enca(1)                                                                enca(1)

       enca -- detect and convert encoding of text files

       enca [-L LANGUAGE] [OPTION]... [FILE]...
       enconv [-L LANGUAGE] [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       If you are lucky enough, the only two things you will ever need to know
       are: command

              enca FILE

       will tell you which encoding file FILE uses (without changing it), and

              enconv FILE

       will convert file FILE to your locale native encoding.  To convert the
       file to some other encoding use the -x option (see -x entry in section
       OPTIONS and sections CONVERSION and ENCODINGS for details).

       Both work with multiple files and standard input (output) too.  E.g.

              enca -x latin2 <sometext | lpr

       assures file `sometext' is in ISO Latin 2 when it's sent to printer.

       The main reason why these command will fail and turn your files into
       garbage is that Enca needs to know their language to detect the
       encoding.  It tries to determine your language and preferred charset
       from locale settings, which might not be what you want.

       You can (or have to) use -L option to tell it the right language.
       Suppose, you downloaded some Russian HTML file, `file.htm', it claims
       it's windows-1251 but it isn't.  So you run

              enca -L ru file.htm

       and find out it's KOI8-R (for example).  Be warned, currently there are
       not many supported languages (see section LANGUAGES).

       Another warning concerns the fact several Enca's features, namely its
       charset conversion capabilities, strongly depend on what other tools
       are installed on your system (see section CONVERSION)--run

              enca --version

       to get list of features (see section FEATURES).  Also try

              enca --help

       to get description of all other Enca options (and to find the rest of
       this manual page redundant).

       Enca reads given text files, or standard input when none are given, and
       uses knowledge about their language (must be supported by you) and a
       mixture of parsing, statistical analysis, guessing and black magic to
       determine their encodings, which it then prints to standard output (or
       it confesses it doesn't have any idea what the encoding could be).  By
       default, Enca presents results as a multiline human-readable
       descriptions, several other formats are available--see Output type
       selectors below.

       Enca can also convert files to some other encoding ENC when you ask for
       it--either using a built-in converter, some conversion library, or by
       calling an external converter.

       Enca's primary goal is to be usable unattended, as an automatic
       conversion tool, though it perhaps have not reached this point yet
       (please see section SECURITY).

       Please note except rare cases Enca really has to know the language of
       input files to give you a reliable answer.  On the other hand, it can
       then cope quite well with files that are not purely textual or even
       detect charset of text strings inside some binary file; of course, it
       depends on the character of the non-text component.

       Enca doesn't care about structure of input files, it views them as a
       uniform piece of text/data.  In case of multipart files (e.g.
       mailboxes), you have to use some tool knowing the structure to extract
       the individual parts first.  It's the cost of ability to detect
       encodings of any damaged, incomplete or otherwise incorrect files.

       There are several categories of options: operation mode options, output
       type selectors, guessing parameters, conversion parameters, general
       options and listings.

       All long options can be abbreviated as long as they are unambiguous,
       mandatory parameters of long options are mandatory for short options

   Operation modes
       are following:

       -c, --auto-convert
              Equivalent to calling Enca as enconv.

              If no output type selector is specified, detect file encodings,
              guess your preferred charset from locales, and convert files to
              it (only available with +target-charset-auto feature).

       -g, --guess
              Equivalent to calling Enca as enca.

              If no output type selector is specified, detect file encodings
              and report them.

   Output type selectors
       select what action Enca will take when it determines the encoding; most
       of them just choose between different names, formats and conventions
       how encodings can be printed, but one of them (-x) is special: it tells
       Enca to recode files to some other encoding ENC.  These options are
       mutually exclusive; if you specify more than one output type selector
       the last one takes precedence.

       Several output types represent charset name used by some other program,
       but not all these programs know all the charsets which Enca recognises.
       Be warned, Enca makes no difference between unrecognised charset and
       charset having no name in given namespace in such situations.

       -d, --details
              It used to print a few pages of details about the guessing
              process, but since Enca is just a program linked against Enca
              library, this is not possible and this option is roughly
              equivalent to --human-readable, except it reports failure reason
              when Enca doesn't recognize the encoding.

       -e, --enca-name
              Prints Enca's nice name of the charset, i.e., perhaps the most
              generally accepted and more or less human-readable charset
              identifier, with surfaces appended.

              This name is used when calling an external converter, too.

       -f, --human-readable
              Prints verbal description of the detected charset and
              surfaces--something a human understands best.  This is the
              default behaviour.

              The precise format is following: the first line contains charset
              name alone, and it's followed by zero or more indented lines
              containing names of detected surfaces.  This format is not,
              however, suitable or intended for further machine-processing,
              and the verbal charset descriptions are like to change in the

       -i, --iconv-name
              Prints how iconv(3) (and/or iconv(1)) calls the detected
              charset.  More precisely, it prints one, more or less
              arbitrarily chosen, alias accepted by iconv.  A charset unknown
              to iconv counts as unknown.

              This output type makes sense only when Enca is compiled with
              iconv support (feature +iconv-interface).

       -r, --rfc1345-name
              Prints RFC 1345 charset name.  When such a name doesn't exist
              because RFC 1345 doesn't define a given encoding, some other
              name defined in some other RFC or just the name which author
              considers `the most canonical', is printed.

              Since RFC 1345 doesn't define surfaces, no surface info is

       -m, --mime-name
              Prints preferred MIME name of detected charset.  This is the
              name you should normally use when fixing e-mails or web pages.

              A charset not present in
              http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets counts as

       -s, --cstocs-name
              Prints how cstocs(1) calls the detected charset.  A charset
              unknown to cstocs counts as unknown.

       -n, --name=WORD
              Prints charset (encoding) name selected by WORD (can be
              abbreviated as long as is unambiguous).  For names listed above,
              --name=WORD is equivalent to --WORD.

              Using aliases as the output type causes Enca to print list of
              all accepted aliases of detected charset.

       -x, --convert-to=[..]ENC
              Converts file to encoding ENC.

              The optional `..' before encoding name has no special meaning,
              except you can use it to remind yourself that, unlike in
              recode(1), you should specify desired encoding, instead of

              You can use recode(1) recoding chains or any other kind of
              braindead recoding specification for ENC, provided that you tell
              Enca to use some tool understanding it for conversion (see
              section CONVERSION).

              When Enca fails to determine the encoding, it prints a warning
              and leaves the the file as is; when it is run as a filter it
              tries to do its best to copy standard input to standard output
              unchanged.  Nevertheless, you should not rely on it and do

   Guessing parameters
       There's only one: -L setting language of input files. This option is
       mandatory (but see below).

       -L, --language=LANG
              Sets language of input files to LANG.

              More precisely, LANG can be any valid locale name (or alias with
              +locale-alias feature) of some supported language.  You can also
              specify `none' as language name, only multibyte encodings are
              recognised then.  Run

              enca --list languages

              to get list of supported languages.  When you don't specify any
              language Enca tries to guess your language from locale settings
              and assumes input files use this language.  See section
              LANGUAGES for details.

   Conversion parameters
       give you finer control of how charset conversion will be performed.
       They don't affect anything when -x is not specified as output type.
       Please see section CONVERSION for the gory conversion details.

       -C, --try-converters=LIST
              Appends comma separated LIST to the list of converters that will
              be tried when you ask for conversion.  Their names can be
              abbreviated as long as they are unambiguous.  Run

              enca --list converters

              to get list of all valid converter names (and see section
              CONVERSION for their description).

              The default list depends on how Enca has been compiled, run

              enca --help

              to find out default converter list.

              Note the default list is used only when you don't specify -C at
              all.  Otherwise, the list is built as if it were initially empty
              and every -C adds new converter(s) to it.  Moreover, specifying
              none as converter name causes clearing the converter list.

       -E, --external-converter-program=PATH
              Sets external converter program name to PATH.  Default external
              converter depends on how enca has been complied, and the
              possibility to use external converters may not be available at
              all.  Run

              enca --help

              to find out default converter program in your enca build.

   General options
       don't fit to other option categories...

       -p, --with-filename
              Forces Enca to prefix each result with corresponding file name.
              By default, Enca prefixes results with filenames when run on
              multiple files.

              Standard input is printed as STDIN and standard output as STDOUT
              (the latter can be probably seen in error messages only).

       -P, --no-filename
              Forces Enca to not prefix results with file names.  By default,
              Enca doesn't prefix result with file name when run on a single
              file (including standard input).

       -V, --verbose
              Increases verbosity level (each use increases it by one).

              Currently this option in not very useful because different parts
              of Enca respond differently to the same verbosity level, mostly
              not at all.

       are all terminal, i.e. when Enca encounters some of them it prints the
       required listing and terminates without processing any following

       -h, --help
              Prints brief usage help.

       -G, --license
              Prints full Enca license (through a pager, if possible).

       -l, --list=WORD
              Prints list specified by WORD (can be abbreviated as long as it
              is unambiguous).  Available lists include:

              built-in-charsets.  All encodings convertible by built-in
              converter, by group (both input and output encoding must be from
              this list and belong to the same group for internal conversion).

              built-in-encodings.  Equivalent to built-in-charsets, but
              considered obsolete; will be accepted with a warning, for a

              converters.  All valid converter names (to be used with -C).

              charsets.  All encodings (charsets).  You can select what names
              will be printed with --name or any name output type selector (of
              course, only encodings having a name in given namespace will be
              printed then), the selector must be specified before --list.

              encodings.  Equivalent to charsets, but considered obsolete;
              will be accepted with a warning, for a while.

              languages.  All supported languages together with charsets
              belonging to them.  Note output type selects language name
              style, not charset name style here.

              names.  All possible values of --name option.

              lists.  All possible values of this option.  (Crazy?)

              surfaces.  All surfaces Enca recognises.

       -v, --version
              Prints program version and list of features (see section

       Though Enca has been originally designed as a tool for guessing
       encoding only, it now features several methods of charset conversion.
       You can control which of them will be used with -C.

       Enca sequentially tries converters from the list specified by -C until
       it finds some that is able to perform required conversion or until it
       exhausts the list.  You should specify preferred converters first, less
       preferred later.  External converter (extern) should be always
       specified last, only as last resort, since it's usually not possible to
       recover when it fails.  The default list of converters always starts
       with built-in and then continues with the first one available from:
       librecode, iconv, nothing.

       It should be noted when Enca says it is not able to perform the
       conversion it only means none of the converters is able to perform it.
       It can be still possible to perform the required conversion in several
       steps, using several converters, but to figure out how, human
       intelligence is probably needed.

   Built-in converter
       is the simplest and far the fastest of all, can perform only a few
       byte-to-byte conversions and modifies files directly in place (may be
       considered dangerous, but is pretty efficient).  You can get list of
       all encodings it can convert with

              enca --list built-in

       Beside speed, its main advantage (and also disadvantage) is that it
       doesn't care: it simply converts characters having a representation in
       target encoding, doesn't touch anything else and never prints any error

       This converter can be specified as built-in with -C.

   Librecode converter
       is an interface to GNU recode library, that does the actual recoding
       job.  It may or may not be compiled in; run

              enca --version

       to find out its availability in your enca build (feature

       You should be familiar with recode(1) before using it, since recode is
       a quite sophisticated and powerful charset conversion tool.  You may
       run into problems using it together with Enca particularly because
       Enca's support for surfaces not 100% compatible, because recode tries
       too hard to make the transformation reversible, because it sometimes
       silently ignores I/O errors, and because it's incredibly buggy.  Please
       see GNU recode info pages for details about recode library.

       This converter can be specified as librecode with -C.

   Iconv converter
       is an interface to the UNIX98 iconv(3) conversion functions, that do
       the actual recoding job.  It may or may not be compiled in; run

              enca --version

       to find out its availability in your enca build (feature

       While iconv is present on most today systems it only rarely offer some
       useful set of available conversions, the only notable exception being
       iconv from GNU libc.  It is usually quite picky about surfaces, too
       (while, at the same time, not implementing surface conversion).  It
       however probably represents the only standard(ized) tool able to
       perform conversion from/to Unicode.  Please see iconv documentation
       about for details about its capabilities on your particular system.

       This converter can be specified as iconv with -C.

   External converter
       is an arbitrary external conversion tool that can be specified with -E
       option (at most one can be defined simultaneously).  There are some
       standard, provided together with enca: cstocs, recode, map, umap, and
       piconv.  All are wrapper scripts: for cstocs(1), recode(1), map(1),
       umap(1), and piconv(1).

       Please note enca has little control what the external converter really
       does.  If you set it to /bin/rm you are fully responsible for the

       If you want to make your own converter to use with enca, you should
       know it is always called


       where CONVERTER is what has been set by -E, ENC_CURRENT is detected
       encoding, ENC is what has been specified with -x, and FILE is the file
       to convert, i.e. it is called for each file separately.  The optional
       fourth parameter, -, should cause (when present) sending result of
       conversion to standard output instead of overwriting the file FILE.
       The converter should also take care of not changing file permissions,
       returning error code 1 when it fails and cleaning its temporary files.
       Please see the standard external converters for examples.

       This converter can be specified as extern with -C.

   Default target charset
       The straightforward way of specifying target charset is the -x option,
       which overrides any defaults.  When Enca is called as enconv, default
       target charset is selected exactly the same way as recode(1) does it.

       If the DEFAULT_CHARSET environment variable is set, it's used as the
       target charset.

       Otherwise, if you system provides the nl_langinfo(3) function, current
       locale's native charset is used as the target charset.

       When both methods fail, Enca complains and terminates.

   Reversibility notes
       If reversibility is crucial for you, you shouldn't use enca as
       converter at all (or maybe you can, with very specifically designed
       recode(1) wrapper).  Otherwise you should at least know that there four
       basic means of handling inconvertible character entities:

       fail--this is a possibility, too, and incidentally it's exactly what
       current GNU libc iconv implementation does (recode can be also told to
       do it)

       don't touch them--this is what enca internal converter always does and
       recode can do; though it is not reversible, a human being is usually
       able to reconstruct the original (at least in principle)

       approximate them--this is what cstocs can do, and recode too, though
       differently; and the best choice if you just want to make the accursed
       text readable

       drop them out--this is what both recode and cstocs can do (cstocs can
       also replace these characters by some fixed character instead of mere
       ignoring); useful when the to-be-omitted characters contain only noise.

       Please consult your favourite converter manual for details of this
       issue.  Generally, if you are not lucky enough to have all convertible
       characters in you file, manual intervention is needed anyway.

   Performance notes
       Poor performance of available converters has been one of main reasons
       for including built-in converter in enca.  Try to use it whenever
       possible, i.e. when files in consideration are charset-clean enough or
       charset-messy enough so that its zero built-in intelligence doesn't
       matter.  It requires no extra disk space nor extra memory and can
       outperform recode(1) more than 10 times on large files and Perl version
       (i.e. the faster one) of cstocs(1) more than 400 times on small files
       (in fact it's almost as fast as mere cp(1)).

       Try to avoid external converters when it's not absolutely necessary
       since all the forking and moving stuff around is incredibly slow.

       You can get list of recognised character sets with

              enca --list charsets

       and using --name parameter you can select any name you want to be used
       in the listing.  You can also list all surfaces with

              enca --list surfaces

       Encoding and surface names are case insensitive and non-alphanumeric
       characters are not taken into account.  However, non-alphanumeric
       characters are mostly not allowed at all.  The only allowed are: `-',
       `_', `.', `:', and `/' (as charset/surface separator).  So `ibm852' and
       `IBM-852' are the same, while `IBM 852' is not accepted.

       Following list of recognised charsets uses Enca's names (-e) and verbal
       descriptions as reported by Enca (-f):

       ASCII         7bit ASCII characters
       ISO-8859-2    ISO 8859-2 standard; ISO Latin 2
       ISO-8859-4    ISO 8859-4 standard; Latin 4
       ISO-8859-5    ISO 8859-5 standard; ISO Cyrillic
       ISO-8859-13   ISO 8859-13 standard; ISO Baltic; Latin 7
       ISO-8859-16   ISO 8859-16 standard
       CP1125        MS-Windows code page 1125
       CP1250        MS-Windows code page 1250
       CP1251        MS-Windows code page 1251
       CP1257        MS-Windows code page 1257; WinBaltRim
       IBM852        IBM/MS code page 852; PC (DOS) Latin 2
       IBM855        IBM/MS code page 855
       IBM775        IBM/MS code page 775
       IBM866        IBM/MS code page 866
       baltic        ISO-IR-179; Baltic
       KEYBCS2       Kamenicky encoding; KEYBCS2
       macce         Macintosh Central European
       maccyr        Macintosh Cyrillic
       ECMA-113      Ecma Cyrillic; ECMA-113
       KOI-8_CS_2    KOI8-CS2 code (`T602')
       KOI8-R        KOI8-R Cyrillic

       KOI8-U        KOI8-U Cyrillic
       KOI8-UNI      KOI8-Unified Cyrillic
       TeX           (La)TeX control sequences
       UCS-2         Universal character set 2 bytes; UCS-2; BMP
       UCS-4         Universal character set 4 bytes; UCS-4; ISO-10646
       UTF-7         Universal transformation format 7 bits; UTF-7
       UTF-8         Universal transformation format 8 bits; UTF-8
       CORK          Cork encoding; T1
       GBK           Simplified Chinese National Standard; GB2312
       BIG5          Traditional Chinese Industrial Standard; Big5
       HZ            HZ encoded GB2312
       unknown       Unrecognized encoding

       where unknown is not any real encoding, it's reported when Enca is not
       able to give a reliable answer.

       Enca has some experimental support for so-called surfaces (see below).
       It detects following surfaces (not all can be applied to all charsets):

       /CR     CR line terminators
       /LF     LF line terminators
       /CRLF   CRLF line terminators
       N.A.    Mixed line terminators
       N.A.    Surrounded by/intermixed with non-text data
       /21     Byte order reversed in pairs (1,2 -> 2,1)
       /4321   Byte order reversed in quadruples (1,2,3,4 -> 4,3,2,1)
       N.A.    Both little and big endian chunks, concatenated
       /qp     Quoted-printable encoded

       Note some surfaces have N.A. in place of identifier--they cannot be
       specified on command line, they can only be reported by Enca.  This is
       intentional because they only inform you why the file cannot be
       considered surface-consistent instead of representing a real surface.

       Each charset has its natural surface (called `implied' in recode) which
       is not reported, e.g., for IBM 852 charset it's `CRLF line
       terminators'.  For UCS encodings, big endian is considered as natural
       surface; unusual byte orders are constructed from 21 and 4321
       permutations: 2143 is reported simply as 21, while 3412 is reported as
       combination of 4321 and 21.

       Doubly-encoded UTF-8 is neither charset nor surface, it's just

   About charsets, encodings and surfaces
       Charset is a set of character entities while encoding is its
       representation in the terms of bytes and bits.  In Enca, the word
       encoding means the same as `representation of text', i.e. the relation
       between sequence of character entities constituting the text and
       sequence of bytes (bits) constituting the file.

       So, encoding is both character set and so-called surface (line
       terminators, byte order, combining, Base64 transformation, etc.).
       Nevertheless, it proves convenient to work with some {charset,surface}
       pairs as with genuine charsets.  So, as in recode(1), all UCS- and UTF-
       encodings of Universal character set are called charsets.  Please see
       recode documentation for more details of this issue.

       The only good thing about surfaces is: when you don't start playing
       with them, neither Enca won't start and it will try to behave as much
       as possible as a surface-unaware program, even when talking to recode.

       Enca needs to know the language of input files to work reliably, at
       least in case of regular 8bit encoding.  Multibyte encodings should be
       recognised for any Latin, Cyrillic or Greek language.

       You can (or have to) use -L option to tell Enca the language.  Since
       people most often work with files in the same language for which they
       have configured locales, Enca tries tries to guess the language by
       examining value of LC_CTYPE and other locale categories (please see
       locale(7)) and using it for the language when you don't specify any.
       Of course, it may be completely wrong and will give you nonsense
       answers and damage your files, so please don't forget to use the -L
       option.  You can also use ENCAOPT environment variable to set a default
       language (see section ENVIRONMENT).

       Following languages are supported by Enca (each language is listed
       together with supported 8bit encodings).

       Belarusian    CP1251 IBM866 ISO-8859-5 KOI8-UNI maccyr IBM855
       Bulgarian     CP1251 ISO-8859-5 IBM855 maccyr ECMA-113
       Czech         ISO-8859-2 CP1250 IBM852 KEYBCS2 macce KOI-8_CS_2 CORK
       Estonian      ISO-8859-4 CP1257 IBM775 ISO-8859-13 macce baltic
       Croatian      CP1250 ISO-8859-2 IBM852 macce CORK
       Hungarian     ISO-8859-2 CP1250 IBM852 macce CORK
       Lithuanian    CP1257 ISO-8859-4 IBM775 ISO-8859-13 macce baltic
       Latvian       CP1257 ISO-8859-4 IBM775 ISO-8859-13 macce baltic
       Polish        ISO-8859-2 CP1250 IBM852 macce ISO-8859-13 ISO-8859-16 baltic CORK
       Russian       KOI8-R CP1251 ISO-8859-5 IBM866 maccyr
       Slovak        CP1250 ISO-8859-2 IBM852 KEYBCS2 macce KOI-8_CS_2 CORK
       Slovene       ISO-8859-2 CP1250 IBM852 macce CORK
       Ukrainian     CP1251 IBM855 ISO-8859-5 CP1125 KOI8-U maccyr
       Chinese       GBK BIG5 HZ

       The special language none can be shortened to __, it contains no 8bit
       encodings, so only multibyte encodings are detected.

       You can also use locale names instead of languages:

       Belarusian      be
       Bulgarian       bg
       Czech           cs
       Estonian        et
       Croatian        hr
       Hungarian       hu
       Lithuanian      lt
       Latvian         lv
       Polish          pl
       Russian         ru
       Slovak          sk
       Slovene         sl
       Ukrainian       uk
       Chinese         zh

       Several Enca's features depend on what is available on your system and
       how it was compiled.  You can get their list with

              enca --version

       Plus sign before a feature name means it's available, minus sign means
       this build lacks the particular feature.

       librecode-interface.  Enca has interface to GNU recode library charset
       conversion functions.

       iconv-interface.  Enca has interface to UNIX98 iconv charset conversion

       external-converter.  Enca can use external conversion programs (if you
       have some suitable installed).

       language-detection.  Enca tries to guess language (-L) from locales.
       You don't need the --language option, at least in principle.

       locale-alias.  Enca is able to decrypt locale aliases used for language

       target-charset-auto.  Enca tries to detect your preferred charset from
       locales.  Option --auto-convert and calling Enca as enconv works, at
       least in principle.

       ENCAOPT.  Enca is able to correctly parse this environment variable
       before command line parameters.  Simple stuff like ENCAOPT="-L uk" will
       work even without this feature.

       The variable ENCAOPT can hold set of default Enca options.  Its content
       is interpreted before command line arguments.  Unfortunately, this
       doesn't work everywhere (must have +ENCAOPT feature).

       LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MESSAGES (possibly inherited from LC_ALL or
       LANG) is used for guessing your language (must have +language-detection

       The variable DEFAULT_CHARSET can be used by enconv as the default
       target charset.

       Enca returns exit code 0 when all input files were successfully
       proceeded (i.e. all encodings were detected and all files were
       converted to required encoding, if conversion was asked for).  Exit
       code 1 is returned when Enca wasn't able to either guess encoding or
       perform conversion on any input file because it's not clever enough.
       Exit code 2 is returned in case of serious (e.g. I/O) troubles.

       It should be possible to let Enca work unattended, it's its goal.

       There's no warranty the detection works 100%. Don't bet on it, you can
       easily lose valuable data.

       Don't use enca (the program), link to libenca instead if you want
       anything resembling security. You have to perform the eventual
       conversion yourself then.

       Don't use external converters. Ideally, disable them compile-time.

       Be aware of ENCAOPT and all the built-in automagic guessing various
       things from environment, namely locales.

       autoconvert(1), cstocs(1), file(1), iconv(1), iconv(3), nl_langinfo(3),
       map(1), piconv(1), recode(1), locale(5), locale(7), ltt(1), umap(1),
       unicode(7), utf-8(7), xcode(1)

       It has too many unknown bugs.

       The idea of using LC_* value for language is certainly braindead.
       However I like it.

       It can't backup files before mangling them.

       In certain situations, it may behave incorrectly on >31bit file systems
       and/or over NFS (both untested but shouldn't cause problems in

       Built-in converter does not convert character `ch' from KOI8-CS2, and
       possibly some other characters you've probably never heard about

       EOL type recognition works poorly on Quoted-printable encoded files.
       This should be fixed someday.

       There are no command line options to tune libenca parameters.  This is
       intentional (Enca should DWIM) but sometimes this is a nuisance.

       The manual page is too long, especially this section.  This doesn't
       matter since nobody does read it.

       Send bug reports to <https://github.com/nijel/enca/issues>.

       Enca is Extremely Naive Charset Analyser.  Nevertheless, the `enc'
       originally comes from `encoding' so the leading `e' should be read as
       in `encoding' not as in `extreme'.

       David Necas (Yeti) <yeti@physics.muni.cz>

       Michal Cihar <michal@cihar.com>

       Unicode data has been generated from various (free) on-line resources
       or using GNU recode.  Statistical data has been generated from various
       texts on the Net, I hope character counting doesn't break anyone's

       Please see the file THANKS in distribution.

       Copyright (C) 2000-2003 David Necas (Yeti).

       Copyright (C) 2009 Michal Cihar <michal@cihar.com>.

       Enca is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
       the terms of version 2 of the GNU General Public License as published
       by the Free Software Foundation.

       Enca is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
       WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
       FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
       for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with Enca; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 675
       Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

enca 1.11                          Sep 2009                            enca(1)