ta
              Transfer.  Copy the addressed lines after the line addressed by
              a.  Dot is left at the last line of the copy.

       (.,.)u Undo.  Restore the preceding contents of the first addressed
              line (sic), which must be the last line in which a substitution
              was made (double sic).

       (1,$)v/regular expression/command list
              This command is the same as the global command except that the
              command list is executed with dot initially set to every line
              except those matching the regular expression.

       (1,$)w filename
              Write the addressed lines to the given file.  If the file does
              not exist, it is created with mode 666 (readable and writable by
              everyone).  If no filename is given, the remembered file name,
              if any, is used.  The file name is remembered if there were no
              remembered file name already.  Dot is unchanged.  If the write
              is successful, the number of characters written is printed.

       (1,$)W filename
              Perform but append to, instead of overwriting, any existing file
              contents.

       ($)=   Print the line number of the addressed line.  Dot is unchanged.

       !shell command
              Send the remainder of the line after the to rc(1) to be
              interpreted as a command.  Dot is unchanged.

       (.+1)<newline>
              An address without a command is taken as a command.  A terminal
              may be omitted from the address.  A blank line alone is
              equivalent to it is useful for stepping through text.

       If an interrupt signal (DEL) is sent, ed prints a and returns to its
       command level.

       When reading a file, ed discards NUL characters and all characters
       after the last newline.

FILES
       /tmp/e*
       ed.hup   work is saved here if terminal hangs up

SOURCE
       /src/cmd/ed.c

SEE ALSO
       sam(1), sed(1), regexp(7)

DIAGNOSTICS
       ?name for inaccessible file; for temporary file overflow; for errors in
       commands or other overflows.



                                                                         ED(1)