EX(1)                             User Commands                            EX(1)

       ex, edit - text editor

       ex [-c command|+command] [-r [filename]] [-s|-] [-t tagstring] [-w size]
              [-lLRvV] [file ...]

       edit [-c command|+command] [-r [filename]] [-s|-] [-t tagstring]
              [-w size] [-lLRvV] [file ...]

       Ex is the root of a family of editors: edit, ex and vi.  Ex is a superset
       of ed, with the most notable extension being a display editing facility.
       Display based editing on CRT terminals is the focus of vi.

       For those who have not used ed, or for casual users, the editor edit may
       be convenient.  It avoids some of the complexities of ex used mostly by
       systems programmers and persons very familiar with ed.

       The following options are accepted:

       -c command or +command
              Execute command when editing begins.

       -l     Start in a special mode useful for the Lisp programming language.

       -r [filename] or -L
              When no argument is supplied with this option, all files to be
              recovered are listed and the editor exits immediately.  If a
              filename is specified, the corresponding temporary file is opened
              in recovery mode.

       -R     Files are opened read-only when this option is given.

       -s or -
              Script mode; all feedback for interactive editing is disabled.
              EXINIT and .exrc files are not processed.

       -t tagstring
              Read the tags file, then choose the file and position specified by
              tagstring for editing.

       -v     Start in visual mode even if called as ex.

       -V     Echo command input to standard error, unless it originates from a

       -w size
              Specify the size of the editing window for visual mode.

   File manipulation
       Ex is normally editing the contents of a single file, whose name is
       recorded in the current file name.  Ex performs all editing actions in a
       buffer (actually a temporary file) into which the text of the file is
       initially read.  Changes made to the buffer have no effect on the file
       being edited unless and until the buffer contents are written out to the
       file with a write command.  After the buffer contents are written, the
       previous contents of the written file are no longer accessible.  When a
       file is edited, its name becomes the current file name, and its contents
       are read into the buffer.

       The current file is almost always considered to be edited.  This means
       that the contents of the buffer are logically connected with the current
       file name, so that writing the current buffer contents onto that file,
       even if it exists, is a reasonable action.  If the current file is not
       edited then ex will not normally write on it if it already exists.

       For saving blocks of text while editing, and especially when editing more
       than one file, ex has a group of named buffers.  These are similar to the
       normal buffer, except that only a limited number of operations are
       available on them.  The buffers have names a through z.

   Exceptional Conditions
       When errors occur ex (optionally) rings the terminal bell and, in any
       case, prints an error diagnostic.  If the primary input is from a file,
       editor processing will terminate.  If an interrupt signal is received, ex
       prints “Interrupt” and returns to its command level.  If the primary
       input is a file, then ex will exit when this occurs.

       If a hangup signal is received and the buffer has been modified since it
       was last written out, or if the system crashes, either the editor (in the
       first case) or the system (after it reboots in the second) will attempt
       to preserve the buffer.  The next time the user logs in he should be able
       to recover the work he was doing, losing at most a few lines of changes
       from the last point before the hangup or editor crash.  To recover a file
       one can use the -r option.  If one was editing the file resume, then he
       should change to the directory where he were when the crash occurred,
       giving the command

              ex -r resume

       After checking that the retrieved file is indeed ok, he can write it over
       the previous contents of that file.

       The user will normally get mail from the system telling him when a file
       has been saved after a crash.  The command

              ex -r

       will print a list of the files which have been saved for the user.

   Editing modes
       Ex has five distinct modes.  The primary mode is command mode.  Commands
       are entered in command mode when a `:' prompt is present, and are
       executed each time a complete line is sent.  In text input mode ex
       gathers input lines and places them in the file.  The append, insert, and
       change commands use text input mode.  No prompt is printed when in text
       input mode.  This mode is left by typing a `.' alone at the beginning of
       a line, and command mode resumes.

       The last three modes are open and visual modes, entered by the commands
       of the same name, and, within open and visual modes text insertion mode.
       Open and visual modes allow local editing operations to be performed on
       the text in the file.  The open command displays one line at a time on
       any terminal while visual works on CRT terminals with random positioning
       cursors, using the screen as a (single) window for file editing changes.
       These modes are described (only) in An Introduction to Display Editing
       with Vi.

   Command structure
       Most command names are English words, and initial prefixes of the words
       are acceptable abbreviations.  The ambiguity of abbreviations is resolved
       in favor of the more commonly used commands.

       Most commands accept prefix addresses specifying the lines in the file
       upon which they are to have effect.  The forms of these addresses will be
       discussed below.  A number of commands also may take a trailing count
       specifying the number of lines to be involved in the command.  Thus the
       command “10p” will print the tenth line in the buffer while “delete 5”
       will delete five lines from the buffer, starting with the current line.

       Some commands take other information or parameters, this information
       always being given after the command name.

       A number of commands have two distinct variants.  The variant form of the
       command is invoked by placing an `!' immediately after the command name.
       Some of the default variants may be controlled by options; in this case,
       the `!' serves to toggle the default.

       The characters `#', `p' and `l' may be placed after many commands (A `p'
       or `l' must be preceded by a blank or tab except in the single special
       case `dp').  In this case, the command abbreviated by these characters is
       executed after the command completes.  Since ex normally prints the new
       current line after each change, `p' is rarely necessary.  Any number of
       `+' or `-' characters may also be given with these flags.  If they
       appear, the specified offset is applied to the current line value before
       the printing command is executed.

       It is possible to give editor commands which are ignored.  This is useful
       when making complex editor scripts for which comments are desired.  The
       comment character is the double quote: ".  Any command line beginning
       with " is ignored.  Comments beginning with " may also be placed at the
       ends of commands, except in cases where they could be confused as part of
       text (shell escapes and the substitute and map commands).

       More than one command may be placed on a line by separating each pair of
       commands by a `|' character.  However the global commands, comments, and
       the shell escape `!'  must be the last command on a line, as they are not
       terminated by a `|'.

   Command addressing
       .                   The current line.  Most commands leave the current
                           line as the last line which they affect.  The default
                           address for most commands is the current line, thus
                           `.' is rarely used alone as an address.

       n                   The nth line in the editor's buffer, lines being
                           numbered sequentially from 1.

       $                   The last line in the buffer.

       %                   An abbreviation for “1,$”, the entire buffer.

       +n -n               An offset relative to the current buffer line.  The
                           forms `.+3' `+3' and `+++' are all equivalent; if the
                           current line is line 100 they all address line 103.

       /pat/ ?pat?         Scan forward and backward respectively for a line
                           containing pat, a regular expression (as defined
                           below).  The scans normally wrap around the end of
                           the buffer.  If all that is desired is to print the
                           next line containing pat, then the trailing / or ?
                           may be omitted.  If pat is omitted or explicitly
                           empty, then the last regular expression specified is
                           located.  The forms \/ and \? scan using the last
                           regular expression used in a scan; after a substitute
                           // and ?? would scan using the substitute's regular

       ´´ ´x               Before each non-relative motion of the current line
                           `.', the previous current line is marked with a tag,
                           subsequently referred to as `´´'.  This makes it easy
                           to refer or return to this previous context.  Marks
                           may also be established by the mark command, using
                           single lower case letters x and the marked lines
                           referred to as `´x'.

       Addresses to commands consist of a series of addressing primitives,
       separated by `,' or `;'.  Such address lists are evaluated left-to-right.
       When addresses are separated by `;' the current line `.'  is set to the
       value of the previous addressing expression before the next address is
       interpreted.  If more addresses are given than the command requires, then
       all but the last one or two are ignored.  If the command takes two
       addresses, the first addressed line must precede the second in the

       Null address specifications are permitted in a list of addresses, the
       default in this case is the current line `.'; thus `,100' is equivalent
       to `.,100'.  It is an error to give a prefix address to a command which
       expects none.

   Command descriptions
       The following form is a prototype for all ex commands:

              address command ! parameters count flags

       All parts are optional; the degenerate case is the empty command which
       prints the next line in the file.  For sanity with use from within visual
       mode, ex ignores a “:” preceding any command.

       In the following command descriptions, the default addresses are shown in
       parentheses, which are not, however, part of the command.

       abbreviate word rhs abbr: ab
              Add the named abbreviation to the current list.  When in input
              mode in visual, if word is typed as a complete word, it will be
              changed to rhs .

       ( . ) append   abbr: a
              Reads the input text and places it after the specified line.
              After the command, `.'  addresses the last line input or the
              specified line if no lines were input.  If address `0' is given,
              text is placed at the beginning of the buffer.

              The variant flag to append toggles the setting for the autoindent
              option during the input of text.

       args   The members of the argument list are printed, with the current
              argument delimited by `[' and `]'.

       cd directory
              The cd command is a synonym for chdir.

       ( . , . ) change count   abbr: c
              Replaces the specified lines with the input text.  The current
              line becomes the last line input; if no lines were input it is
              left as for a delete.

              The variant toggles autoindent during the change.

       chdir directory
              The specified directory becomes the current directory.  If no
              directory is specified, the current value of the home option is
              used as the target directory.  After a chdir the current file is
              not considered to have been edited so that write restrictions on
              pre-existing files apply.

       ( . , . )copy addr flags abbr: co
              A copy of the specified lines is placed after addr, which may be
              `0'.  The current line `.'  addresses the last line of the copy.
              The command t is a synonym for copy.

       ( . , . )delete buffer count flags abbr: d
              Removes the specified lines from the buffer.  The line after the
              last line deleted becomes the current line; if the lines deleted
              were originally at the end, the new last line becomes the current
              line.  If a named buffer is specified by giving a letter, then the
              specified lines are saved in that buffer, or appended to it if an
              upper case letter is used.

       edit file abbr: e
       ex file
              Used to begin an editing session on a new file.  The editor first
              checks to see if the buffer has been modified since the last write
              command was issued.  If it has been, a warning is issued and the
              command is aborted.  The command otherwise deletes the entire
              contents of the editor buffer, makes the named file the current
              file and prints the new filename.  After insuring that this file
              is sensible (i.e., that it is not a binary file such as a
              directory, a block or character special file other than /dev/tty,
              a terminal, or a binary or executable file), the editor reads the
              file into its buffer.

              If the read of the file completes without error, the number of
              lines and characters read is typed.  Any null characters in the
              file are discarded.  If none of these errors occurred, the file is
              considered edited.  If the last line of the input file is missing
              the trailing newline character, it will be supplied and a
              complaint will be issued.  This command leaves the current line
              `.' at the last line read.  If executed from within open or
              visual, the current line is initially the first line of the file.

       e! file
              The variant form suppresses the complaint about modifications
              having been made and not written from the editor buffer, thus
              discarding all changes which have been made before editing the new

       e +n file
              Causes the editor to begin at line n rather than at the last line;
              n may also be an editor command containing no spaces, e.g.:

       file abbr: f
              Prints the current file name, whether it has been `[Modified]'
              since the last write command, whether it is read only , the
              current line, the number of lines in the buffer, and the
              percentage of the way through the buffer of the current line.  In
              the rare case that the current file is `[Not edited]' this is
              noted also; in this case one has to use the form w! to write to
              the file, since the editor is not sure that a write will not
              destroy a file unrelated to the current contents of the buffer.

       file file
              The current file name is changed to file which is considered `[Not

       ( 1 , $ ) global /pat/ cmds   abbr: g
              First marks each line among those specified which matches the
              given regular expression.  Then the given command list is executed
              with `.' initially set to each marked line.

              The command list consists of the remaining commands on the current
              input line and may continue to multiple lines by ending all but
              the last such line with a `\'.  If cmds (and possibly the trailing
              / delimiter) is omitted, each line matching pat is printed.
              Append, insert, and change commands and associated input are
              permitted; the `.' terminating input may be omitted if it would be
              on the last line of the command list.  Open and visual commands
              are permitted in the command list and take input from the

              The global command itself may not appear in cmds.  The undo
              command is also not permitted there, as undo instead can be used
              to reverse the entire global command.  The options autoprint and
              autoindent are inhibited during a global, (and possibly the
              trailing / delimiter) and the value of the report option is
              temporarily infinite, in deference to a report for the entire
              global.  Finally, the context mark `´´' is set to the value of `.'
              before the global command begins and is not changed during a
              global command, except perhaps by an open or visual within the

       g! /pat/ cmds  abbr: v
              The variant form of global runs cmds at each line not matching

       ( . )insert    abbr: i
              Places the given text before the specified line.  The current line
              is left at the last line input; if there were none input it is
              left at the line before the addressed line.  This command differs
              from append only in the placement of text.

              The variant toggles autoindent during the insert.

       ( . , .+1 ) join count flags  abbr: j
              Places the text from a specified range of lines together on one
              line.  White space is adjusted at each junction to provide at
              least one blank character, two if there was a `.' at the end of
              the line, or none if the first following character is a `)'.  If
              there is already white space at the end of the line, then the
              white space at the start of the next line will be discarded.

       j!     The variant causes a simpler join with no white space processing;
              the characters in the lines are simply concatenated.

       ( . ) k x
              The k command is a synonym for mark.  It does not require a blank
              or tab before the following letter.

       ( . , . ) list count flags
              Prints the specified lines in a more unambiguous way: tabs are
              printed as `^I' and the end of each line is marked with a trailing
              `$'.  The current line is left at the last line printed.

       map[!] lhs rhs
              The map command is used to define macros for use in visual command
              mode.  Lhs should be a single character, or the sequence “#n”, for
              n a digit, referring to function key n.  When this character or
              function key is typed in visual mode, it will be as though the
              corresponding rhs had been typed.  On terminals without function
              keys, the user can type “#n”.  If the `!' character follows the
              command name, the mapping is interpreted in input mode.  See
              section 6.9 of the “Introduction to Display Editing with Vi” for
              more details.

       ( . ) mark x
              Gives the specified line mark x, a single lower case letter.  The
              x must be preceded by a blank or a tab.  The addressing form `´x'
              then addresses this line.  The current line is not affected by
              this command.

       ( . , . ) move addr abbr: m
              The move command repositions the specified lines to be after addr
              .  The first of the moved lines becomes the current line.

       next abbr: n
              The next file from the command line argument list is edited.

       n!     The variant suppresses warnings about the modifications to the
              buffer not having been written out, discarding (irretrievably) any
              changes which may have been made.

       n filelist
       n +command filelist
              The specified filelist is expanded and the resulting list replaces
              the current argument list; the first file in the new list is then
              edited.  If command is given (it must contain no spaces), then it
              is executed after editing the first such file.

       ( . , . ) number count flags  abbr: # or nu
              Prints each specified line preceded by its buffer line number.
              The current line is left at the last line printed.

       ( . ) open flags    abbr: o
       ( . ) open /pat/ flags
              Enters intraline editing open mode at each addressed line.  If pat
              is given, then the cursor will be placed initially at the
              beginning of the string matched by the pattern.  To exit this mode
              use Q.  See An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi for more

              The current editor buffer is saved as though the system had just
              crashed.  This command is for use only in emergencies when a write
              command has resulted in an error.

       ( . , . )print count     abbr: p or P
              Prints the specified lines with non-printing characters printed as
              control characters `^x'; delete (octal 177) is represented as
              `^?'.  The current line is left at the last line printed.

       ( . )put buffer     abbr: pu
              Puts back previously deleted or yanked lines.  Normally used with
              delete to effect movement of lines, or with yank to effect
              duplication of lines.  If no buffer is specified, then the last
              deleted or yanked text is restored.  But no modifying commands may
              intervene between the delete or yank and the put, nor may lines be
              moved between files without using a named buffer.  By using a
              named buffer, text may be restored that was saved there at any
              previous time.

       quit abbr: q
              Causes ex to terminate.  No automatic write of the editor buffer
              to a file is performed.  However, ex issues a warning message if
              the file has changed since the last write command was issued, and
              does not quit.  Ex will also issue a diagnostic if there are more
              files in the argument list.  Normally, the user will wish to save
              his changes, and he should give a write command; if he wishes to
              discard them, he should the q! command variant.

       q!     Quits from the editor, discarding changes to the buffer without

       ( . ) read file     abbr: r
              Places a copy of the text of the given file in the editing buffer
              after the specified line.  If no file is given the current file
              name is used.  The current file name is not changed unless there
              is none in which case file becomes the current name.  The
              sensibility restrictions for the edit command apply here also.  If
              the file buffer is empty and there is no current name then ex
              treats this as an edit command.

              Address `0' is legal for this command and causes the file to be
              read at the beginning of the buffer.  Statistics are given as for
              the edit command when the read successfully terminates.  After a
              read the current line is the last line read.  Within open and
              visual the current line is set to the first line read rather than
              the last.

       ( . ) read  !command
              Reads the output of the command command into the buffer after the
              specified line.  This is not a variant form of the command, rather
              a read specifying a command rather than a filename; a blank or tab
              before the ! is mandatory.

       recover file
              Recovers file from the system save area.  Used after a accidental
              hangup of the phone or a system crash or preserve command.  Except
              when preserve is used, the user will be notified by mail when a
              file is saved.

       rewind    abbr: rew
              The argument list is rewound, and the first file in the list is

       rew!   Rewinds the argument list discarding any changes made to the
              current buffer.

       set parameter
              With no arguments, prints those options whose values have been
              changed from their defaults; with parameter all it prints all of
              the option values.

              Giving an option name followed by a `?'  causes the current value
              of that option to be printed.  The `?' is unnecessary unless the
              option is Boolean valued.  Boolean options are given values either
              by the form `set option' to turn them on or `set nooption' to turn
              them off; string and numeric options are assigned via the form
              `set option=value'.

              More than one parameter may be given to set ; they are interpreted

              A list of options can be found below.

       shell     abbr: sh
              A new shell is created.  When it terminates, editing resumes.

       source file    abbr: so
              Reads and executes commands from the specified file.  Source
              commands may be nested.

       ( . , . ) substitute /pat/repl/ options count flags
              abbr: s
              On each specified line, the first instance of pattern pat is
              replaced by replacement pattern repl.  If the global indicator
              option character `g' appears, then all instances are substituted;
              if the confirm indication character `c' appears, then before each
              substitution the line to be substituted is typed with the string
              to be substituted marked with `^' characters.  By typing an `y'
              one can cause the substitution to be performed, any other input
              causes no change to take place.  After a substitute the current
              line is the last line substituted.

              Lines may be split by substituting new-line characters into them.
              The newline in repl must be escaped by preceding it with a `\'.
              Other metacharacters available in pat and repl are described

       stop   Suspends the editor, returning control to the top level shell.  If
              autowrite is set and there are unsaved changes, a write is done
              first unless the form stop !  is used.  This commands is only
              available where supported by the teletype driver, shell and
              operating system.

       ( . , . ) substitute options count flags     abbr: s
              If pat and repl are omitted, then the last substitution is
              repeated.  This is a synonym for the & command.

       ( . , . ) t addr flags
              The t command is a synonym for copy .

       ta tag The focus of editing switches to the location of tag, switching to
              a different line in the current file where it is defined, or if
              necessary to another file.

              The tags file is normally created by a program such as ctags, and
              consists of a number of lines with three fields separated by
              blanks or tabs.  The first field gives the name of the tag, the
              second the name of the file where the tag resides, and the third
              gives an addressing form which can be used by the editor to find
              the tag; this field is usually a contextual scan using `/pat/' to
              be immune to minor changes in the file.  Such scans are always
              performed as if nomagic was set.

              The tag names in the tags file must be sorted alphabetically.

       unabbreviate word   abbr: una
              Delete word from the list of abbreviations.

       undo abbr: u
              Reverses the changes made in the buffer by the last buffer editing
              command.  Note that global commands are considered a single
              command for the purpose of undo (as are open and visual.)  Also,
              the commands write and edit which interact with the file system
              cannot be undone.  Undo is its own inverse.

              Undo always marks the previous value of the current line `.'  as
              `´´'.  After an undo the current line is the first line restored
              or the line before the first line deleted if no lines were
              restored.  For commands with more global effect such as global and
              visual the current line regains it's pre-command value after an

       unmap[!] lhs
              The macro expansion associated by map for lhs is removed.

       ( 1 , $ ) v /pat/ cmds
              A synonym for the global command variant g!, running the specified
              cmds on each line which does not match pat.

       version   abbr: ve
              Prints the current version number of the editor as well as the
              date the editor was last changed.

       ( . ) visual type count flags abbr: vi
              Enters visual mode at the specified line.  Type is optional and
              may be `-' , `^' or `.'  as in the z command to specify the
              placement of the specified line on the screen.  By default, if
              type is omitted, the specified line is placed as the first on the
              screen.  A count specifies an initial window size; the default is
              the value of the option window.  See the document An Introduction
              to Display Editing with Vi for more details.  To exit this mode,
              type Q.

       visual file
       visual +n file
              From visual mode, this command is the same as edit.

       ( 1 , $ ) write file     abbr: w
              Writes changes made back to file, printing the number of lines and
              characters written.  Normally file is omitted and the text goes
              back where it came from.  If a file is specified, then text will
              be written to that file.  If the file does not exist it is
              created.  The current file name is changed only if there is no
              current file name; the current line is never changed.

              If an error occurs while writing the current and edited file, the
              editor considers that there has been “No write since last change”
              even if the buffer had not previously been modified.

       ( 1 , $ ) write>> file   abbr: w>>
              Writes the buffer contents at the end of an existing file.

       w! name
              Overrides the checking of the normal write command, and will write
              to any file which the system permits.

       ( 1 , $ ) w  !command
              Writes the specified lines into command.  Note the difference
              between w! which overrides checks and w  ! which writes to a

       wq name
              Like a write and then a quit command.

       wq! name
              The variant overrides checking on the sensibility of the write
              command, as w! does.

       xit name
              If any changes have been made and not written to any file, writes
              the buffer out.  Then, in any case, quits.

       ( . , . )yank buffer count    abbr: ya
              Places the specified lines in the named buffer, for later
              retrieval via put.  If no buffer name is specified, the lines go
              to a more volatile place; see the put command description.

       ( .+1 ) z count
              Print the next count lines, default window.

       ( . ) z type count
              Prints a window of text with the specified line at the top.  If
              type is `-' the line is placed at the bottom; a `.' causes the
              line to be placed in the center.  A count gives the number of
              lines to be displayed rather than double the number specified by
              the scroll option.  On a CRT the screen is cleared before display
              begins unless a count which is less than the screen size is given.
              The current line is left at the last line printed.  Forms `z=' and
              `z^' also exist; `z=' places the current line in the center,
              surrounds it with lines of `-' characters and leaves the current
              line at this line.  The form `z^' prints the window before `z-'
              would.  The characters `+', `^' and `-' may be repeated for
              cumulative effect.

       ! command
              The remainder of the line after the `!' character is sent to a
              shell to be executed.  Within the text of command the characters
              `%' and `#' are expanded as in filenames and the character `!' is
              replaced with the text of the previous command.  Thus, in
              particular, `!!' repeats the last such shell escape.  If any such
              expansion is performed, the expanded line will be echoed.  The
              current line is unchanged by this command.

              If there has been “[No write]” of the buffer contents since the
              last change to the editing buffer, then a diagnostic will be
              printed before the command is executed as a warning.  A single `!'
              is printed when the command completes.

       ( addr , addr ) ! command
              Takes the specified address range and supplies it as standard
              input to command; the resulting output then replaces the input

       ( $ ) =
              Prints the line number of the addressed line.  The current line is

       ( . , . ) > count flags
       ( . , . ) < count flags
              Perform intelligent shifting on the specified lines; < shifts left
              and > shift right.  The quantity of shift is determined by the
              shiftwidth option and the repetition of the specification
              character.  Only white space (blanks and tabs) is shifted; no non-
              white characters are discarded in a left-shift.  The current line
              becomes the last line which changed due to the shifting.

       ^D     An end-of-file from a terminal input scrolls through the file.
              The scroll option specifies the size of the scroll, normally a
              half screen of text.

       ( .+1 , .+1 )
       ( .+1 , .+1 ) |
              An address alone causes the addressed lines to be printed.  A
              blank line prints the next line in the file.

       ( . , . ) & options count flags
              Repeats the previous substitute command.

       ( . , . ) ~ options count flags
              Replaces the previous regular expression with the previous
              replacement pattern from a substitution.

   Regular expressions
       A regular expression specifies a set of strings of characters.  A member
       of this set of strings is said to be matched by the regular expression.
       Ex remembers two previous regular expressions: the previous regular
       expression used in a substitute command and the previous regular
       expression used elsewhere (referred to as the previous scanning regular
       expression.)  The previous regular expression can always be referred to
       by a null re, e.g. `//' or `??'.

       The following basic constructs are used to construct magic mode regular

       char           An ordinary character matches itself.  The characters `^'
                      at the beginning of a line, `$' at the end of line, `*' as
                      any character other than the first, `.', `\', `[', and `~'
                      are not ordinary characters and must be escaped (preceded)
                      by `\' to be treated as such.

       ^              At the beginning of a pattern forces the match to succeed
                      only at the beginning of a line.

       $              At the end of a regular expression forces the match to
                      succeed only at the end of the line.

       .              Matches any single character except the new-line

       \<             Forces the match to occur only at the beginning of a
                      “variable” or “word”; that is, either at the beginning of
                      a line, or just before a letter, digit, or underline and
                      after a character not one of these.

       \>             Similar to `\<', but matching the end of a “variable” or
                      “word”, i.e. either the end of the line or before
                      character which is neither a letter, nor a digit, nor the
                      underline character.

       [string]       Matches any (single) character in the class defined by
                      string.  Most characters in string define themselves.
                        A pair of characters separated by `-' in string defines
                      the set of characters collating between the specified
                      lower and upper bounds, thus `[a-z]' as a regular
                      expression matches any (single) ASCII lower-case letter.
                        If the sequence `[:class:]' appears in string, where
                      class is one of `alnum', `alpha', `blank', `cntrl',
                      `digit', `graph', `lower', `print', `punct', `space',
                      `upper', `xdigit', or a locale-specific character class,
                      all characters that belong to the given class are matched.
                      Thus `[[:lower:]]' matches any lower-case letter, possibly
                      including characters beyond the scope of ASCII.
                        If the first character of string is an `^' then the
                      construct matches those characters which it otherwise
                      would not; thus `[^a-z]' matches anything but an ASCII
                      lower-case letter (and of course a newline).
                        Backslash `\' is interpreted as an escape character.  To
                      place a `\' character in string, write it twice: `\\'; to
                      place any of the characters `^', `[', or `-' in string,
                      you escape them with a preceding `\'.
                        Characters also lose their special meaning by position:
                      `^' is an ordinary character unless immediately following
                      the initial `[', `]' is an ordinary character if
                      immediately following the initial `[' (or `^', if
                      present), and `-' is an ordinary character if placed
                      immediately behind `[' or `^', or before ']'.

       The concatenation of two regular expressions matches the leftmost and
       then longest string which can be divided with the first piece matching
       the first regular expression and the second piece matching the second.

       A regular expression may be enclosed between the sequences `\(' and `\)',
       which matches whatever the enclosed expression matches.

       Any of the (single character matching) regular expressions mentioned
       above or a regular expression surrounded by `\(' and '\)' may be followed
       by the character `*' to form a regular expression which matches any
       number of adjacent occurrences (including 0) of characters matched by the
       regular expression it follows.

       A single character regular expression or a regular expression surrounded
       by `\(' and '\)' followed by `\{m,n\}' matches a sequence of m through n
       occurences, inclusive, of the single character expression.  The values of
       m and n must be non-negative and smaller than 255.  The form `\{m\}'
       matches exactly m occurences, `\{m,\}' matches at least m occurences.

       The character `~' may be used in a regular expression, and matches the
       text which defined the replacement part of the last substitute command.

       The sequence `\n' matches the text that was matched by the n-th regular
       subexpression enclosed between `\(' and `\)' earlier in the expression.

   Substitute replacement patterns
       The basic metacharacters for the replacement pattern are `&', `~', and
       `#'; the first two of them are given as `\&' and `\~' when nomagic is
       set.  Each instance of `&' is replaced by the characters which the
       regular expression matched.  The metacharacter `~' stands, in the
       replacement pattern, for the defining text of the previous replacement
       pattern.  If the entire replacement pattern is `#', the defining text of
       the previous replacement pattern is used.

       Other metasequences possible in the replacement pattern are always
       introduced by the escaping character `\'.  The sequence `\n' is replaced
       by the text matched by the n-th regular subexpression enclosed between
       `\(' and `\)'.  When nested, parenthesized subexpressions are present, n
       is determined by counting occurrences of `\(' starting from the left.
       The sequences `\u' and `\l' cause the immediately following character in
       the replacement to be converted to upper- or lower-case respectively if
       this character is a letter.  The sequences `\U' and `\L' turn such
       conversion on, either until `\E' or `\e' is encountered, or until the end
       of the replacement pattern.

   Option descriptions
       autoindent, ai default: noai
              Can be used to ease the preparation of structured program text.
              At the beginning of each append , change or insert command or when
              a new line is opened or created by an append , change , insert ,
              or substitute operation within open or visual mode, ex looks at
              the line being appended after, the first line changed or the line
              inserted before and calculates the amount of white space at the
              start of the line.  It then aligns the cursor at the level of
              indentation so determined.

              If the user then types lines of text in, they will continue to be
              justified at the displayed indenting level.  If more white space
              is typed at the beginning of a line, the following line will start
              aligned with the first non-white character of the previous line.
              To back the cursor up to the preceding tab stop one can hit ^D.
              The tab stops going backwards are defined at multiples of the
              shiftwidth option.  The user cannot backspace over the indent,
              except by sending an end-of-file with a ^D.

              Specially processed in this mode is a line with no characters
              added to it, which turns into a completely blank line (the white
              space provided for the autoindent is discarded.)  Also specially
              processed in this mode are lines beginning with an `^' and
              immediately followed by a ^D.  This causes the input to be
              repositioned at the beginning of the line, but retaining the
              previous indent for the next line.  Similarly, a `0' followed by a
              ^D repositions at the beginning but without retaining the previous

              Autoindent doesn't happen in global commands or when the input is
              not a terminal.

       autoprint, ap  default: ap
              Causes the current line to be printed after each delete , copy ,
              join , move , substitute , t , undo or shift command.  This has
              the same effect as supplying a trailing `p' to each such command.
              Autoprint is suppressed in globals, and only applies to the last
              of many commands on a line.

       autowrite, aw  default: noaw
              Causes the contents of the buffer to be written to the current
              file if the user has modified it and gives a next, rewind, stop,
              tag, or !  command, or a ^^ (switch files) or ^] (tag goto)
              command in visual.  Note, that the edit and ex commands do not
              autowrite.  In each case, there is an equivalent way of switching
              when autowrite is set to avoid the autowrite (edit for next ,
              rewind!  for .I rewind , stop!  for stop , tag!  for tag , shell
              for ! , and :e # and a :ta! command from within visual).

       beautify, bf   default: nobeautify
              Causes all control characters except tab, newline and form-feed to
              be discarded from the input.  A complaint is registered the first
              time a backspace character is discarded.  Beautify does not apply
              to command input.

       directory, dir default: dir=/tmp
              Specifies the directory in which ex places its buffer file.  If
              this directory in not writable, then the editor will exit abruptly
              when it fails to be able to create its buffer there.

       edcompatible   default: noedcompatible
              Causes the presence of absence of g and c suffixes on substitute
              commands to be remembered, and to be toggled by repeating the
              suffices.  The suffix r makes the substitution be as in the ~
              command, instead of like &.

       errorbells, eb default: noeb
              Error messages are preceded by a bell.  Bell ringing in open and
              visual on errors is not suppressed by setting noeb.  If possible
              the editor always places the error message in a standout mode of
              the terminal (such as inverse video) instead of ringing the bell.

       exrc           default: noexrc
              If set, the current directory is searched for a .exrc file on
              startup.  If this file is found, its content is treated as ex
              commands and executed immediately after the contents of
              $HOME/.exrc on startup.

       flash, fl default: flash
              If the terminal provides the “visual bell” capability, ex will use
              it instead of the audible bell if flash is set.

       hardtabs, ht   default: ht=8
              Gives the boundaries on which terminal hardware tabs are set (or
              on which the system expands tabs).

       ignorecase, ic default: noic
              All upper case characters in the text are mapped to lower case in
              regular expression matching.  In addition, all upper case
              characters in regular expressions are mapped to lower case except
              in character class specifications.

       lisp default: nolisp
              Autoindent indents appropriately for lisp code, and the ( ) { } [[
              and ]] commands in open and visual are modified to have meaning
              for lisp.

       list default: nolist
              All printed lines will be displayed (more) unambiguously, showing
              tabs and end-of-lines as in the list command.

       magic     default: magic for ex and vi, Nomagic for edit.
              If nomagic is set, the number of regular expression metacharacters
              is greatly reduced, with only `^' and `$' having special effects.
              In addition the metacharacters `~' and `&' of the replacement
              pattern are treated as normal characters.  All the normal
              metacharacters may be made magic when nomagic is set by preceding
              them with a `\'.

       mesg default: mesg
              Causes write permission to be turned off to the terminal while the
              user is in visual mode, if nomesg is set.

       modelines, ml  default: nomodelines
              If modelines is set, then the first 5 lines and the last five
              lines of the file will be checked for ex command lines and the
              comands issued.  To be recognized as a command line, the line must
              have the string ex: or vi: in it.  This string may be anywhere in
              the line and anything after the : is interpeted as editor
              commands.  This option defaults to off because of unexpected
              behavior when editting files such as /etc/passwd.

       number, nu     default: nonumber
              Causes all output lines to be printed with their line numbers.  In
              addition each input line will be prompted for by supplying the
              line number it will have.

       open default: open
              If noopen, the commands open and visual are not permitted.

       optimize, opt  default: optimize
              Throughput of text is expedited by setting the terminal to not do
              automatic carriage returns when printing more than one (logical)
              line of output, greatly speeding output on terminals without
              addressable cursors when text with leading white space is printed.

       paragraphs, para    default: para=IPLPPPQPP LIbp
              Specifies the paragraphs for the { and } operations in open and
              visual.  The pairs of characters in the option's value are the
              names of the macros which start paragraphs.

       prompt    default: prompt
              Command mode input is prompted for with a `:'.

       redraw    default: noredraw
              The editor simulates (using great amounts of output), an
              intelligent terminal on a dumb terminal (e.g. during insertions in
              visual the characters to the right of the cursor position are
              refreshed as each input character is typed.)  Useful only at very
              high speed.

       remap     default: remap
              If on, macros are repeatedly tried until they are unchanged.  For
              example, if o is mapped to O , and O is mapped to I , then if
              remap is set, o will map to I , but if noremap is set, it will map
              to O .

       report    default: report=5, 2 for edit.
              Specifies a threshold for feedback from commands.  Any command
              which modifies more than the specified number of lines will
              provide feedback as to the scope of its changes.  For commands
              such as global , open , undo , and visual which have potentially
              more far reaching scope, the net change in the number of lines in
              the buffer is presented at the end of the command, subject to this
              same threshold.  Thus notification is suppressed during a global
              command on the individual commands performed.

       scroll    default: scroll=½ window
              Determines the number of logical lines scrolled when an end-of-
              file is received from a terminal input in command mode, and the
              number of lines printed by a command mode z command (double the
              value of scroll ).

       sections  default: sections=SHNHH HU
              Specifies the section macros for the [[ and ]] operations in open
              and visual.  The pairs of characters in the options's value are
              the names of the macros which start paragraphs.

       shell, sh default: sh=/bin/sh
              Gives the path name of the shell forked for the shell escape
              command `!', and by the shell command.  The default is taken from
              SHELL in the environment, if present.

       shiftwidth, sw default: sw=8
              Gives the width a software tab stop, used in reverse tabbing with
              ^D when using autoindent to append text, and by the shift

       showmatch, sm  default: nosm
              In open and visual mode, when a ) or } is typed, move the cursor
              to the matching ( or { for one second if this matching character
              is on the screen.  Extremely useful with lisp.

       showmode, smd  default: nosmd
              In visual mode, show a description of the current editing mode in
              the window's lower right corner.

       slowopen, slow terminal dependent
              Affects the display algorithm used in visual mode, holding off
              display updating during input of new text to improve throughput
              when the terminal in use is both slow and unintelligent.  See An
              Introduction to Display Editing with Vi for more details.

       tabstop, ts    default: ts=8
              The editor expands tabs in the input file to be on tabstop
              boundaries for the purposes of display.

       taglength, tl  default: tl=0
              Tags are not significant beyond this many characters.  A value of
              zero (the default) means that all characters are significant.

       tags default: tags=tags /usr/lib/tags
              A path of files to be used as tag files for the tag command.  A
              requested tag is searched for in the specified files,
              sequentially.  By default, files called tags are searched for in
              the current directory and in /usr/lib (a master file for the
              entire system).

       term from environment TERM
              The terminal type of the output device.

       terse     default: noterse
              Shorter error diagnostics are produced for the experienced user.

       warn default: warn
              Warn if there has been `[No write since last change]' before a `!'
              command escape.

       window    default: window=speed dependent
              The number of lines in a text window in the visual command.  The
              default is 8 at slow speeds (600 baud or less), 16 at medium speed
              (1200 baud), and the full screen (minus one line) at higher

       w300, w1200, w9600
              These are not true options but set window only if the speed is
              slow (300), medium (1200), or high (9600), respectively.  They are
              suitable for an EXINIT and make it easy to change the 8/16/full
              screen rule.

       wrapscan, ws   default: ws
              Searches using the regular expressions in addressing will wrap
              around past the end of the file.

       wrapmargin, wm default: wm=0
              Defines a margin for automatic wrapover of text during input in
              open and visual modes.  See An Introduction to Text Editing with
              Vi for details.

       writeany, wa   default: nowa

              Inhibit the checks normally made before write commands, allowing a
              write to any file which the system protection mechanism will

       The following environment variables affect the behaviour of ex:

              Overrides the system-supplied number of terminal columns.

       EXINIT Contains commands to execute at editor startup.  If this variable
              is present, the .exrc file in the user's home directory is

       HOME   Used to locate the editor startup file.

       LANG, LC_ALL
              See locale(7).

              Determines the mapping of bytes to characters, types of
              characters, case conversion and composition of character classes
              in regular expressions.

              Sets the language used for diagnostic and informal messages.

       LINES  Overrides the system-supplied number of terminal lines.

              See catopen(3).

       SHELL  The program file used to execute external commands.

       TERM   Determines the terminal type.

              preserve command

              recover command

              describes capabilities of terminals

              editor startup file

              editor temporary

              named buffer temporary

              preservation directory

       The document Edit: A tutorial (USD:14) provides a comprehensive
       introduction to edit assuming no previous knowledge of computers or the
       UNIX system.

       The Ex Reference Manual – Version 3.7 (USD:16) is a comprehensive and
       complete manual for the command mode features of ex.  The USAGE section
       of this page is taken from the manual.  For an introduction to more
       advanced forms of editing using the command mode of ex see the editing
       documents written by Brian Kernighan for the editor ed; the material in
       the introductory and advanced documents works also with ex.

       An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi (USD:15) introduces the
       display editor vi and provides reference material on vi.  (This reference
       now forms the vi(1) manual page).  In addition, the Vi Quick Reference
       card summarizes the commands of vi in a useful, functional way, and is
       useful with the Introduction.

       awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), sed(1), grep(1), vi(1), catopen(3), termcap(5),
       environ(7), locale(7), regex(7)

       Originally written by William Joy.

       Mark Horton has maintained the editor since version 2.7, adding macros,
       support for many unusual terminals, and other features such as word
       abbreviation mode.

       This version incorporates changes by Gunnar Ritter.

       Undo never clears the buffer modified condition.

       The z command prints a number of logical rather than physical lines.
       More than a screen full of output may result if long lines are present.

       File input/output errors don't print a name if the command line `-'
       option is used.

       The editor does not warn if text is placed in named buffers and not used
       before exiting the editor.

       Null (00) characters are converted to 0200 characters when reading input
       files, and cannot appear in resultant files.

       LC_COLLATE locales are ignored; collating symbols `[.c.]'  and
       equivalence classes `[=c=]' in bracket expressions are recognized but
       useless since `c' is restricted to a single character and is the only
       character matched; range expressions `[a-m]' are always evaluated in byte

Ancient Unix Ports                   12/1/04                               EX(1)