elvis

elvis(1)                    General Commands Manual                   elvis(1)



NAME
       elvis - a clone of the ex/vi text editor

SYNOPSIS
       elvis [-V...]  [-a] [-r] [-R] [-e] [-i] [-S] [-s|-] [-f session] [-o
       logfile] [-G gui] [-c command|+command] [-t tag] [-w scroll] [-b
       blksize] [file]...

DESCRIPTION
       elvis is a text editor.  It is intended to be a modern replacement for
       the classic ex/vi editor of UNIX fame.  elvis supports many new
       features, including multiple edit buffers, multiple windows, multiple
       user interfaces (including an X11 interface), and a variety of display
       modes.

       For a more complete description, you should see elvis's on-line
       documentation.  To view this documentation, start elvis and then give
       the command ":help".

       To exit elvis, you can give the command ":q" in each of its windows.
       If you've modified the buffer in a window, and you want to abandon
       those changes, then give the command ":q!" instead.

OPTIONS
       -V     "Verbose" mode, causes elvis to output more status messages.
              You can use multiple -V flags to get even more detailed
              information.  -VVV can be handy when elvis isn't initializing
              itself quite the way you expected.  See also the -ologfile
              option, described below.

       -a     Instructs elvis to load all files named on the command line
              simultaneously with a separate window for each.

       -r     This is used for recovering an edit session after a crash.  Each
              elvis process uses a single "session file" to store the contents
              of all edit buffers.  While elvis is running, a flag is set near
              the beginning of the session file so that other elvis processes
              won't try to use it at the same time.  If an elvis process dies
              abnormally, though, it will leave the session file lying around
              with that flag set; the -r flag allows elvis to open a session
              file even if it is marked as being in use.

       -R     This sets the "defaultreadonly" option, which causes all new
              buffers to be marked as "readonly" so you won't accidentally
              overwrite the original file.

       -e     Causes elvis to start each window in ex mode, instead of visual
              command mode.  Invoking elvis as "ex" implies this.

       -i     Causes elvis to start each window in input mode, instead of
              visual command mode.  Novice users may prefer this.

       -S     Sets the "safer" option, making elvis paranoid about certain
              potentially harmful commands.  The ./.exrc file and modelines
              are executed with the "safer" option temporarily turned on
              regardless of whether -S was given.  The -S flag is just used to
              make elvis permanently paranoid, for the duration of this
              process.

       -f session
              Makes elvis use the session file named "session" instead of the
              default file.  Session files are discussed in the description of
              the -r flag, above.

       -o logfile
              Redirects messages and trace information out to logfile instead
              of going to stdout/stderr as usual.  This is useful under
              Windows95, where stdout/stderr don't show anywhere.  If you're
              having trouble configuring WinElvis, try running "winelvis -VVV
              -olog" and then you can find the trace and error messages in the
              file "log".

       -G gui Makes elvis use the named gui user interface instead of the
              default.  To see a list of supported user interfaces, give the
              command "elvis -?".

       -c command or +command
              Gives an ex command to be executed after loading the first file.

       -s     Read an ex script from stdin, and execute it.  This is similar
              to the -Gscript flag, except that -s has the additional side-
              effect of bypassing all initialization scripts.

       -t tag Causes editing to begin at the location where the given tag is
              defined.  See the ctags(1) command for more information about
              tags.

       -w scroll
              This sets the "window" option, which has very little effect in
              elvis.

       -b blksize
              If a new session file is created, this causes it to use blocks
              of size blksize.

       In addition, the following options are also supported to maintain
       backward compatibility, although their future use is discouraged.

       +command
              Like -c command, this causes the ex command to be executed after
              the first file is loaded.  If the command is omitted, it is
              understood to be "$", which causes the cursor to move to the
              last line of the file.

       -      Like -s, this causes elvis to read a script from stdin and
              execute it.

TERMCAP INTERFACE
       The termcap interface is the one you'll use most often on non-graphic
       terminals.  It looks and acts a heck of a lot like the traditional vi.
       The biggest addition is the support for multiple windows.  For more
       information on how to use multiple windows, start elvis and give the
       command ":help ^W".  The short form of that help is: ^Ws splits the
       screen to form an additional window, ^Wq closes the window, and ^W^W
       switches the cursor from one window to another.

       If your terminal supports ANSI color escape sequences, then you can use
       the ":color" command to assign different colors to the six basic fonts:
       normal, bold, italic, underlined, fixed, and emphasized.  You must
       assign a normal color first, e.g., ":color normal yellow".

       There are three additional options when using the termcap interface:
       term, ttyrows, and ttycolumns.  The term option contains the name of
       the termcap entry being used; it should correspond to the type of
       terminal you're using.  The ttyrows and ttycolumns options give the
       size of the screen.

       The DOS and (text mode) Win32 version of the termcap interface support
       the mouse.  The mouse behaves almost exactly like the X11 mouse,
       described below.  The only differences are that the mouse can't be used
       to cut & paste to the clipboard, and on a two-button mouse you can
       simulate a middle button by simultaneously pressing the left and right
       buttons.

X11 INTERFACE
       The x11 interface is used under X-Windows on UNIX systems.  It provides
       a scrollbar and mouse support, and allows you to select which fonts to
       use.

   X11 Options
       To specify a normal font, use -font fontname or -fn fontname.
       Proportional fonts are not properly supported, but they aren't rejected
       with an error message either.  If you don't specify a normal font, then
       elvis will use a font named "fixed" by default.  (This default can be
       overridden by a "set normalfont=..." command in the elvis.ini file.
       The default elvis.ini file does this, making the new default font be
       18-point Courier.)

       To specify a bold font, use -fb fontname.  The specified font should
       have the same size character cell as the normal font, but elvis does
       not verify this.  If you don't specify a bold font, then elvis will
       fake it by smearing the normal font rightward one pixel.

       To specify an italic font, use -fi fontname.  The specified font should
       have the same size character cell as the normal font, but elvis does
       not verify this.  If you don't specify an italic font, then elvis will
       fake it by sliding the top half of the normal font rightward one pixel.

       If you want to use Courier fonts, there is a shortcut: -courier size
       will use the normal, bold, and italic versions of the Courier font in
       the requested size.

       You can force elvis to use only black and white with the -mono flag;
       this is the default if your display only has one bitplane.  For color
       displays, -fg color and -bg color can be used to set the normal text
       color and the background color, respectively.

       Elvis has a built-in icon, which is generally a good thing.  Some
       window managers won't allow you to assign a new icon to a program that
       has a built-in one, so elvis has a -noicon flag which disables the
       built-in icon.

       The -fork client causes elvis to run in the background, so that your
       shell prompt returns immediately.

       The -client option causes elvis to look for an already-running elvis
       process on the same X server and, if there is one, send the new
       arguments to it.  This causes the old elvis process to create new
       windows for file arguments.  The new elvis process then exits, leaving
       the old one to do the real work and allowing your shell program to
       prompt for a new command immediately.  For the sake of uniformity, if
       -client fails, then a new elvis process starts up as though you had
       used the -fork argument instead.

       The -client option is implemented in an interesting way: the client
       elvis simply sends a series of ex commands to an existing window of the
       server elvis.  For each file name argument, the client elvis sends a
       ":split file" command.  For -ttag, the client elvis sends a ":stag tag"
       command.  For -ccommand, the client elvis simply sends the command, and
       this results in some quirks.  First, the server elvis temporarily sets
       the "safer" option while the command is executed, for security reasons.
       Second, the command is executed by the server's existing window, not
       the new one, so (for example) "elvis -client -c 20 foo" creates a new
       window for the file "foo", and then moves the OLD WINDOW's cursor to
       line 20 of whatever file it was showing.

   X11 Mouse
       I've tried to reach a balance between the mouse behavior of xterm(1)
       and what makes sense for an editor.  To do this right, elvis has to
       distinguish between clicking and dragging.

       Dragging the mouse always selects text.  Dragging with button 1 pressed
       (usually the left button) selects characters, dragging with button 2
       (the middle button) selects a rectangular area, and dragging with
       button 3 (usually the right button) selects whole lines.  These
       operations correspond to elvis' v, ^V, and V commands, respectively.
       When you release the button at the end of the drag, the selected text
       is immediately copied into an X11 cut buffer, so you can paste it into
       another application such as xterm.  The text remains selected, so you
       can apply an operator command to it.

       Clicking button 1 cancels any pending selection, and moves the cursor
       to the clicked-on character.  Clicking button 3 moves the cursor
       without cancelling the pending selection; you can use this to extend a
       pending selection.

       Clicking button 2 "pastes" text from the X11 cut butter.  If you're
       entering an ex command line, the text will be pasted into the command
       line as though you had typed it.  If you're in visual command mode or
       input mode, the text will be pasted into your edit buffer.  When
       pasting, it doesn't matter where you click in the window; elvis always
       inserts the text at the position of the text cursor.

       Double-clicking button 1 simulates a ^] keystroke, causing elvis to
       perform tag lookup on the clicked-on word.  If elvis happens to be
       displaying an HTML document, then tag lookup pursues hypertext links so
       you can double-click on any underlined text to view the topic that
       describes that text.  Double-clicking button 3 simulates a ^T
       keystroke, taking you back to where you did the last tag lookup.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       HOME   This is used to determine where your home directory is.  It is
              always defined under UNIX.  For WindowsNT, if HOME is undefined
              then elvis will derive it from the values of HOMEDRIVE and
              HOMEPATH, which are always defined; the default value is
              typically "C:\users\default".  For OS/2 and MS-DOS, if it is
              undefined then elvis will use the directory which contains the
              elvis program as your home directory.

              This is significant because your home directory is a popular
              location for storing configuration files.  The .exrc or ELVIS.RC
              file resides there.

       SHELL  This is the name of your command-line interpreter.  Elvis needs
              to know this so you can run programs from inside elvis.

       ELVISPATH
              If ELVISPATH is defined in the environment, then its value is
              copied into the elvispath option, which is a list of directories
              that elvis should search through when looking for its support
              files.  If ELVISPATH is undefined, elvis will use a default list
              which usually includes the your home directory, and maybe a
              system-wide default location.

       SESSIONPATH
              This is a list of directories where elvis might be able to
              create the session file.  Elvis uses the first writable
              directory from the list, and ignores all others.

       INCLUDE
              This is a list of directories where the "syntax" display mode
              should look for #include files.

       LC_ALL, LC_MESSAGES, or LANG
              If LANG is defined, then elvis will look for for its message
              translations in $LANG/elvis.msg, and only use just plain
              elvis.msg if it can't find $LANG/elvis.msg.  The LC_MESSAGES and
              LC_ALL environment variables work similarly, and take precedence
              over LANG.

       EXINIT If defined, the value of this option is typically interpreted as
              a series of EX commands when elvis starts up.  This behavior
              isn't built into elvis though; it is handled by the standard
              elvis.ini file.

       Elvis has commands which can examine any environment variable.  Because
       of this, a comprehensive list of environment variables isn't possible.

FILES
       ~      This is your home directory.  Whenever elvis sees a ~ at the
              start of a pathname, it replaces the ~ with the value of the
              "home" option.  The "home" option is initialized from the HOME
              environment variable; if HOME is unset then some operating
              systems will set "home" to the the directory where the elvis
              program resides.

       lib    In this man-page, "lib" is a placeholder for the name of a
              directory in which elvis' configuration files reside.  The
              "elvispath" option's value is a list of directories that elvis
              will check for each configuration file.

       elvis*.ses
              These are the default names for sessions files.  Session files
              store the contents of all edit buffers for a given edit session.
              You can instruct elvis to use a specific session file via the
              -fsession command-line flag.  Note that sessions specified via
              -fsession normally reside in the current directory, but when
              elvis chooses its own session file name, it will place it in the
              first writable file named in the SESSIONPATH environment
              variable.

       tags   This file stores the tags for the files in a directory.  It is
              used by the :tag command, among others.

       lib/elvis.ini
              This file contains EX commands which are executed whenever elvis
              starts up.  Elvis searches through the ELVISPATH for the file.

       ~/.exrc or ~\elvis.rc
              The .exrc (for UNIX) or elvis.rc (for non-UNIX) file in your
              home directory will generally be executed as a series of EX
              commands, unless the EXINIT environment variable is defined.
              This behavior isn't built into elvis though; it is handled by
              the standard elvis.ini file.

       ./.exrc or elvis.rc
              The .exrc (for UNIX) or elvis.rc (for non-UNIX) file in the
              current directory is interpreted as a series of EX commands, but
              only if the exrc option has been set.  This behavior isn't built
              into elvis; it is handled by the standard elvis.ini file.

       lib/elvis.brf
              This file contains EX commands which are executed Before Reading
              a File.  Typically this is used to distinguish a binary file
              from a text file by examining the file name extension of the
              file.  The "readeol" option is then set accordingly.

       lib/elvis.arf
              This file contains EX commands which are executed After Reading
              a File.  If the current directory doesn't contain an elvis.arf
              file, then elvis searches through the ELVISPATH for the file.
              Typically, this is used to set the bufdisplay option for a
              buffer, based on the file name extension of the file.

       lib/elvis.bwf
              This file contains EX commands which are executed Before Writing
              a File.  If the current directory doesn't contain an elvis.bwf
              file, then elvis searches through the ELVISPATH for the file.
              Typically, elvis.bwf is used to rename the old file to
              "filename.BAK" before writing out the new file.

       lib/elvis.lat
              This contains a series of ":digraph" commands which set up the
              digraph table appropriately for the ISO Latin-1 symbol set.  The
              "lib/elvis.ini" file executes this script during initialization,
              except under OS/2, MS-DOS, or text-mode Win32.

       lib/elvis.pc8
              This contains a series of ":digraph" commands which set up the
              digraph table appropriately for the PC-8 symbol set.  This is
              the normal symbol set for MS-DOS, OS/2, and text-mode Win32
              (although the graphical Win32 uses "lib/elvis.lat").  The
              "lib/elvis.ini" file executes this script during initialization
              if under MS-DOS.

       lib/elvis.msg
              This file's data is used for mapping the elvis' terse error
              messages into verbose messages.

       lib/elvistrs.msg
              Elvis doesn't use this file directly; it is simply meant to
              serve as a resource from which you can extract the terse form of
              one of elvis' messages; you can then add the terse form and your
              own custom verbose form to the "lib/elvis.msg" file.

       lib/elvis.syn
              This file controls how elvis' "syntax" display mode highlights
              the text for a given language.

       lib/elvis.x11
              This file contains a series of ex command.  This file is sourced
              by elvis.ini if elvis is using its X11 user interface.  It
              configures up the toolbar and default colors.

       lib/elvis.ali
              This contains a set of aliases.  If your copy of elvis is
              configured to support aliases (i.e., if it isn't the MS-DOS
              version) then these aliases will be loaded automatically.  They
              are partly intended to serve as examples of what aliases can do
              and how to write them, but mostly these aliases are intended to
              be truly useful.  To see a list of the aliases, give the command
              ":alias".

       lib/elvis*.html
              These files contain the online documentation.  If the current
              directory doesn't contain the required elvis*.html file, then
              elvis searches through the ELVISPATH for the file.

       lib/*.man
              These contain the man pages -- shorter summaries of the
              programs, with descriptions of the command-line flags.

       guix11/*.xpm and guix11/elvis.xbm
              These contain icon images for use with X-windows.  The
              "elvis.xbm" image is a 2-color bitmap, and it is compiled into
              elvis.  The other files, such as "elvis.xpm," contain color
              images.  The "insticon.sh" shell script (which is invoked as
              part of the "make install" operation) tries to copy these into
              appropriate directories.

SEE ALSO
       ex(1), vi(1), ctags(1)

       You should also view the on-line documentation, via ":help".

AUTHOR
       Steve Kirkendall
       kirkenda@cs.pdx.edu



                                                                      elvis(1)