find

FIND(1)                      General Commands Manual                     FIND(1)



NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [starting-point...]
       [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
       the directory tree rooted at each given starting-point by evaluating the
       given expression from left to right, according to the rules of precedence
       (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome is known (the left hand side
       is false for and operations, true for or), at which point find moves on
       to the next file name.  If no starting-point is specified, `.' is
       assumed.

       If you are using find in an environment where security is important (for
       example if you are using it to search directories that are writable by
       other users), you should read the `Security Considerations' chapter of
       the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files and comes with
       findutils.  That document also includes a lot more detail and discussion
       than this manual page, so you may find it a more useful source of
       information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links.
       Command-line arguments following these are taken to be names of files or
       directories to be examined, up to the first argument that begins with
       `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any following
       arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is to be
       searched for.  If no paths are given, the current directory is used.  If
       no expression is given, the expression -print is used (but you should
       probably consider using -print0 instead, anyway).

       This manual page talks about `options' within the expression list.  These
       options control the behaviour of find but are specified immediately after
       the last path name.  The five `real' options -H, -L, -P, -D and -O must
       appear before the first path name, if at all.  A double dash -- could
       theoretically be used to signal that any remaining arguments are not
       options, but this does not really work due to the way find determines the
       end of the following path arguments: it does that by reading until an
       expression argument comes (which also starts with a `-').  Now, if a path
       argument would start with a `-', then find would treat it as expression
       argument instead.  Thus, to ensure that all start points are taken as
       such, and especially to prevent that wildcard patterns expanded by the
       calling shell are not mistakenly treated as expression arguments, it is
       generally safer to prefix wildcards or dubious path names with either
       `./' or to use absolute path names starting with '/'.

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This is the default behaviour.  When
              find examines or prints information about files, and the file is a
              symbolic link, the information used shall be taken from the
              properties of the symbolic link itself.


       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information
              about files, the information used shall be taken from the
              properties of the file to which the link points, not from the link
              itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
              examine the file to which the link points).  Use of this option
              implies -noleaf.  If you later use the -P option, -noleaf will
              still be in effect.  If -L is in effect and find discovers a
              symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the
              subdirectory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always
              match against the type of the file that a symbolic link points to
              rather than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is broken).
              Actions that can cause symbolic links to become broken while find
              is executing (for example -delete) can give rise to confusing
              behaviour.  Using -L causes the -lname and -ilname predicates
              always to return false.


       -H     Do not follow symbolic links, except while processing the command
              line arguments.  When find examines or prints information about
              files, the information used shall be taken from the properties of
              the symbolic link itself.  The only exception to this behaviour is
              when a file specified on the command line is a symbolic link, and
              the link can be resolved.  For that situation, the information
              used is taken from whatever the link points to (that is, the link
              is followed).  The information about the link itself is used as a
              fallback if the file pointed to by the symbolic link cannot be
              examined.  If -H is in effect and one of the paths specified on
              the command line is a symbolic link to a directory, the contents
              of that directory will be examined (though of course -maxdepth 0
              would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the
       others; the last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since
       it is the default, the -P option should be considered to be in effect
       unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing of the command line
       itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also affect how
       those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of tests
       that compare files listed on the command line against a file we are
       currently considering.  In each case, the file specified on the command
       line will have been examined and some of its properties will have been
       saved.  If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the -P option
       is in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were specified), the information
       used for the comparison will be taken from the properties of the symbolic
       link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties of the file the
       link points to.  If find cannot follow the link (for example because it
       has insufficient privileges or the link points to a nonexistent file) the
       properties of the link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links listed as the
       argument of -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be taken
       from the file to which the symbolic link points.  The same consideration
       applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The -follow option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect at
       the point where it appears (that is, if -L is not used but -follow is,
       any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will be
       dereferenced, and those before it will not).


       -D debugopts
              Print diagnostic information; this can be helpful to diagnose
              problems with why find is not doing what you want.  The list of
              debug options should be comma separated.  Compatibility of the
              debug options is not guaranteed between releases of findutils.
              For a complete list of valid debug options, see the output of find
              -D help.  Valid debug options include

              exec   Show diagnostic information relating to -exec, -execdir,
                     -ok and -okdir

              opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to the optimisation
                     of the expression tree; see the -O option.

              rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate
                     succeeded or failed.

              search Navigate the directory tree verbosely.

              stat   Print messages as files are examined with the stat and
                     lstat system calls.  The find program tries to minimise
                     such calls.

              tree   Show the expression tree in its original and optimised
                     form.

              all    Enable all of the other debug options (but help).

              help   Explain the debugging options.

       -Olevel
              Enables query optimisation.  The find program reorders tests to
              speed up execution while preserving the overall effect; that is,
              predicates with side effects are not reordered relative to each
              other.  The optimisations performed at each optimisation level are
              as follows.

              0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

              1      This is the default optimisation level and corresponds to
                     the traditional behaviour.  Expressions are reordered so
                     that tests based only on the names of files (for example
                     -name and -regex) are performed first.

              2      Any -type or -xtype tests are performed after any tests
                     based only on the names of files, but before any tests that
                     require information from the inode.  On many modern
                     versions of Unix, file types are returned by readdir() and
                     so these predicates are faster to evaluate than predicates
                     which need to stat the file first.  If you use the
                     -fstype FOO predicate and specify a filesystem type FOO
                     which is not known (that is, present in `/etc/mtab') at the
                     time find starts, that predicate is equivalent to -false.

              3      At this optimisation level, the full cost-based query
                     optimiser is enabled.  The order of tests is modified so
                     that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed first and more
                     expensive ones are performed later, if necessary.  Within
                     each cost band, predicates are evaluated earlier or later
                     according to whether they are likely to succeed or not.
                     For -o, predicates which are likely to succeed are
                     evaluated earlier, and for -a, predicates which are likely
                     to fail are evaluated earlier.

              The cost-based optimiser has a fixed idea of how likely any given
              test is to succeed.  In some cases the probability takes account
              of the specific nature of the test (for example, -type f is
              assumed to be more likely to succeed than -type c).  The cost-
              based optimiser is currently being evaluated.  If it does not
              actually improve the performance of find, it will be removed
              again.  Conversely, optimisations that prove to be reliable,
              robust and effective may be enabled at lower optimisation levels
              over time.  However, the default behaviour (i.e. optimisation
              level 1) will not be changed in the 4.3.x release series.  The
              findutils test suite runs all the tests on find at each
              optimisation level and ensures that the result is the same.

EXPRESSION
       The part of the command line after the list of starting points is the
       expression.  This is a kind of query specification describing how we
       match files and what we do with the files that were matched.  An
       expression is composed of a sequence of things:


       Tests  Tests return a true or false value, usually on the basis of some
              property of a file we are considering.  The -empty test for
              example is true only when the current file is empty.


       Actions
              Actions have side effects (such as printing something on the
              standard output) and return either true or false, usually based on
              whether or not they are successful.  The -print action for example
              prints the name of the current file on the standard output.


       Global options
              Global options affect the operation of tests and actions specified
              on any part of the command line.  Global options always return
              true.  The -depth option for example makes find traverse the file
              system in a depth-first order.


       Positional options
              Positional options affect only tests or actions which follow them.
              Positional options always return true.  The -regextype option for
              example is positional, specifying the regular expression dialect
              for regular expressions occurring later on the command line.


       Operators
              Operators join together the other items within the expression.
              They include for example -o (meaning logical OR) and -a (meaning
              logical AND).  Where an operator is missing, -a is assumed.


       The -print action is performed on all files for which the whole
       expression is true, unless it contains an action other than -prune or
       -quit.  Actions which inhibit the default -print are -delete, -exec,
       -execdir, -ok, -okdir, -fls, -fprint, -fprintf, -ls, -print and -printf.


       The -delete action also acts like an option (since it implies -depth).


   POSITIONAL OPTIONS
       Positional options always return true.  They affect only tests occurring
       later on the command line.


       -daystart
              Measure times (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and
              -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than from 24 hours ago.
              This option only affects tests which appear later on the command
              line.


       -follow
              Deprecated; use the -L option instead.  Dereference symbolic
              links.  Implies -noleaf.  The -follow option affects only those
              tests which appear after it on the command line.  Unless the -H or
              -L option has been specified, the position of the -follow option
              changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files listed as
              the argument of -newer will be dereferenced if they are symbolic
              links.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and
              -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will always match against
              the type of the file that a symbolic link points to rather than
              the link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname and -ilname
              predicates always to return false.


       -regextype type
              Changes the regular expression syntax understood by -regex and
              -iregex tests which occur later on the command line.  To see which
              regular expression types are known, use -regextype help.  The
              Texinfo documentation (see SEE ALSO) explains the meaning of and
              differences between the various types of regular expression.


       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn warning messages on or off.  These warnings apply only to the
              command line usage, not to any conditions that find might
              encounter when it searches directories.  The default behaviour
              corresponds to -warn if standard input is a tty, and to -nowarn
              otherwise.  If a warning message relating to command-line usage is
              produced, the exit status of find is not affected.  If the
              POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is set, and -warn is also
              used, it is not specified which, if any, warnings will be active.


   GLOBAL OPTIONS
       Global options always return true.  Global options take effect even for
       tests which occur earlier on the command line.  To prevent confusion,
       global options should specified on the command-line after the list of
       start points, just before the first test, positional option or action.
       If you specify a global option in some other place, find will issue a
       warning message explaining that this can be confusing.

       The global options occur after the list of start points, and so are not
       the same kind of option as -L, for example.


       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD,
              MacOS X and OpenBSD.


       -depth Process each directory's contents before the directory itself.
              The -delete action also implies -depth.


       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.


       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally, find will emit an error message when it fails to stat a
              file.  If you give this option and a file is deleted between the
              time find reads the name of the file from the directory and the
              time it tries to stat the file, no error message will be issued.
              This also applies to files or directories whose names are given on
              the command line.  This option takes effect at the time the
              command line is read, which means that you cannot search one part
              of the filesystem with this option on and part of it with this
              option off (if you need to do that, you will need to issue two
              find commands instead, one with the option and one without it).

              Furthermore, find with the -ignore_readdir_race option will ignore
              errors of the -delete action in the case the file has disappeared
              since the parent directory was read: it will not output an error
              diagnostic, and the return code of the -delete action will be
              true.


       -maxdepth levels
              Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of
              directories below the starting-points.  Using -maxdepth 0 means
              only apply the tests and actions to the starting-points
              themselves.


       -mindepth levels
              Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a
              non-negative integer).  Using -mindepth 1 means process all files
              except the starting-points.


       -mount Don't descend directories on other filesystems.  An alternate name
              for -xdev, for compatibility with some other versions of find.


       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.


       -noleaf
              Do not optimize by assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
              subdirectories than their hard link count.  This option is needed
              when searching filesystems that do not follow the Unix directory-
              link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems or AFS
              volume mount points.  Each directory on a normal Unix filesystem
              has at least 2 hard links: its name and its `.' entry.
              Additionally, its subdirectories (if any) each have a `..' entry
              linked to that directory.  When find is examining a directory,
              after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the directory's
              link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in the directory
              are non-directories (`leaf' files in the directory tree).  If only
              the files' names need to be examined, there is no need to stat
              them; this gives a significant increase in search speed.


       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.


       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.


   TESTS
       Some tests, for example -newerXY and -samefile, allow comparison between
       the file currently being examined and some reference file specified on
       the command line.  When these tests are used, the interpretation of the
       reference file is determined by the options -H, -L and -P and any
       previous -follow, but the reference file is only examined once, at the
       time the command line is parsed.  If the reference file cannot be
       examined (for example, the stat(2) system call fails for it), an error
       message is issued, and find exits with a nonzero status.

       A numeric argument n can be specified to tests (like -amin, -mtime, -gid,
       -inum, -links, -size, -uid and -used) as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       Supported tests:


       -amin n
              File was last accessed less than, more than or exactly n minutes
              ago.


       -anewer reference
              Time of the last access of the current file is more recent than
              that of the last data modification of the reference file.  If
              reference is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is
              in effect, then the time of the last data modification of the file
              it points to is always used.


       -atime n
              File was last accessed less than, more than or exactly n*24 hours
              ago.  When find figures out how many 24-hour periods ago the file
              was last accessed, any fractional part is ignored, so to match
              -atime +1, a file has to have been accessed at least two days ago.


       -cmin n
              File's status was last changed less than, more than or exactly n
              minutes ago.


       -cnewer reference
              Time of the last status change of the current file is more recent
              than that of the last data modification of the reference file.  If
              reference is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is
              in effect, then the time of the last data modification of the file
              it points to is always used.


       -ctime n
              File's status was last changed less than, more than or exactly
              n*24 hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to understand how
              rounding affects the interpretation of file status change times.


       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.


       -executable
              Matches files which are executable and directories which are
              searchable (in a file name resolution sense) by the current user.
              This takes into account access control lists and other permissions
              artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of
              the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers
              which do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems
              implement access(2) in the client's kernel and so cannot make use
              of the UID mapping information held on the server.  Because this
              test is based only on the result of the access(2) system call,
              there is no guarantee that a file for which this test succeeds can
              actually be executed.


       -false Always false.


       -fstype type
              File is on a filesystem of type type.  The valid filesystem types
              vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete list of
              filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
              another is: ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.  You can use
              -printf with the %F directive to see the types of your
              filesystems.


       -gid n File's numeric group ID is less than, more than or exactly n.


       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).


       -ilname pattern
              Like -lname, but the match is case insensitive.  If the -L option
              or the -follow option is in effect, this test returns false unless
              the symbolic link is broken.



       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
              patterns `fo*' and `F??' match the file names `Foo', `FOO', `foo',
              `fOo', etc.  The pattern `*foo*` will also match a file called
              '.foobar'.


       -inum n
              File has inode number smaller than, greater than or exactly n.  It
              is normally easier to use the -samefile test instead.


       -ipath pattern
              Like -path.  but the match is case insensitive.


       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.


       -iwholename pattern
              See -ipath.  This alternative is less portable than -ipath.


       -links n
              File has less than, more than or exactly n hard links.


       -lname pattern
              File is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern
              pattern.  The metacharacters do not treat `/' or `.' specially.
              If the -L option or the -follow option is in effect, this test
              returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.


       -mmin n
              File's data was last modified less than, more than or exactly n
              minutes ago.


       -mtime n
              File's data was last modified less than, more than or exactly n*24
              hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to understand how rounding
              affects the interpretation of file modification times.


       -name pattern
              Base of file name (the path with the leading directories removed)
              matches shell pattern pattern.  Because the leading directories
              are removed, the file names considered for a match with -name will
              never include a slash, so `-name a/b' will never match anything
              (you probably need to use -path instead).  A warning is issued if
              you try to do this, unless the environment variable
              POSIXLY_CORRECT is set.  The metacharacters (`*', `?', and `[]')
              match a `.' at the start of the base name (this is a change in
              findutils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CONFORMANCE below).  To
              ignore a directory and the files under it, use -prune rather than
              checking every file in the tree; see an example in the description
              of that action.  Braces are not recognised as being special,
              despite the fact that some shells including Bash imbue braces with
              a special meaning in shell patterns.  The filename matching is
              performed with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.  Don't
              forget to enclose the pattern in quotes in order to protect it
              from expansion by the shell.


       -newer reference
              Time of the last data modification of the current file is more
              recent than that of the last data modification of the reference
              file.  If reference is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L
              option is in effect, then the time of the last data modification
              of the file it points to is always used.


       -newerXY reference
              Succeeds if timestamp X of the file being considered is newer than
              timestamp Y of the file reference.  The letters X and Y can be any
              of the following letters:


              a   The access time of the file reference
              B   The birth time of the file reference
              c   The inode status change time of reference
              m   The modification time of the file reference
              t   reference is interpreted directly as a time

              Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for X to
              be t.  Some combinations are not implemented on all systems; for
              example B is not supported on all systems.  If an invalid or
              unsupported combination of XY is specified, a fatal error results.
              Time specifications are interpreted as for the argument to the -d
              option of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth time of a
              reference file, and the birth time cannot be determined, a fatal
              error message results.  If you specify a test which refers to the
              birth time of files being examined, this test will fail for any
              files where the birth time is unknown.


       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.


       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.


       -path pattern
              File name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do
              not treat `/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
                  find . -path "./sr*sc"
              will print an entry for a directory called ./src/misc (if one
              exists).  To ignore a whole directory tree, use -prune rather than
              checking every file in the tree.  Note that the pattern match test
              applies to the whole file name, starting from one of the start
              points named on the command line.  It would only make sense to use
              an absolute path name here if the relevant start point is also an
              absolute path.  This means that this command will never match
              anything:
                  find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
              Find compares the -path argument with the concatenation of a
              directory name and the base name of the file it's examining.
              Since the concatenation will never end with a slash, -path
              arguments ending in a slash will match nothing (except perhaps a
              start point specified on the command line).  The predicate -path
              is also supported by HP-UX find and is part of the POSIX 2008
              standard.


       -perm mode
              File's permission bits are exactly mode (octal or symbolic).
              Since an exact match is required, if you want to use this form for
              symbolic modes, you may have to specify a rather complex mode
              string.  For example `-perm g=w' will only match files which have
              mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write permission is the
              only permission set).  It is more likely that you will want to use
              the `/' or `-' forms, for example `-perm -g=w', which matches any
              file with group write permission.  See the EXAMPLES section for
              some illustrative examples.


       -perm -mode
              All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
              modes are accepted in this form, and this is usually the way in
              which you would want to use them.  You must specify `u', `g' or
              `o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See the EXAMPLES section for some
              illustrative examples.


       -perm /mode
              Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
              modes are accepted in this form.  You must specify `u', `g' or `o'
              if you use a symbolic mode.  See the EXAMPLES section for some
              illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in mode are set,
              this test matches any file (the idea here is to be consistent with
              the behaviour of -perm -000).


       -perm +mode
              This is no longer supported (and has been deprecated since 2005).
              Use -perm /mode instead.


       -readable
              Matches files which are readable by the current user.  This takes
              into account access control lists and other permissions artefacts
              which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the
              access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which
              do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement
              access(2) in the client's kernel and so cannot make use of the UID
              mapping information held on the server.


       -regex pattern
              File name matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match on
              the whole path, not a search.  For example, to match a file named
              ./fubar3, you can use the regular expression `.*bar.' or `.*b.*3',
              but not `f.*r3'.  The regular expressions understood by find are
              by default Emacs Regular Expressions (except that `.' matches
              newline), but this can be changed with the -regextype option.


       -samefile name
              File refers to the same inode as name.  When -L is in effect, this
              can include symbolic links.


       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File uses less than, more than or exactly n units of space,
              rounding up.  The following suffixes can be used:

              `b'    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is
                     used)

              `c'    for bytes

              `w'    for two-byte words

              `k'    for kibibytes (KiB, units of 1024 bytes)

              `M'    for mebibytes (MiB, units of 1024 * 1024 = 1048576 bytes)

              `G'    for gibibytes (GiB, units of 1024 * 1024 * 1024 =
                     1073741824 bytes)

              The size is simply the st_size member of the struct stat populated
              by the lstat (or stat) system call, rounded up as shown above.  In
              other words, it's consistent with the result you get for ls -l.
              Bear in mind that the `%k' and `%b' format specifiers of -printf
              handle sparse files differently.  The `b' suffix always denotes
              512-byte blocks and never 1024-byte blocks, which is different to
              the behaviour of -ls.

              The + and - prefixes signify greater than and less than, as usual;
              i.e., an exact size of n units does not match.  Bear in mind that
              the size is rounded up to the next unit.  Therefore -size -1M is
              not equivalent to -size -1048576c.  The former only matches empty
              files, the latter matches files from 0 to 1,048,575 bytes.

       -true  Always true.


       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the
                     -follow option is in effect, unless the symbolic link is
                     broken.  If you want to search for symbolic links when -L
                     is in effect, use -xtype.

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

              To search for more than one type at once, you can supply the
              combined list of type letters separated by a comma `,' (GNU
              extension).

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is less than, more than or exactly n.


       -used n
              File was last accessed less than, more than or exactly n days
              after its status was last changed.


       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).


       -wholename pattern
              See -path.  This alternative is less portable than -path.


       -writable
              Matches files which are writable by the current user.  This takes
              into account access control lists and other permissions artefacts
              which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the
              access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which
              do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement
              access(2) in the client's kernel and so cannot make use of the UID
              mapping information held on the server.


       -xtype c
              The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For
              symbolic links: if the -H or -P option was specified, true if the
              file is a link to a file of type c; if the -L option has been
              given, true if c is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic links,
              -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

       -context pattern
              (SELinux only) Security context of the file matches glob pattern.


   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed,
              an error message is issued.  If -delete fails, find's exit status
              will be nonzero (when it eventually exits).  Use of -delete
              automatically turns on the `-depth' option.

              Warnings: Don't forget that the find command line is evaluated as
              an expression, so putting -delete first will make find try to
              delete everything below the starting points you specified.  When
              testing a find command line that you later intend to use with
              -delete, you should explicitly specify -depth in order to avoid
              later surprises.  Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot
              usefully use -prune and -delete together.

              Together with the -ignore_readdir_race option, find will ignore
              errors of the -delete action in the case the file has disappeared
              since the parent directory was read: it will not output an error
              diagnostic, and the return code of the -delete action will be
              true.


       -exec command ;
              Execute command; true if 0 status is returned.  All following
              arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
              an argument consisting of `;' is encountered.  The string `{}' is
              replaced by the current file name being processed everywhere it
              occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
              where it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both of these
              constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
              protect them from expansion by the shell.  See the EXAMPLES
              section for examples of the use of the -exec option.  The
              specified command is run once for each matched file.  The command
              is executed in the starting directory.  There are unavoidable
              security problems surrounding use of the -exec action; you should
              use the -execdir option instead.


       -exec command {} +
              This variant of the -exec action runs the specified command on the
              selected files, but the command line is built by appending each
              selected file name at the end; the total number of invocations of
              the command will be much less than the number of matched files.
              The command line is built in much the same way that xargs builds
              its command lines.  Only one instance of `{}' is allowed within
              the command, and it must appear at the end, immediately before the
              `+'; it needs to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to protect it
              from interpretation by the shell.  The command is executed in the
              starting directory.  If any invocation with the `+' form returns a
              non-zero value as exit status, then find returns a non-zero exit
              status.  If find encounters an error, this can sometimes cause an
              immediate exit, so some pending commands may not be run at all.
              For this reason -exec my-command ... {} + -quit may not result in
              my-command actually being run.  This variant of -exec always
              returns true.


       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
              Like -exec, but the specified command is run from the subdirectory
              containing the matched file, which is not normally the directory
              in which you started find.  As with -exec, the {} should be quoted
              if find is being invoked from a shell.  This a much more secure
              method for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions during
              resolution of the paths to the matched files.  As with the -exec
              action, the `+' form of -execdir will build a command line to
              process more than one matched file, but any given invocation of
              command will only list files that exist in the same subdirectory.
              If you use this option, you must ensure that your $PATH
              environment variable does not reference `.'; otherwise, an
              attacker can run any commands they like by leaving an
              appropriately-named file in a directory in which you will run
              -execdir.  The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are
              empty or which are not absolute directory names.  If any
              invocation with the `+' form returns a non-zero value as exit
              status, then find returns a non-zero exit status.  If find
              encounters an error, this can sometimes cause an immediate exit,
              so some pending commands may not be run at all.  The result of the
              action depends on whether the + or the ; variant is being used;
              -execdir command {} + always returns true, while
              -execdir command {} ; returns true only if command returns 0.



       -fls file
              True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is
              always created, even if the predicate is never matched.  See the
              UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual
              characters in filenames are handled.


       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
              exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist, it is
              truncated.  The file names /dev/stdout and /dev/stderr are handled
              specially; they refer to the standard output and standard error
              output, respectively.  The output file is always created, even if
              the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section
              for information about how unusual characters in filenames are
              handled.


       -fprint0 file
              True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.  The output
              file is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.
              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.


       -fprintf file format
              True; like -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output
              file is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.
              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.


       -ls    True; list current file in ls -dils format on standard output.
              The block counts are of 1 KB blocks, unless the environment
              variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are
              used.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.


       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the
              command.  Otherwise just return false.  If the command is run, its
              standard input is redirected from /dev/null.


              The response to the prompt is matched against a pair of regular
              expressions to determine if it is an affirmative or negative
              response.  This regular expression is obtained from the system if
              the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, or otherwise
              from find's message translations.  If the system has no suitable
              definition, find's own definition will be used.  In either case,
              the interpretation of the regular expression itself will be
              affected by the environment variables 'LC_CTYPE' (character
              classes) and 'LC_COLLATE' (character ranges and equivalence
              classes).




       -okdir command ;
              Like -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.
              If the user does not agree, just return false.  If the command is
              run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.


       -print True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by
              a newline.  If you are piping the output of find into another
              program and there is the faintest possibility that the files which
              you are searching for might contain a newline, then you should
              seriously consider using the -print0 option instead of -print.
              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.


       -print0
              True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by
              a null character (instead of the newline character that -print
              uses).  This allows file names that contain newlines or other
              types of white space to be correctly interpreted by programs that
              process the find output.  This option corresponds to the -0 option
              of xargs.


       -printf format
              True; print format on the standard output, interpreting `\'
              escapes and `%' directives.  Field widths and precisions can be
              specified as with the printf(3) C function.  Please note that many
              of the fields are printed as %s rather than %d, and this may mean
              that flags don't work as you might expect.  This also means that
              the `-' flag does work (it forces fields to be left-aligned).
              Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at the end of the
              string.  The escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush the
                     output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \0     ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash (`\').

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
              ordinary character, so they both are printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File's last access time in the format returned by the C
                     ctime(3) function.

              %Ak    File's last access time in the format specified by k, which
                     is either `@' or a directive for the C strftime(3)
                     function.  The following shows an incomplete list of
                     possible values for k.  Please refer to the documentation
                     of strftime(3) for the full list.  Some of the conversion
                     specification characters might not be available on all
                     systems, due to differences in the implementation of the
                     strftime(3) library function.

                     @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with
                            fractional part.

                     Time fields:

                     H      hour (00..23)

                     I      hour (01..12)

                     k      hour ( 0..23)

                     l      hour ( 1..12)

                     M      minute (00..59)

                     p      locale's AM or PM

                     r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                     S      Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There is a fractional
                            part.

                     T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss.xxxxxxxxxx)

                     +      Date and time, separated by `+', for example
                            `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.  This is a GNU extension.
                            The time is given in the current timezone (which may
                            be affected by setting the TZ environment variable).
                            The seconds field includes a fractional part.

                     X      locale's time representation (H:M:S).  The seconds
                            field includes a fractional part.

                     Z      time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is
                            determinable

                     Date fields:

                     a      locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                     A      locale's full weekday name, variable length
                            (Sunday..Saturday)

                     b      locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                     B      locale's full month name, variable length
                            (January..December)

                     c      locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST
                            1989).  The format is the same as for ctime(3) and
                            so to preserve compatibility with that format, there
                            is no fractional part in the seconds field.

                     d      day of month (01..31)

                     D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                     F      date (yyyy-mm-dd)

                     h      same as b

                     j      day of year (001..366)

                     m      month (01..12)

                     U      week number of year with Sunday as first day of week
                            (00..53)

                     w      day of week (0..6)

                     W      week number of year with Monday as first day of week
                            (00..53)

                     x      locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                     y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                     Y      year (1970...)

              %b     The amount of disk space used for this file in 512-byte
                     blocks.  Since disk space is allocated in multiples of the
                     filesystem block size this is usually greater than %s/512,
                     but it can also be smaller if the file is a sparse file.

              %c     File's last status change time in the format returned by
                     the C ctime(3) function.

              %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
                     starting-point.

              %D     The device number on which the file exists (the st_dev
                     field of struct stat), in decimal.

              %f     Print the basename; the file's name with any leading
                     directories removed (only the last element).  For /, the
                     result is `/'.  See the EXAMPLES section for an example.


              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be
                     used for -fstype.

              %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no
                     name.

              %G     File's numeric group ID.

              %h     Dirname; the Leading directories of the file's name (all
                     but the last element).  If the file name contains no
                     slashes (since it is in the current directory) the %h
                     specifier expands to `.'.  For files which are themselves
                     directories and contain a slash (including /), %h expands
                     to the empty string.  See the EXAMPLES section for an
                     example.

              %H     Starting-point under which file was found.

              %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1 KB blocks.
                     Since disk space is allocated in multiples of the
                     filesystem block size this is usually greater than %s/1024,
                     but it can also be smaller if the file is a sparse file.

              %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a
                     symbolic link).

              %m     File's permission bits (in octal).  This option uses the
                     `traditional' numbers which most Unix implementations use,
                     but if your particular implementation uses an unusual
                     ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see a
                     difference between the actual value of the file's mode and
                     the output of %m.  Normally you will want to have a leading
                     zero on this number, and to do this, you should use the #
                     flag (as in, for example, `%#m').

              %M     File's permissions (in symbolic form, as for ls).  This
                     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File's name.

              %P     File's name with the name of the starting-point under which
                     it was found removed.

              %s     File's size in bytes.

              %S     File's sparseness.  This is calculated as
                     (BLOCKSIZE*st_blocks / st_size).  The exact value you will
                     get for an ordinary file of a certain length is system-
                     dependent.  However, normally sparse files will have values
                     less than 1.0, and files which use indirect blocks may have
                     a value which is greater than 1.0.  In general the number
                     of blocks used by a file is file system dependent.  The
                     value used for BLOCKSIZE is system-dependent, but is
                     usually 512 bytes.  If the file size is zero, the value
                     printed is undefined.  On systems which lack support for
                     st_blocks, a file's sparseness is assumed to be 1.0.

              %t     File's last modification time in the format returned by the
                     C ctime(3) function.

              %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified by k,
                     which is the same as for %A.

              %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no
                     name.

              %U     File's numeric user ID.

              %y     File's type (like in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't
                     happen)

              %Y     File's type (like %y), plus follow symbolic links:
                     `L'=loop, `N'=nonexistent, `?' for any other error when
                     determining the type of the target of a symbolic link.

              %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

              %{ %[ %(
                     Reserved for future use.

              A `%' character followed by any other character is discarded, but
              the other character is printed (don't rely on this, as further
              format characters may be introduced).  A `%' at the end of the
              format argument causes undefined behaviour since there is no
              following character.  In some locales, it may hide your door keys,
              while in others it may remove the final page from the novel you
              are reading.

              The %m and %d directives support the #, 0 and + flags, but the
              other directives do not, even if they print numbers.  Numeric
              directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
              and n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes the alignment
              of a field from right-justified (which is the default) to left-
              justified.

              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.



       -prune True; if the file is a directory, do not descend into it.  If
              -depth is given, then -prune has no effect.  Because -delete
              implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete
              together.  For example, to skip the directory src/emacs and all
              files and directories under it, and print the names of the other
              files found, do something like this:
                  find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print



       -quit  Exit immediately (with return value zero if no errors have
              occurred).  This is different to -prune because -prune only
              applies to the contents of pruned directories, while -quit simply
              makes find stop immediately.  No child processes will be left
              running.  Any command lines which have been built by -exec ... +
              or -execdir ... + are invoked before the program is exited.  After
              -quit is executed, no more files specified on the command line
              will be processed.  For example,
              `find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit` will print only `/tmp/foo`.
              One common use of -quit is to stop searching the file system once
              we have found what we want.  For example, if we want to find just
              a single file we can do this:
                  find / -name needle -print -quit


   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:


       ( expr )
              Force precedence.  Since parentheses are special to the shell, you
              will normally need to quote them.  Many of the examples in this
              manual page use backslashes for this purpose: `\(...\)' instead of
              `(...)'.


       ! expr True if expr is false.  This character will also usually need
              protection from interpretation by the shell.


       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.


       expr1 expr2
              Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied
              -a; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.


       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.


       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.


       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.


       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.


       expr1 , expr2
              List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of
              expr1 is discarded; the value of the list is the value of expr2.
              The comma operator can be useful for searching for several
              different types of thing, but traversing the filesystem hierarchy
              only once.  The -fprintf action can be used to list the various
              matched items into several different output files.

       Please note that -a when specified implicitly (for example by two tests
       appearing without an explicit operator between them) or explicitly has
       higher precedence than -o.  This means that find . -name afile -o -name
       bfile -print will never print afile.

UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many of the actions of find result in the printing of data which is under
       the control of other users.  This includes file names, sizes,
       modification times and so forth.  File names are a potential problem
       since they can contain any character except `\0' and `/'.  Unusual
       characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things
       to your terminal (for example, changing the settings of your function
       keys on some terminals).  Unusual characters are handled differently by
       various actions, as described below.


       -print0, -fprint0
              Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output is
              going to a terminal.


       -ls, -fls
              Unusual characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash,
              and double quote characters are printed using C-style escaping
              (for example `\f', `\"').  Other unusual characters are printed
              using an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls and
              -fls these are the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are
              printed as-is.


       -printf, -fprintf
              If the output is not going to a terminal, it is printed as-is.
              Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
              directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y expand to values which
              are not under control of files' owners, and so are printed as-is.
              The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s, %t, %u and
              %U have values which are under the control of files' owners but
              which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the terminal, and
              so these are printed as-is.  The directives %f, %h, %l, %p and %P
              are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same way as for GNU
              ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as the one used for
              -ls and -fls.  If you are able to decide what format to use for
              the output of find then it is normally better to use `\0' as a
              terminator than to use newline, as file names can contain white
              space and newline characters.  The setting of the `LC_CTYPE'
              environment variable is used to determine which characters need to
              be quoted.


       -print, -fprint
              Quoting is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.
              If you are using find in a script or in a situation where the
              matched files might have arbitrary names, you should consider
              using -print0 instead of -print.

       The -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may
       change in a future release.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For closest compliance to the POSIX standard, you should set the
       POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable.  The following options are
       specified in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, 2016 Edition):


       -H     This option is supported.


       -L     This option is supported.


       -name  This option is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the
              POSIX conformance of the system's fnmatch(3) library function.  As
              of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for
              example) match a leading `.', because IEEE PASC interpretation 126
              requires this.  This is a change from previous versions of
              findutils.


       -type  Supported.  POSIX specifies `b', `c', `d', `l', `p', `f' and `s'.
              GNU find also supports `D', representing a Door, where the OS
              provides these.  Furthermore, GNU find allows multiple types to be
              specified at once in a comma-separated list.


       -ok    Supported.  Interpretation of the response is according to the
              `yes' and `no' patterns selected by setting the `LC_MESSAGES'
              environment variable.  When the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment
              variable is set, these patterns are taken system's definition of a
              positive (yes) or negative (no) response.  See the system's
              documentation for nl_langinfo(3), in particular YESEXPR and
              NOEXPR.  When `POSIXLY_CORRECT' is not set, the patterns are
              instead taken from find's own message catalogue.


       -newer Supported.  If the file specified is a symbolic link, it is always
              dereferenced.  This is a change from previous behaviour, which
              used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see the
              HISTORY section below.


       -perm  Supported.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is not
              set, some mode arguments (for example +a+x) which are not valid in
              POSIX are supported for backward-compatibility.


       Other primaries
              The primaries -atime, -ctime, -depth, -exec, -group, -links,
              -mtime, -nogroup, -nouser, -ok, -path, -print, -prune, -size,
              -user and -xdev are all supported.


       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the
       logical AND/OR operators -a and -o.

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions
       beyond the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

              The find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering a
              previously visited directory that is an ancestor of the last file
              encountered.  When it detects an infinite loop, find shall write a
              diagnostic message to standard error and shall either recover its
              position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU find complies with these requirements.  The link count of directories
       which contain entries which are hard links to an ancestor will often be
       lower than they otherwise should be.  This can mean that GNU find will
       sometimes optimise away the visiting of a subdirectory which is actually
       a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not actually enter such a
       subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic message.
       Although this behaviour may be somewhat confusing, it is unlikely that
       anybody actually depends on this behaviour.  If the leaf optimisation has
       been turned off with -noleaf, the directory entry will always be examined
       and the diagnostic message will be issued where it is appropriate.
       Symbolic links cannot be used to create filesystem cycles as such, but if
       the -L option or the -follow option is in use, a diagnostic message is
       issued when find encounters a loop of symbolic links.  As with loops
       containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will often mean that find
       knows that it doesn't need to call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic
       link, so this diagnostic is frequently not necessary.

       The -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable does not affect the behaviour of
       the -regex or -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in the
       POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization variables
              that are unset or null.


       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the
              other internationalization variables.


       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the
              pattern matching to be used for the -name option.  GNU find uses
              the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for `LC_COLLATE'
              depends on the system library.  This variable also affects the
              interpretation of the response to -ok; while the `LC_MESSAGES'
              variable selects the actual pattern used to interpret the response
              to -ok, the interpretation of any bracket expressions in the
              pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.


       LC_CTYPE
              This variable affects the treatment of character classes used in
              regular expressions and also with the -name test, if the system's
              fnmatch(3) library function supports this.  This variable also
              affects the interpretation of any character classes in the regular
              expressions used to interpret the response to the prompt issued by
              -ok.  The `LC_CTYPE' environment variable will also affect which
              characters are considered to be unprintable when filenames are
              printed; see the section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.


       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.
              If the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, this also
              determines the interpretation of the response to the prompt made
              by the -ok action.


       NLSPATH
              Determines the location of the internationalisation message
              catalogues.


       PATH   Affects the directories which are searched to find the executables
              invoked by -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.


       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines the block size used by -ls and -fls.  If
              POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, blocks are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise
              they are units of 1024 bytes.

              Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that is,
              implies -nowarn) by default, because POSIX requires that apart
              from the output for -ok, all messages printed on stderr are
              diagnostics and must result in a non-zero exit status.

              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like
              -perm /zzz if +zzz is not a valid symbolic mode.  When
              POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are treated as an error.

              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the response to the prompt made by
              the -ok action is interpreted according to the system's message
              catalogue, as opposed to according to find's own message
              translations.


       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the time-related format
              directives of -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
   Simple `find|xargs` approach
       •      Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete
              them.

                  $ find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

              Note that this will work incorrectly if there are any filenames
              containing newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

   Safer `find -print0 | xargs -0` approach
       •      Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete
              them, processing filenames in such a way that file or directory
              names containing single or double quotes, spaces or newlines are
              correctly handled.

                  $ find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

              The -name test comes before the -type test in order to avoid
              having to call stat(2) on every file.

       Note that there is still a race between the time find traverses the
       hierarchy printing the matching filenames, and the time the process
       executed by xargs works with that file.


   Executing a command for each file
       •      Run file on every file in or below the current directory.

                  $ find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

              Notice that the braces are enclosed in single quote marks to
              protect them from interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The
              semicolon is similarly protected by the use of a backslash, though
              single quotes could have been used in that case also.

       In many cases, one might prefer the `-exec ... +` or better the
       `-execdir ... +` syntax for performance and security reasons.

   Traversing the filesystem just once - for 2 different actions
       •      Traverse the filesystem just once, listing set-user-ID files and
              directories into /root/suid.txt and large files into
              /root/big.txt.

                  $ find / \
                      \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
                      \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

              This example uses the line-continuation character '\' on the first
              two lines to instruct the shell to continue reading the command on
              the next line.

   Searching files by age
       •      Search for files in your home directory which have been modified
              in the last twenty-four hours.

                  $ find $HOME -mtime 0

              This command works this way because the time since each file was
              last modified is divided by 24 hours and any remainder is
              discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0, a file will have to
              have a modification in the past which is less than 24 hours ago.

   Searching files by permissions
       •      Search for files which are executable but not readable.

                  $ find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print


       •      Search for files which have read and write permission for their
              owner, and group, but which other users can read but not write to.

                  $ find . -perm 664

              Files which meet these criteria but have other permissions bits
              set (for example if someone can execute the file) will not be
              matched.

       •      Search for files which have read and write permission for their
              owner and group, and which other users can read, without regard to
              the presence of any extra permission bits (for example the
              executable bit).

                  $ find . -perm -664

              This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       •      Search for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or
              their group, or anybody else).

                  $ find . -perm /222


       •      Search for files which are writable by either their owner or their
              group.

                  $ find . -perm /220
                  $ find . -perm /u+w,g+w
                  $ find . -perm /u=w,g=w

              All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first one
              uses the octal representation of the file mode, and the other two
              use the symbolic form.  The files don't have to be writable by
              both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       •      Search for files which are writable by both their owner and their
              group.

                  $ find . -perm -220
                  $ find . -perm -g+w,u+w

              Both these commands do the same thing.

       •      A more elaborate search on permissions.

                  $ find . -perm -444 -perm /222 \! -perm /111
                  $ find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w \! -perm /a+x

              These two commands both search for files that are readable for
              everybody (-perm -444 or -perm -a+r), have at least one write bit
              set (-perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody
              (! -perm /111 or ! -perm /a+x respectively).

   Pruning - omitting files and subdirectories
       •      Copy the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omit files and
              directories named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It also omits
              files or directories whose name ends in '~', but not their
              contents.

                  $ cd /source-dir
                  $ find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name '*~' -print0 \) \
                      | cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

              The construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is quite common.  The
              idea here is that the expression before -prune matches things
              which are to be pruned.  However, the -prune action itself returns
              true, so the following -o ensures that the right hand side is
              evaluated only for those directories which didn't get pruned (the
              contents of the pruned directories are not even visited, so their
              contents are irrelevant).  The expression on the right hand side
              of the -o is in parentheses only for clarity.  It emphasises that
              the -print0 action takes place only for things that didn't have
              -prune applied to them.  Because the default `and' condition
              between tests binds more tightly than -o, this is the default
              anyway, but the parentheses help to show what is going on.

       •      Given the following directory of projects and their associated SCM
              administrative directories, perform an efficient search for the
              projects' roots:

                  $ find repo/ \
                      \( -exec test -d '{}/.svn' \; \
                      -or -exec test -d '{}/.git' \; \
                      -or -exec test -d '{}/CVS' \; \
                      \) -print -prune

              Sample output:

                  repo/project1/CVS
                  repo/gnu/project2/.svn
                  repo/gnu/project3/.svn
                  repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
                  repo/project4/.git

              In this example, -prune prevents unnecessary descent into
              directories that have already been discovered (for example we do
              not search project3/src because we already found project3/.svn),
              but ensures sibling directories (project2 and project3) are found.

   Other useful examples
       •      Search for several file types.

                  $ find /tmp -type f,d,l

              Search for files, directories, and symbolic links in the directory
              /tmp passing these types as a comma-separated list (GNU
              extension), which is otherwise equivalent to the longer, yet more
              portable:

                  $ find /tmp \( -type f -o -type d -o -type l \)


       •      Search for files with the particular name needle and stop
              immediately when we find the first one.

                  $ find / -name needle -print -quit


       •      Demonstrate the interpretation of the %f and %h format directives
              of the -printf action for some corner-cases.  Here is an example
              including some output.

                  $ find . .. / /tmp /tmp/TRACE compile compile/64/tests/find -maxdepth 0 -printf '[%h][%f]\n'
                  [.][.]
                  [.][..]
                  [][/]
                  [][tmp]
                  [/tmp][TRACE]
                  [.][compile]
                  [compile/64/tests][find]


EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0 if all files are processed successfully, greater
       than 0 if errors occur.  This is deliberately a very broad description,
       but if the return value is non-zero, you should not rely on the
       correctness of the results of find.

       When some error occurs, find may stop immediately, without completing all
       the actions specified.  For example, some starting points may not have
       been examined or some pending program invocations for -exec ... {} + or
       -execdir ... {} + may not have been performed.

HISTORY
       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for
       example) used in filename patterns match a leading `.', because IEEE
       POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.

       As of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches all files instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a
       nonzero value when it fails.  However, find will not exit immediately.
       Previously, find's exit status was unaffected by the failure of -delete.

       Feature                Added in   Also occurs in
       -newerXY               4.3.3      BSD
       -D                     4.3.1
       -O                     4.3.1
       -readable              4.3.0
       -writable              4.3.0
       -executable            4.3.0
       -regextype             4.2.24
       -exec ... +            4.2.12     POSIX
       -execdir               4.2.12     BSD
       -okdir                 4.2.12
       -samefile              4.2.11
       -H                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -L                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -P                     4.2.5      BSD
       -delete                4.2.3
       -quit                  4.2.3
       -d                     4.2.3      BSD
       -wholename             4.2.0
       -iwholename            4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls                   4.0
       -ilname                3.8
       -iname                 3.8
       -ipath                 3.8
       -iregex                3.8

       The syntax -perm +MODE was removed in findutils-4.5.12, in favour of
       -perm /MODE.  The +MODE syntax had been deprecated since findutils-4.2.21
       which was released in 2005.

NON-BUGS
   Operator precedence surprises
       The command find . -name afile -o -name bfile -print will never print
       afile because this is actually equivalent to find . -name afile -o \(
       -name bfile -a -print \).  Remember that the precedence of -a is higher
       than that of -o and when there is no operator specified between tests, -a
       is assumed.

   “paths must precede expression” error message
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       find: possible unquoted pattern after predicate `-name'?

       This happens when the shell could expand the pattern *.c to more than one
       file name existing in the current directory, and passing the resulting
       file names in the command line to find like this:
       find . -name frcode.c locate.c word_io.c -print
       That command is of course not going to work, because the -name predicate
       allows exactly only one pattern as argument.  Instead of doing things
       this way, you should enclose the pattern in quotes or escape the
       wildcard, thus allowing find to use the pattern with the wildcard during
       the search for file name matching instead of file names expanded by the
       parent shell:
       $ find . -name '*.c' -print
       $ find . -name \*.c -print

BUGS
       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour that the POSIX
       standard specifies for find, which therefore cannot be fixed.  For
       example, the -exec action is inherently insecure, and -execdir should be
       used instead.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

REPORTING BUGS
       GNU findutils online help: <https://www.gnu.org/software/findutils/#get-
       help>
       Report any translation bugs to <https://translationproject.org/team/>

       Report any other issue via the form at the GNU Savannah bug tracker:
              <https://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils>
       General topics about the GNU findutils package are discussed at the
       bug-findutils mailing list:
              <https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/bug-findutils>

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright © 1990-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There
       is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
       chmod(1), locate(1), ls(1), updatedb(1), xargs(1), lstat(2), stat(2),
       ctime(3) fnmatch(3), printf(3), strftime(3), locatedb(5), regex(7)

       Full documentation <https://www.gnu.org/software/findutils/find>
       or available locally via: info find



                                                                         FIND(1)