file

file(n)                      Tcl Built-In Commands                     file(n)



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NAME
       file - Manipulate file names and attributes

SYNOPSIS
       file option name ?arg arg ...?
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DESCRIPTION
       This command provides several operations on a file's name or
       attributes.  Name is the name of a file; if it starts with a tilde,
       then tilde substitution is done before executing the command (see the
       manual entry for filename for details).  Option indicates what to do
       with the file name.  Any unique abbreviation for option is acceptable.
       The valid options are:

       file atime name
              Returns a decimal string giving the time at which file name was
              last accessed.  The time is measured in the standard POSIX
              fashion as seconds from a fixed starting time (often January 1,
              1970).  If the file doesn't exist or its access time cannot be
              queried then an error is generated.

       file copy ?-force? ?--? source target
       file copy ?-force? ?--? source ?source ...? targetDir
              The first form makes a copy of the file or directory source
              under the pathname target.  If target is an existing directory,
              then the second form is used.  The second form makes a copy
              inside targetDir of each source file listed.  If a directory is
              specified as a source, then the contents of the directory will
              be recursively copied into targetDir.  Existing files will not
              be overwritten unless the -force option is specified.  Trying to
              overwrite a non-empty directory, overwrite a directory with a
              file, or a file with a directory will all result in errors even
              if -force was specified.  Arguments are processed in the order
              specified, halting at the first error, if any.  A -- marks the
              end of switches; the argument following the -- will be treated
              as a source even if it starts with a -.

       file delete ?-force? ?--? pathname ?pathname ... ?
              Removes the file or directory specified by each pathname
              argument.  Non-empty directories will be removed only if the
              -force option is specified.  Trying to delete a non-existant
              file is not considered an error.  Trying to delete a read-only
              file will cause the file to be deleted, even if the -force flags
              is not specified.  Arguments are processed in the order
              specified, halting at the first error, if any.  A -- marks the
              end of switches; the argument following the -- will be treated
              as a pathname even if it starts with a -.

       file dirname name
              Returns a name comprised of all of the path components in name
              excluding the last element.  If name is a relative file name and
              only contains one path element, then returns ``.'' (or ``:'' on
              the Macintosh).  If name refers to a root directory, then the
              root directory is returned.  For example,
                     file dirname c:/
              returns c:/.

              Note that tilde substitution will only be performed if it is
              necessary to complete the command. For example,
                     file dirname ~/src/foo.c
              returns ~/src, whereas
                     file dirname ~
              returns /home (or something similar).

       file executable name
              Returns 1 if file name is executable by the current user, 0
              otherwise.

       file exists name
              Returns 1 if file name exists and the current user has search
              privileges for the directories leading to it, 0 otherwise.

       file extension name
              Returns all of the characters in name after and including the
              last dot in the last element of name.  If there is no dot in the
              last element of name then returns the empty string.

       file isdirectory name
              Returns 1 if file name is a directory, 0 otherwise.

       file isfile name
              Returns 1 if file name is a regular file, 0 otherwise.

       file join name ?name ...?
              Takes one or more file names and combines them, using the
              correct path separator for the current platform.  If a
              particular name is relative, then it will be joined to the
              previous file name argument.  Otherwise, any earlier arguments
              will be discarded, and joining will proceed from the current
              argument.  For example,
                     file join a b /foo bar
              returns /foo/bar.

              Note that any of the names can contain separators, and that the
              result is always canonical for the current platform: / for Unix
              and Windows, and : for Macintosh.

       file lstat name varName
              Same as stat option (see below) except uses the lstat kernel
              call instead of stat.  This means that if name refers to a
              symbolic link the information returned in varName is for the
              link rather than the file it refers to.  On systems that don't
              support symbolic links this option behaves exactly the same as
              the stat option.

       file mkdir dir ?dir ...?
              Creates each directory specified.  For each pathname dir
              specified, this command will create all non-existing parent
              directories as well as dir itself.  If an existing directory is
              specified, then no action is taken and no error is returned.
              Trying to overwrite an existing file with a directory will
              result in an error.  Arguments are processed in the order
              specified, halting at the first error, if any.

       file mtime name
              Returns a decimal string giving the time at which file name was
              last modified.  The time is measured in the standard POSIX
              fashion as seconds from a fixed starting time (often January 1,
              1970).  If the file doesn't exist or its modified time cannot be
              queried then an error is generated.

       file owned name
              Returns 1 if file name is owned by the current user, 0
              otherwise.

       file pathtype name
              Returns one of absolute, relative, volumerelative.  If name
              refers to a specific file on a specific volume, the path type
              will be absolute.  If name refers to a file relative to the
              current working directory, then the path type will be relative.
              If name refers to a file relative to the current working
              directory on a specified volume, or to a specific file on the
              current working volume, then the file type is volumerelative.

       file readable name
              Returns 1 if file name is readable by the current user, 0
              otherwise.

       file readlink name
              Returns the value of the symbolic link given by name (i.e. the
              name of the file it points to).  If name isn't a symbolic link
              or its value cannot be read, then an error is returned.  On
              systems that don't support symbolic links this option is
              undefined.

       file rename ?-force? ?--? source target
       file rename ?-force? ?--? source ?source ...? targetDir
              The first form takes the file or directory specified by pathname
              source and renames it to target, moving the file if the pathname
              target specifies a name in a different directory.  If target is
              an existing directory, then the second form is used.  The second
              form moves each source file or directory into the directory
              targetDir.  Existing files will not be overwritten unless the
              -force option is specified.  Trying to overwrite a non-empty
              directory, overwrite a directory with a file, or a file with a
              directory will all result in errors.  Arguments are processed in
              the order specified, halting at the first error, if any.  A --
              marks the end of switches; the argument following the -- will be
              treated as a source even if it starts with a -.

       file rootname name
              Returns all of the characters in name up to but not including
              the last ``.'' character in the last component of name.  If the
              last component of name doesn't contain a dot, then returns name.

       file size name
              Returns a decimal string giving the size of file name in bytes.
              If the file doesn't exist or its size cannot be queried then an
              error is generated.

       file split name
              Returns a list whose elements are the path components in name.
              The first element of the list will have the same path type as
              name.  All other elements will be relative.  Path separators
              will be discarded unless they are needed ensure that an element
              is unambiguously relative.  For example, under Unix
                     file split /foo/~bar/baz
              returns /  foo  ./~bar  baz to ensure that later commands that
              use the third component do not attempt to perform tilde
              substitution.

       file stat  name varName
              Invokes the stat kernel call on name, and uses the variable
              given by varName to hold information returned from the kernel
              call.  VarName is treated as an array variable, and the
              following elements of that variable are set: atime, ctime, dev,
              gid, ino, mode, mtime, nlink, size, type, uid.  Each element
              except type is a decimal string with the value of the
              corresponding field from the stat return structure; see the
              manual entry for stat for details on the meanings of the values.
              The type element gives the type of the file in the same form
              returned by the command file type.  This command returns an
              empty string.

       file tail name
              Returns all of the characters in name after the last directory
              separator.  If name contains no separators then returns name.

       file type name
              Returns a string giving the type of file name, which will be one
              of file, directory, characterSpecial, blockSpecial, fifo, link,
              or socket.

       file writable name
              Returns 1 if file name is writable by the current user, 0
              otherwise.

PORTABILITY ISSUES
       Unix
              These commands always operate using the real user and group
              identifiers, not the effective ones.


SEE ALSO
       filename


KEYWORDS
       attributes, copy files, delete files, directory, file, move files,
       name, rename files, stat



Tcl                                   7.6                              file(n)