environ

ENVIRON(7)                  Linux Programmer's Manual                 ENVIRON(7)



NAME
       environ - user environment

SYNOPSIS
       extern char **environ;

DESCRIPTION
       The variable environ points to an array of pointers to strings called the
       "environment".  The last pointer in this array has the value NULL.  (This
       variable must be declared in the user program, but is declared in the
       header file <unistd.h> in case the header files came from libc4 or libc5,
       and in case they came from glibc and _GNU_SOURCE was defined.)  This
       array of strings is made available to the process by the exec(3) call
       that started the process.

       By convention the strings in environ have the form "name=value".  Common
       examples are:

       USER   The name of the logged-in user (used by some BSD-derived
              programs).

       LOGNAME
              The name of the logged-in user (used by some System-V derived
              programs).

       HOME   A user's login directory, set by login(1) from the password file
              passwd(5).

       LANG   The name of a locale to use for locale categories when not
              overridden by LC_ALL or more specific environment variables like
              LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC,
              LC_TIME, cf.  locale(5).

       PATH   The sequence of directory prefixes that sh(1) and many other
              programs apply in searching for a file known by an incomplete
              pathname.  The prefixes are separated by ':'.  (Similarly one has
              CDPATH used by some shells to find the target of a change
              directory command, MANPATH used by man(1) to find manual pages,
              and so on)

       PWD    The current working directory.  Set by some shells.

       SHELL  The pathname of the user's login shell.

       TERM   The terminal type for which output is to be prepared.

       PAGER  The user's preferred utility to display text files.

       EDITOR/VISUAL
              The user's preferred utility to edit text files.

       Further names may be placed in the environment by the export command and
       "name=value" in sh(1), or by the setenv command if you use csh(1).
       Arguments may also be placed in the environment at the point of an
       exec(3).  A C program can manipulate its environment using the functions
       getenv(3), putenv(3), setenv(3), and unsetenv(3).

       Note that the behavior of many programs and library routines is
       influenced by the presence or value of certain environment variables.  A
       random collection:

       The variables LANG, LANGUAGE, NLSPATH, LOCPATH, LC_ALL, LC_MESSAGES, etc.
       influence locale handling, cf.  locale(5).

       TMPDIR influences the path prefix of names created by tmpnam(3) and other
       routines, the temporary directory used by sort(1) and other programs,
       etc.

       LD_LIBRARY_PATH, LD_PRELOAD and other LD_* variables influence the
       behavior of the dynamic loader/linker.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT makes certain programs and library routines follow the
       prescriptions of POSIX.

       The behavior of malloc(3) is influenced by MALLOC_* variables.

       The variable HOSTALIASES gives the name of a file containing aliases to
       be used with gethostbyname(3).

       TZ and TZDIR give timezone information used by tzset(3) and through that
       by functions like ctime(3), localtime(3), mktime(3), strftime(3).  See
       also tzselect(8).

       TERMCAP gives information on how to address a given terminal (or gives
       the name of a file containing such information).

       COLUMNS and LINES tell applications about the window size, possibly
       overriding the actual size.

       PRINTER or LPDEST may specify the desired printer to use.  See lpr(1).

       Etc.

BUGS
       Clearly there is a security risk here.  Many a system command has been
       tricked into mischief by a user who specified unusual values for IFS or
       LD_LIBRARY_PATH.

       There is also the risk of name space pollution.  Programs like make and
       autoconf allow overriding of default utility names from the environment
       with similarly named variables in all caps.  Thus one uses CC to select
       the desired C compiler (and similarly MAKE, AR, AS, FC, LD, LEX, RM,
       YACC, etc.).  However, in some traditional uses such an environment
       variable gives options for the program instead of a pathname.  Thus, one
       has MORE, LESS, and GZIP.  Such usage is considered mistaken, and to be
       avoided in new programs.  The authors of gzip should consider renaming
       their option to GZIP_OPT.

SEE ALSO
       bash(1), csh(1), login(1), sh(1), tcsh(1), execve(2), clearenv(3),
       exec(3), getenv(3), putenv(3), setenv(3), unsetenv(3), locale(5)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.41 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be
       found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.




Linux                              2009-07-25                         ENVIRON(7)