firejail

FIREJAIL(1)                    firejail man page                   FIREJAIL(1)



NAME
       Firejail - Linux namespaces sandbox program

SYNOPSIS
       Start a sandbox:

              firejail [OPTIONS] [program and arguments]

       Start an AppImage program:

              firejail [OPTIONS] --appimage [appimage-file and arguments]

       File transfer from an existing sandbox

              firejail {--ls | --get | --put} dir_or_filename

       Network traffic shaping for an existing sandbox:

              firejail --bandwidth={name|pid} bandwidth-command

       Monitoring:

              firejail {--list | --netstats | --top | --tree}

       Miscellaneous:

              firejail {-? | --debug-caps | --debug-errnos | --debug-syscalls
              | --debug-protocols | --help | --version}

DESCRIPTION
       Firejail is a SUID sandbox program that reduces the risk of security
       breaches by restricting the running environment of untrusted
       applications using Linux namespaces, seccomp-bpf and Linux
       capabilities.  It allows a process and all its descendants to have
       their own private view of the globally shared kernel resources, such as
       the network stack, process table, mount table.  Firejail can work in a
       SELinux or AppArmor environment, and it is integrated with Linux
       Control Groups.

       Written in C with virtually no dependencies, the software runs on any
       Linux computer with a 3.x kernel version or newer.  It can sandbox any
       type of processes: servers, graphical applications, and even user login
       sessions.

       Firejail allows the user to manage application security using security
       profiles.  Each profile defines a set of permissions for a specific
       application or group of applications. The software includes security
       profiles for a number of more common Linux programs, such as Mozilla
       Firefox, Chromium, VLC, Transmission etc.

       Alternative sandbox technologies like snap (https://snapcraft.io/) and
       flatpak (https://flatpak.org/) are not supported. Snap and flatpak
       packages have their own native management tools and will not work when
       sandboxed with Firejail.


USAGE
       Without any options, the sandbox consists of a filesystem build in a
       new mount namespace, and new PID and UTS namespaces. IPC, network and
       user namespaces can be added using the command line options. The
       default Firejail filesystem is based on the host filesystem with the
       main system directories mounted read-only. These directories are /etc,
       /var, /usr, /bin, /sbin, /lib, /lib32, /libx32 and /lib64. Only /home
       and /tmp are writable.

       As it starts up, Firejail tries to find a security profile based on the
       name of the application.  If an appropriate profile is not found,
       Firejail will use a default profile.  The default profile is quite
       restrictive. In case the application doesn't work, use --noprofile
       option to disable it. For more information, please see SECURITY
       PROFILES section below.

       If a program argument is not specified, Firejail starts /bin/bash
       shell.  Examples:

       $ firejail [OPTIONS]                # starting a /bin/bash shell

       $ firejail [OPTIONS] firefox        # starting Mozilla Firefox

       # sudo firejail [OPTIONS] /etc/init.d/nginx start


OPTIONS
       --     Signal the end of options and disables further option
              processing.

       --allow-debuggers
              Allow tools such as strace and gdb inside the sandbox by
              whitelisting system calls ptrace and process_vm_readv. This
              option is only available when running on Linux kernels 4.8 or
              newer - a kernel bug in ptrace system call allows a full bypass
              of the seccomp filter.

              Example:
              $ firejail  --allow-debuggers
              --profile=/etc/firejail/firefox.profile strace -f firefox

       --allusers
              All directories under /home are visible inside the sandbox. By
              default, only current user home directory is visible.

              Example:
              $ firejail --allusers

       --apparmor
              Enable AppArmor confinement. For more information, please see
              APPARMOR section below.

       --apparmor.print=name|pid
              Print the AppArmor confinement status for the sandbox identified
              by name or by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --apparmor.print=browser
              5074:netblue:/usr/bin/firejail /usr/bin/firefox-esr
                AppArmor: firejail-default enforce


       --appimage
              Sandbox an AppImage (https://appimage.org/) application. If the
              sandbox is started as a regular user, nonewprivs and a default
              capabilities filter are enabled.

              Example:
              $ firejail --appimage krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
              $ firejail --appimage --private krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
              $ firejail --appimage --net=none --x11 krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage


       --audit
              Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.

       --audit=test-program
              Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.

       --bandwidth=name|pid
              Set bandwidth limits for the sandbox identified by name or PID,
              see TRAFFIC SHAPING section for more details.

       --bind=filename1,filename2
              Mount-bind filename1 on top of filename2. This option is only
              available when running as root.

              Example:
              # firejail --bind=/config/etc/passwd,/etc/passwd

       --blacklist=dirname_or_filename
              Blacklist directory or file. File globbing is supported, see
              FILE GLOBBING section for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --blacklist=/sbin --blacklist=/usr/sbin
              $ firejail --blacklist=~/.mozilla
              $ firejail "--blacklist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"
              $ firejail --blacklist=/home/username/My\ Virtual\ Machines

       --build
              The command builds a whitelisted profile. The profile is printed
              on the screen. If /usr/bin/strace is installed on the system, it
              also builds a whitelisted seccomp profile. The program is run in
              a very relaxed sandbox, with only --caps.drop=all and
              --nonewprivs. Programs that raise user privileges are not
              supported in order to allow strace to run. Chromium and
              Chromium-based browsers will not work.

              Example:
              $ firejail --build vlc ~/Videos/test.mp4

       --build=profile-file
              The command builds a whitelisted profile, and saves it in
              profile-file. If /usr/bin/strace is installed on the system, it
              also builds a whitelisted seccomp profile. The program is run in
              a very relaxed sandbox, with only --caps.drop=all and
              --nonewprivs. Programs that raise user privileges are not
              supported in order to allow strace to run. Chromium and
              Chromium-based browsers will not work.

              Example:
              $ firejail --build=vlc.profile vlc ~/Videos/test.mp4

       -c     Login shell compatibility option. This option is use by some
              login programs when executing the login shell, such as when
              firejail is used as a restricted login shell. It currently does
              not change the execution of firejail.

       --caps Linux capabilities is a kernel feature designed to split up the
              root privilege into a set of distinct privileges.  These
              privileges can be enabled or disabled independently, thus
              restricting what a process running as root can do in the system.

              By default root programs run with all capabilities enabled.
              --caps option disables the following capabilities:
              CAP_SYS_MODULE, CAP_SYS_RAWIO, CAP_SYS_BOOT, CAP_SYS_NICE,
              CAP_SYS_TTY_CONFIG, CAP_SYSLOG, CAP_MKNOD, CAP_SYS_ADMIN.  The
              filter is applied to all processes started in the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --caps /etc/init.d/nginx start


       --caps.drop=all
              Drop all capabilities for the processes running in the sandbox.
              This option is recommended for running GUI programs or any other
              program that doesn't require root privileges. It is a must-have
              option for sandboxing untrusted programs installed from
              unofficial sources - such as games, Java programs, etc.

              Example:
              $ firejail --caps.drop=all warzone2100


       --caps.drop=capability,capability,capability
              Define a custom blacklist Linux capabilities filter.

              Example:
              $ firejail --caps.drop=net_broadcast,net_admin,net_raw


       --caps.keep=capability,capability,capability
              Define a custom whitelist Linux capabilities filter.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --caps.keep=chown,net_bind_service,setgid,\
              setuid /etc/init.d/nginx start


       --caps.print=name|pid
              Print the caps filter for the sandbox identified by name or by
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --caps.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --caps.print=3272


       --cgroup=tasks-file
              Place the sandbox in the specified control group. tasks-file is
              the full path of cgroup tasks file.

              Example:
              # firejail --cgroup=/sys/fs/cgroup/g1/tasks


       --chroot=dirname
              Chroot the sandbox into a root filesystem. Unlike the regular
              filesystem container, the system directories are mounted read-
              write. If the sandbox is started as a regular user, nonewprivs
              and a default capabilities filter are enabled.

              Example:
              $ firejail --chroot=/media/ubuntu warzone2100


       --cpu=cpu-number,cpu-number,cpu-number
              Set CPU affinity.

              Example:
              $ firejail --cpu=0,1 handbrake


       --cpu.print=name|pid
              Print the CPU cores in use by the sandbox identified by name or
              by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --cpu.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --cpu.print=3272


       --debug
              Print debug messages.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug firefox


       --debug-blacklists
              Debug blacklisting.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-blacklists firefox


       --debug-caps
              Print all recognized capabilities in the current Firejail
              software build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-caps


       --debug-errnos
              Print all recognized error numbers in the current Firejail
              software build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-errnos

       --debug-private-lib
              Debug messages for --private-lib option.

       --debug-protocols
              Print all recognized protocols in the current Firejail software
              build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-protocols

       --debug-syscalls
              Print all recognized system calls in the current Firejail
              software build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-syscalls

       --debug-whitelists
              Debug whitelisting.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-whitelists firefox


       --defaultgw=address
              Use this address as default gateway in the new network
              namespace.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --defaultgw=10.10.20.1 firefox


       --disable-mnt
              Blacklist /mnt, /media, /run/mount and /run/media access.

              Example:
              $ firejail --disable-mnt firefox


       --deterministic-exit-code
              Always exit firejail with the first child's exit status. The
              default behavior is to use the exit status of the final child to
              exit, which can be nondeterministic.


       --dns=address
              Set a DNS server for the sandbox. Up to three DNS servers can be
              defined.  Use this option if you don't trust the DNS setup on
              your network.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dns=8.8.8.8 --dns=8.8.4.4 firefox

              Note: this feature is not supported on systemd-resolved setups.

       --dns.print=name|pid
              Print DNS configuration for a sandbox identified by name or by
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --dns.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --dns.print=3272


       --env=name=value
              Set environment variable in the new sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --env=LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/test/lib


       --fs.print=name|pid
              Print the filesystem log for the sandbox identified by name or
              by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --fs.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --fs.print=3272


       --get=name|pid filename
              Get a file from sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.


       -?, --help
              Print options end exit.



       --hostname=name
              Set sandbox hostname.

              Example:
              $ firejail --hostname=officepc firefox


       --hosts-file=file
              Use file as /etc/hosts.

              Example:
              $ firejail --hosts-file=~/myhosts firefox


       --ignore=command
              Ignore command in profile file.

              Example:
              $ firejail --ignore=shell --ignore=seccomp firefox
              $ firejail --ignore="net eth0" firefox

       --interface=interface
              Move interface in a new network namespace. Up to four
              --interface options can be specified.  Note: wlan devices are
              not supported for this option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --interface=eth1 --interface=eth0.vlan100


       --ip=address
              Assign IP addresses to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option. A default gateway is assigned by default.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=10.10.20.56 firefox


       --ip=none
              No IP address and no default gateway are configured for the last
              interface defined by a --net option. Use this option in case you
              intend to start an external DHCP client in the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=none

              If the corresponding interface doesn't have an IP address
              configured, this option is enabled by default.


       --ip6=address
              Assign IPv6 addresses to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip6=2001:0db8:0:f101::1/64 firefox

              Note: you don't need this option if you obtain your ip6 address
              from router via SLAAC (your ip6 address and default route will
              be configured by kernel automatically).


       --iprange=address,address
              Assign an IP address in the provided range to the last network
              interface defined by a --net option. A default gateway is
              assigned by default.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --iprange=192.168.1.100,192.168.1.150


       --ipc-namespace
              Enable  a new IPC namespace if the sandbox was started as a
              regular user. IPC namespace is enabled by default for sandboxes
              started as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --ipc-namespace firefox

       --join=name|pid
              Join the sandbox identified by name or by PID. By default a
              /bin/bash shell is started after joining the sandbox.  If a
              program is specified, the program is run in the sandbox. If
              --join command is issued as a regular user, all security filters
              are configured for the new process the same they are configured
              in the sandbox.  If --join command is issued as root, the
              security filters, cgroups and cpus configurations are not
              applied to the process joining the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --join=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --join=3272


       --join-filesystem=name|pid
              Join the mount namespace of the sandbox identified by name or
              PID. By default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the
              sandbox.  If a program is specified, the program is run in the
              sandbox. This command is available only to root user.  Security
              filters, cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to the
              process joining the sandbox.


       --join-network=name|pid
              Join the network namespace of the sandbox identified by name. By
              default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the sandbox.
              If a program is specified, the program is run in the sandbox.
              This command is available only to root user.  Security filters,
              cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to the process
              joining the sandbox. Example:

              # start firefox
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --name=browser firefox &

              # change netfilter configuration
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser bash -c "cat
              /etc/firejail/nolocal.net | /sbin/iptables-restore"

              # verify netfilter configuration
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser /sbin/iptables -vL

              # verify  IP addresses
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser ip addr
              Switching to pid 1932, the first child process inside the
              sandbox
              1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state
              UNKNOWN group default
                  link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
                  inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
                  inet6 ::1/128 scope host
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
              2: eth0-1931: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc
              noqueue state UNKNOWN group default
                  link/ether 76:58:14:42:78:e4 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
                  inet 192.168.1.158/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global
              eth0-1931
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
                  inet6 fe80::7458:14ff:fe42:78e4/64 scope link
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever


       --join-or-start=name
              Join the sandbox identified by name or start a new one.  Same as
              "firejail --join=name" if sandbox with specified name exists,
              otherwise same as "firejail --name=name ..."
              Note that in contrary to other join options there is respective
              profile option.


       --keep-dev-shm
              /dev/shm directory is untouched (even with --private-dev)

              Example:
              $ firejail --keep-dev-shm --private-dev


       --keep-var-tmp
              /var/tmp directory is untouched.

              Example:
              $ firejail --keep-var-tmp


       --list List all sandboxes, see MONITORING section for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              7015:netblue:browser:firejail firefox
              7056:netblue:torrent:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
              7064:netblue::firejail --noroot xterm

       --ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
              List files in sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.


       --mac=address
              Assign MAC addresses to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option. This option is not supported for wireless
              interfaces.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --mac=00:11:22:33:44:55 firefox


       --machine-id
              Spoof id number in /etc/machine-id file - a new random id is
              generated inside the sandbox.  Note that this breaks audio
              support. Enable it when sound is not required.

              Example:
              $ firejail --machine-id


       --memory-deny-write-execute
              Install a seccomp filter to block attempts to create memory
              mappings that are both writable and executable, to change
              mappings to be executable, or to create executable shared
              memory. The filter examines the arguments of mmap, mmap2,
              mprotect, pkey_mprotect, memfd_create and shmat system calls and
              kills the process if necessary.

              Note: shmat is not implemented as a system call on some
              platforms including i386, and it cannot be handled by seccomp-
              bpf.


       --mtu=number
              Assign a MTU value to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --mtu=1492


       --name=name
              Set sandbox name. Several options, such as --join and
              --shutdown, can use this name to identify a sandbox.

              In case the name supplied by the user is already in use by
              another sandbox, Firejail will assign a new name as "name-PID",
              where PID is the process ID of the sandbox. This functionality
              can be disabled at run time in /etc/firejail/firejail.config
              file, by setting "name-change" flag to "no".

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=browser firefox &
              $ firejail --name=browser --private firefox --no-remote &
              $ firejail --list
              1198:netblue:browser:firejail --name=browser firefox
              1312:netblue:browser-1312:firejail --name=browser --private
              firefox --no-remote


       --net=bridge_interface
              Enable a new network namespace and connect it to this bridge
              interface.  Unless specified with option --ip and --defaultgw,
              an IP address and a default gateway will be assigned
              automatically to the sandbox. The IP address is verified using
              ARP before assignment. The address configured as default gateway
              is the bridge device IP address. Up to four --net options can be
              specified.

              Example:
              $ sudo brctl addbr br0
              $ sudo ifconfig br0 10.10.20.1/24
              $ sudo brctl addbr br1
              $ sudo ifconfig br1 10.10.30.1/24
              $ firejail --net=br0 --net=br1


       --net=ethernet_interface|wireless_interface
              Enable a new network namespace and connect it to this ethernet
              interface using the standard Linux macvlan|ipvaln driver. Unless
              specified with option --ip and --defaultgw, an IP address and a
              default gateway will be assigned automatically to the sandbox.
              The IP address is verified using ARP before assignment. The
              address configured as default gateway is the default gateway of
              the host. Up to four --net options can be specified.  Support
              for ipvlan driver was introduced in Linux kernel 3.19.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=192.168.1.80 --dns=8.8.8.8 firefox
              $ firejail --net=wlan0 firefox


       --net=none
              Enable a new, unconnected network namespace. The only interface
              available in the new namespace is a new loopback interface (lo).
              Use this option to deny network access to programs that don't
              really need network access.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=none vlc

              Note: --net=none can crash the application on some platforms.
              In these cases, it can be replaced with --protocol=unix.


       --net=tap_interface
              Enable a new network namespace and connect it to this ethernet
              tap interface using the standard Linux macvlan driver. If the
              tap interface is not configured, the sandbox will not try to
              configure the interface inside the sandbox.  Please use --ip,
              --netmask and --defaultgw to specify the configuration.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=tap0 --ip=10.10.20.80 --netmask=255.255.255.0
              --defaultgw=10.10.20.1 firefox


       --net.print=name|pid
              If a new network namespace is enabled, print network interface
              configuration for the sandbox specified by name or PID. Example:

              $ firejail --net.print=browser
              Switching to pid 1853, the first child process inside the
              sandbox
              Interface  MAC               IP            Mask        Status
              lo                           127.0.0.1     255.0.0.0     UP
              eth0-1852  5e:fb:8e:27:29:26 192.168.1.186 255.255.255.0 UP


       --netfilter
              Enable a default firewall if a new network namespace is created
              inside the sandbox.  This option has no effect for sandboxes
              using the system network namespace.

              The default firewall is optimized for regular desktop
              applications. No incoming connections are accepted:

              *filter
              :INPUT DROP [0:0]
              :FORWARD DROP [0:0]
              :OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
              -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
              # allow ping
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type destination-unreachable -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type time-exceeded -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
              # drop STUN (WebRTC) requests
              -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3478 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3479 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3478 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3479 -j DROP
              COMMIT

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --netfilter firefox

       --netfilter=filename
              Enable the firewall specified by filename if a new network
              namespace is created inside the sandbox.  This option has no
              effect for sandboxes using the system network namespace.

              Please use the regular iptables-save/iptables-restore format for
              the filter file. The following examples are available in
              /etc/firejail directory:

              webserver.net is a webserver firewall that allows access only to
              TCP ports 80 and 443.  Example:

              $ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/webserver.net --net=eth0 \
              /etc/init.d/apache2 start

              nolocal.net is a desktop client firewall that disable access to
              local network. Example:

              $ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/nolocal.net \
              --net=eth0 firefox





       --netfilter=filename,arg1,arg2,arg3 ...
              This is the template version of the previous command. $ARG1,
              $ARG2, $ARG3 ... in the firewall script are replaced with arg1,
              arg2, arg3 ... passed on the command line. Up to 16 arguments
              are supported.  Example:

              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=192.168.1.105 \
              --netfilter=/etc/firejail/tcpserver.net,5001 server-program




       --netfilter.print=name|pid
              Print the firewall installed in the sandbox specified by name or
              PID. Example:

              $ firejail --name=browser --net=eth0 --netfilter firefox &
              $ firejail --netfilter.print=browser


       --netfilter6=filename
              Enable the IPv6 firewall specified by filename if a new network
              namespace is created inside the sandbox.  This option has no
              effect for sandboxes using the system network namespace.  Please
              use the regular iptables-save/iptables-restore format for the
              filter file.


       --netfilter6.print=name|pid
              Print the IPv6 firewall installed in the sandbox specified by
              name or PID. Example:

              $ firejail --name=browser --net=eth0 --netfilter firefox &
              $ firejail --netfilter6.print=browser


       --netmask=address
              Use this option when you want to assign an IP address in a new
              namespace and the parent interface specified by --net is not
              configured. An IP address and a default gateway address also
              have to be added. By default the new namespace interface comes
              without IP address and default gateway configured. Example:

              $ sudo /sbin/brctl addbr br0
              $ sudo /sbin/ifconfig br0 up
              $ firejail --ip=10.10.20.67 --netmask=255.255.255.0
              --defaultgw=10.10.20.1


       --netns=name
              Run the program in a named, persistent network namespace.  These
              can be created and configured using "ip netns".


       --netstats
              Monitor network namespace statistics, see MONITORING section for
              more details.

              Example:

              $ firejail --netstats
              PID  User    RX(KB/s) TX(KB/s) Command
              1294 netblue 53.355   1.473    firejail --net=eth0 firefox
              7383 netblue 9.045    0.112    firejail --net=eth0 transmission


       --nice=value
              Set nice value for all processes running inside the sandbox.
              Only root may specify a negative value.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nice=2 firefox


       --no3d Disable 3D hardware acceleration.

              Example:
              $ firejail --no3d firefox


       --noautopulse
              Disable automatic ~/.config/pulse init, for complex setups such
              as remote pulse servers or non-standard socket paths.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noautopulse firefox


       --noblacklist=dirname_or_filename
              Disable blacklist for this directory or file.

              Example:
              $ firejail
              $ nc dict.org 2628
              bash: /bin/nc: Permission denied
              $ exit

              $ firejail --noblacklist=/bin/nc
              $ nc dict.org 2628
              220 pan.alephnull.com dictd 1.12.1/rf on Linux 3.14-1-amd64

       --nodbus
              Disable D-Bus access (both system and session buses). Only the
              regular UNIX sockets are handled by this command. To disable the
              abstract sockets you would need to request a new network
              namespace using --net command. Another option is to remove unix
              from --protocol set.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nodbus --net=none

       --nodvd
              Disable DVD and audio CD devices.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nodvd

       --noexec=dirname_or_filename
              Remount directory or file noexec, nodev and nosuid. File
              globbing is supported, see FILE GLOBBING section for more
              details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noexec=/tmp

              /etc and /var are noexec by default if the sandbox was started
              as a regular user.


       --nogroups
              Disable supplementary groups. Without this option, supplementary
              groups are enabled for the user starting the sandbox. For root
              user supplementary groups are always disabled.

              Note: By default all regular user groups are removed with the
              exception of the current user. This can be changed using
              --allusers command option.

              Example:
              $ id
              uid=1000(netblue) gid=1000(netblue)
              groups=1000(netblue),24(cdrom),25(floppy),27(sudo),29(audio)
              $ firejail --nogroups
              Parent pid 8704, child pid 8705
              Child process initialized
              $ id
              uid=1000(netblue) gid=1000(netblue) groups=1000(netblue)
              $


       --nonewprivs
              Sets the NO_NEW_PRIVS prctl.  This ensures that child processes
              cannot acquire new privileges using execve(2);  in particular,
              this means that calling a suid binary (or one with file
              capabilities) does not result in an increase of privilege. This
              option is enabled by default if seccomp filter is activated.


       --noprofile
              Do not use a security profile.

              Example:
              $ firejail
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

              $ firejail --noprofile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]


       --noroot
              Install a user namespace with a single user - the current user.
              root user does not exist in the new namespace. This option
              requires a Linux kernel version 3.8 or newer. The option is not
              supported for --chroot and --overlay configurations, or for
              sandboxes started as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noroot
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              $ ping google.com
              ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted
              $


       --nosound
              Disable sound system.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nosound firefox


       --notv Disable DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) TV devices.

              Example:
              $ firejail --notv vlc


       --nou2f
              Disable U2F devices.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nou2f


       --novideo
              Disable video devices.


       --nowhitelist=dirname_or_filename
              Disable whitelist for this directory or file.


       --output=logfile
              stdout logging and log rotation. Copy stdout to logfile, and
              keep the size of the file under 500KB using log rotation. Five
              files with prefixes .1 to .5 are used in rotation.

              Example:
              $ firejail --output=sandboxlog /bin/bash
              [...]
              $ ls -l sandboxlog*
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 333890 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.1
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.2
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.3
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.4
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.5


       --output-stderr=logfile
              Similar to --output, but stderr is also stored.


       --overlay
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem.
              Unlike the regular filesystem container, the system directories
              are mounted read-write. All filesystem modifications go into the
              overlay.  Directories /run, /tmp and /dev are not covered by the
              overlay. The overlay is stored in $HOME/.firejail/<PID>
              directory.  If the sandbox is started as a regular user,
              nonewprivs and a default capabilities filter are enabled.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.  OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel
              version 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity
              systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay firefox


       --overlay-clean
              Clean all overlays stored in $HOME/.firejail directory.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-clean


       --overlay-named=name
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem.
              Unlike the regular filesystem container, the system directories
              are mounted read-write. All filesystem modifications go into the
              overlay.  Directories /run, /tmp and /dev are not covered by the
              overlay. The overlay is stored in $HOME/.firejail/<NAME>
              directory.  The created overlay can be reused between multiple
              sessions.  If the sandbox is started as a regular user,
              nonewprivs and a default capabilities filter are enabled.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.  OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel
              version 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity
              systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-named=jail1 firefox


       --overlay-tmpfs
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem. All
              filesystem modifications are discarded when the sandbox is
              closed. Directories /run, /tmp and /dev are not covered by the
              overlay.  If the sandbox is started as a regular user,
              nonewprivs and a default capabilities filter are enabled.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.  OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel
              version 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity
              systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-tmpfs firefox


       --private
              Mount new /root and /home/user directories in temporary
              filesystems. All modifications are discarded when the sandbox is
              closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private firefox


       --private=directory
              Use directory as user home.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private=/home/netblue/firefox-home firefox


       --private-bin=file,file
              Build a new /bin in a temporary filesystem, and copy the
              programs in the list.  If no listed file is found, /bin
              directory will be empty.  The same directory is also bind-
              mounted over /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin and /usr/local/bin.  All
              modifications are discarded when the sandbox is closed. File
              globbing is supported, see FILE GLOBBING section for more
              details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-bin=bash,sed,ls,cat
              Parent pid 20841, child pid 20842
              Child process initialized
              $ ls /bin
              bash  cat  ls  sed


       --private-cache
              Mount an empty temporary filesystem on top of the .cache
              directory in user home. All modifications are discarded when the
              sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-cache openbox


       --private-cwd
              Set working directory inside jail to the home directory, and
              failing that, the root directory.
              Does not impact working directory of profile include paths.

              Example:
              $ pwd
              /tmp
              $ firejail --private-cwd
              $ pwd
              /home/user


       --private-cwd=directory
              Set working directory inside the jail.
              Does not impact working directory of profile include paths.

              Example:
              $ pwd
              /tmp
              $ firejail --private-cwd=/opt
              $ pwd
              /opt


       --private-dev
              Create a new /dev directory. Only disc, dri, dvb, hidraw, null,
              full, zero, tty, pts, ptmx, random, snd, urandom, video, log,
              shm and usb devices are available.  Use the options --no3d,
              --nodvd, --nosound, --notv, --nou2f and --novideo for additional
              restrictions.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-dev
              Parent pid 9887, child pid 9888
              Child process initialized
              $ ls /dev
              cdrom  cdrw  dri  dvd  dvdrw  full  log  null  ptmx  pts  random
              shm  snd  sr0  tty  urandom  zero
              $

       --private-etc=file,directory
              Build a new /etc in a temporary filesystem, and copy the files
              and directories in the list.  If no listed file is found, /etc
              directory will be empty.  All modifications are discarded when
              the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-etc=group,hostname,localtime, \
              nsswitch.conf,passwd,resolv.conf


       --private-home=file,directory
              Build a new user home in a temporary filesystem, and copy the
              files and directories in the list in the new home. All
              modifications are discarded when the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-home=.mozilla firefox


       --private-lib=file,directory
              This feature is currently under heavy development. Only amd64
              platforms are supported at this moment.  The idea is to build a
              new /lib in a temporary filesystem, with only the library files
              necessary to run the application.  It could be as simple as:

              $ firejail --private-lib galculator

              but it gets complicated really fast:

              $ firejail --private-lib=x86_64-linux-gnu/xed,x86_64-linux-
              gnu/gdk-pixbuf-2.0,libenchant.so.1,librsvg-2.so.2 xed

              The feature is integrated with --private-bin:

              $ firejail --private-lib --private-bin=bash,ls,ps
              $ ls /lib
              ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 libgpg-error.so.0 libprocps.so.6
              libsystemd.so.0
              libc.so.6 liblz4.so.1 libpthread.so.0 libtinfo.so.5
              libdl.so.2 liblzma.so.5 librt.so.1 x86_64-linux-gnu
              libgcrypt.so.20 libpcre.so.3 libselinux.so.1
              $ ps
               PID TTY          TIME CMD
                  1 pts/0    00:00:00 firejail
                 45 pts/0    00:00:00 bash
                 48 pts/0    00:00:00 ps
              $


       --private-opt=file,directory
              Build a new /opt in a temporary filesystem, and copy the files
              and directories in the list.  If no listed file is found, /opt
              directory will be empty.  All modifications are discarded when
              the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-opt=firefox /opt/firefox/firefox


       --private-srv=file,directory
              Build a new /srv in a temporary filesystem, and copy the files
              and directories in the list.  If no listed file is found, /srv
              directory will be empty.  All modifications are discarded when
              the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              # firejail --private-srv=www /etc/init.d/apache2 start


       --private-tmp
              Mount an empty temporary filesystem on top of /tmp directory
              whitelisting X11 and PulseAudio sockets.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-tmp
              $ ls -al /tmp
              drwxrwxrwt  4 nobody nogroup   80 Apr 30 11:46 .
              drwxr-xr-x 30 nobody nogroup 4096 Apr 26 22:18 ..
              drwx------  2 nobody nogroup 4096 Apr 30 10:52 pulse-
              PKdhtXMmr18n
              drwxrwxrwt  2 nobody nogroup 4096 Apr 30 10:52 .X11-unix


       --profile=filename_or_profilename
              Load a custom security profile from filename. For filename use
              an absolute path or a path relative to the current path.  For
              more information, see SECURITY PROFILES section below.

              Example:
              $ firejail --profile=myprofile


       --profile.print=name|pid
              Print the name of the profile file for the sandbox identified by
              name or or PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --profile.print=browser
              /etc/firejail/firefox.profile

       --protocol=protocol,protocol,protocol
              Enable protocol filter. The filter is based on seccomp and
              checks the first argument to socket system call.  Recognized
              values: unix, inet, inet6, netlink and packet. This option is
              not supported for i386 architecture.

              Example:
              $ firejail --protocol=unix,inet,inet6 firefox

       --protocol.print=name|pid
              Print the protocol filter for the sandbox identified by name or
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mybrowser firefox &
              $ firejail --protocol.print=mybrowser
              unix,inet,inet6,netlink

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --protocol.print=3272
              unix,inet,inet6,netlink

       --put=name|pid src-filename dest-filename
              Put a file in sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.

       --quiet
              Turn off Firejail's output.

              The same effect can be obtained by setting an environment
              variable FIREJAIL_QUIET to yes.

       --read-only=dirname_or_filename
              Set directory or file read-only. File globbing is supported, see
              FILE GLOBBING section for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --read-only=~/.mozilla firefox

       --read-write=dirname_or_filename
              Set directory or file read-write. Only files or directories
              belonging to the current user are allowed for this operation.
              File globbing is supported, see FILE GLOBBING section for more
              details.  Example:

              $ mkdir ~/test
              $ touch ~/test/a
              $ firejail --read-only=~/test --read-write=~/test/a



       --rlimit-as=number
              Set the maximum size of the process's virtual memory (address
              space) in bytes.


       --rlimit-cpu=number
              Set the maximum limit, in seconds, for the amount of CPU time
              each sandboxed process  can consume. When the limit is reached,
              the processes are killed.

              The CPU limit is a limit on CPU seconds rather than elapsed
              time. CPU seconds is basically how many seconds the CPU has been
              in use and does not necessarily directly relate to the elapsed
              time. Linux kernel keeps track of CPU seconds for each process
              independently.


       --rlimit-fsize=number
              Set the maximum file size that can be created by a process.

       --rlimit-nofile=number
              Set the maximum number of files that can be opened by a process.

       --rlimit-nproc=number
              Set the maximum number of processes that can be created for the
              real user ID of the calling process.

       --rlimit-sigpending=number
              Set the maximum number of pending signals for a process.


       --rmenv=name
              Remove environment variable in the new sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --rmenv=DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS


       --scan ARP-scan all the networks from inside a network namespace.  This
              makes it possible to detect macvlan kernel device drivers
              running on the current host.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --scan

       --seccomp
              Enable seccomp filter and blacklist the syscalls in the default
              list, which is  @default-nodebuggers unless allow-debuggers is
              specified, then it is @default.

              To help creating useful seccomp filters more easily, the
              following system call groups are defined: @aio, @basic-io,
              @chown, @clock, @cpu-emulation, @debug, @default, @default-
              nodebuggers, @default-keep, @file-system, @io-event, @ipc,
              @keyring, @memlock, @module, @mount, @network-io, @obsolete,
              @privileged, @process, @raw-io, @reboot, @resources, @setuid,
              @swap, @sync, @system-service and @timer.  More informations
              about groups can be found in
              /usr/share/doc/firejail/syscalls.txt

              In addition, a system call can be specified by its number
              instead of name with prefix $, so for example $165 would be
              equal to mount on i386.  Exceptions can be allowed with prefix
              !.

              System architecture is strictly imposed only if flag
              --seccomp.block-secondary is used. The filter is applied at run
              time only if the correct architecture was detected. For the case
              of I386 and AMD64 both 32-bit and 64-bit filters are installed.

              Firejail will print seccomp violations to the audit log if the
              kernel was compiled with audit support (CONFIG_AUDIT flag).

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp

       --seccomp=syscall,@group,!syscall2
              Enable seccomp filter, whitelist "syscall2", but blacklist the
              default list and the syscalls or syscall groups specified by the
              command.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp=utime,utimensat,utimes firefox
              $ firejail --seccomp=@clock,mkdir,unlinkat transmission-gtk

              Instead of dropping the syscall, a specific error number can be
              returned using syscall:errorno syntax.

              Example: $ firejail --seccomp=unlinkat:ENOENT,utimensat,utimes
              Parent pid 10662, child pid 10663
              Child process initialized
              $ touch testfile
              $ rm testfile
              rm: cannot remove `testfile': Operation not permitted

              If the blocked system calls would also block Firejail from
              operating, they are handled by adding a preloaded library which
              performs seccomp system calls later.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noprofile --shell=none --seccomp=execve bash
              Parent pid 32751, child pid 32752
              Post-exec seccomp protector enabled
              list in: execve, check list: @default-keep prelist: (null),
              postlist: execve
              Child process initialized in 46.44 ms
              $ ls
              Bad system call


       --seccomp.block-secondary
              Enable seccomp filter and filter system call architectures so
              that only the native architecture is allowed. For example, on
              amd64, i386 and x32 system calls are blocked as well as changing
              the execution domain with personality(2) system call.


       --seccomp.drop=syscall,@group
              Enable seccomp filter, and blacklist the syscalls or the syscall
              groups specified by the command.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp.drop=utime,utimensat,utimes,@clock

              Instead of dropping the syscall, a specific error number can be
              returned using syscall:errorno syntax.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp.drop=unlinkat:ENOENT,utimensat,utimes
              Parent pid 10662, child pid 10663
              Child process initialized
              $ touch testfile
              $ rm testfile
              rm: cannot remove `testfile': Operation not permitted






       --seccomp.keep=syscall,@group,!syscall2
              Enable seccomp filter, blacklist all syscall not listed and
              "syscall2".  The system calls needed by Firejail (group
              @default-keep: prctl, execve) are handled with the preload
              library.

              Example:
              $ firejail --shell=none --seccomp.keep=poll,select,[...]
              transmission-gtk


       --seccomp.print=name|pid
              Print the seccomp filter for the sandbox identified by name or
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=browser firefox &
              $ firejail --seccomp.print=browser
               line  OP JT JF    K
              =================================
               0000: 20 00 00 00000004   ld  data.architecture
               0001: 15 01 00 c000003e   jeq ARCH_64 0003 (false 0002)
               0002: 06 00 00 7fff0000   ret ALLOW
               0003: 20 00 00 00000000   ld  data.syscall-number
               0004: 35 01 00 40000000   jge X32_ABI true:0006 (false 0005)
               0005: 35 01 00 00000000   jge read 0007 (false 0006)
               0006: 06 00 00 00050001   ret ERRNO(1)
               0007: 15 41 00 0000009a   jeq modify_ldt 0049 (false 0008)
               0008: 15 40 00 000000d4   jeq lookup_dcookie 0049 (false 0009)
               0009: 15 3f 00 0000012a   jeq perf_event_open 0049 (false 000a)
               000a: 15 3e 00 00000137   jeq process_vm_writev 0049 (false
              000b)
               000b: 15 3d 00 0000009c   jeq _sysctl 0049 (false 000c)
               000c: 15 3c 00 000000b7   jeq afs_syscall 0049 (false 000d)
               000d: 15 3b 00 000000ae   jeq create_module 0049 (false 000e)
               000e: 15 3a 00 000000b1   jeq get_kernel_syms 0049 (false 000f)
               000f: 15 39 00 000000b5   jeq getpmsg 0049 (false 0010)
               0010: 15 38 00 000000b6   jeq putpmsg 0049 (false 0011)
               0011: 15 37 00 000000b2   jeq query_module 0049 (false 0012)
               0012: 15 36 00 000000b9   jeq security 0049 (false 0013)
               0013: 15 35 00 0000008b   jeq sysfs 0049 (false 0014)
               0014: 15 34 00 000000b8   jeq tuxcall 0049 (false 0015)
               0015: 15 33 00 00000086   jeq uselib 0049 (false 0016)
               0016: 15 32 00 00000088   jeq ustat 0049 (false 0017)
               0017: 15 31 00 000000ec   jeq vserver 0049 (false 0018)
               0018: 15 30 00 0000009f   jeq adjtimex 0049 (false 0019)
               0019: 15 2f 00 00000131   jeq clock_adjtime 0049 (false 001a)
               001a: 15 2e 00 000000e3   jeq clock_settime 0049 (false 001b)
               001b: 15 2d 00 000000a4   jeq settimeofday 0049 (false 001c)
               001c: 15 2c 00 000000b0   jeq delete_module 0049 (false 001d)
               001d: 15 2b 00 00000139   jeq finit_module 0049 (false 001e)
               001e: 15 2a 00 000000af   jeq init_module 0049 (false 001f)
               001f: 15 29 00 000000ad   jeq ioperm 0049 (false 0020)
               0020: 15 28 00 000000ac   jeq iopl 0049 (false 0021)
               0021: 15 27 00 000000f6   jeq kexec_load 0049 (false 0022)
               0022: 15 26 00 00000140   jeq kexec_file_load 0049 (false 0023)
               0023: 15 25 00 000000a9   jeq reboot 0049 (false 0024)
               0024: 15 24 00 000000a7   jeq swapon 0049 (false 0025)
               0025: 15 23 00 000000a8   jeq swapoff 0049 (false 0026)
               0026: 15 22 00 000000a3   jeq acct 0049 (false 0027)
               0027: 15 21 00 00000141   jeq bpf 0049 (false 0028)
               0028: 15 20 00 000000a1   jeq chroot 0049 (false 0029)
               0029: 15 1f 00 000000a5   jeq mount 0049 (false 002a)
               002a: 15 1e 00 000000b4   jeq nfsservctl 0049 (false 002b)
               002b: 15 1d 00 0000009b   jeq pivot_root 0049 (false 002c)
               002c: 15 1c 00 000000ab   jeq setdomainname 0049 (false 002d)
               002d: 15 1b 00 000000aa   jeq sethostname 0049 (false 002e)
               002e: 15 1a 00 000000a6   jeq umount2 0049 (false 002f)
               002f: 15 19 00 00000099   jeq vhangup 0049 (false 0030)
               0030: 15 18 00 000000ee   jeq set_mempolicy 0049 (false 0031)
               0031: 15 17 00 00000100   jeq migrate_pages 0049 (false 0032)
               0032: 15 16 00 00000117   jeq move_pages 0049 (false 0033)
               0033: 15 15 00 000000ed   jeq mbind 0049 (false 0034)
               0034: 15 14 00 00000130   jeq open_by_handle_at 0049 (false
              0035)
               0035: 15 13 00 0000012f   jeq name_to_handle_at 0049 (false
              0036)
               0036: 15 12 00 000000fb   jeq ioprio_set 0049 (false 0037)
               0037: 15 11 00 00000067   jeq syslog 0049 (false 0038)
               0038: 15 10 00 0000012c   jeq fanotify_init 0049 (false 0039)
               0039: 15 0f 00 00000138   jeq kcmp 0049 (false 003a)
               003a: 15 0e 00 000000f8   jeq add_key 0049 (false 003b)
               003b: 15 0d 00 000000f9   jeq request_key 0049 (false 003c)
               003c: 15 0c 00 000000fa   jeq keyctl 0049 (false 003d)
               003d: 15 0b 00 000000ce   jeq io_setup 0049 (false 003e)
               003e: 15 0a 00 000000cf   jeq io_destroy 0049 (false 003f)
               003f: 15 09 00 000000d0   jeq io_getevents 0049 (false 0040)
               0040: 15 08 00 000000d1   jeq io_submit 0049 (false 0041)
               0041: 15 07 00 000000d2   jeq io_cancel 0049 (false 0042)
               0042: 15 06 00 000000d8   jeq remap_file_pages 0049 (false
              0043)
               0043: 15 05 00 00000116   jeq vmsplice 0049 (false 0044)
               0044: 15 04 00 00000087   jeq personality 0049 (false 0045)
               0045: 15 03 00 00000143   jeq userfaultfd 0049 (false 0046)
               0046: 15 02 00 00000065   jeq ptrace 0049 (false 0047)
               0047: 15 01 00 00000136   jeq process_vm_readv 0049 (false
              0048)
               0048: 06 00 00 7fff0000   ret ALLOW
               0049: 06 00 01 00000000   ret KILL
              $

       --shell=none
              Run the program directly, without a user shell.

              Example:
              $ firejail --shell=none script.sh

       --shell=program
              Set default user shell. Use this shell to run the application
              using -c shell option.  For example "firejail --shell=/bin/dash
              firefox" will start Mozilla Firefox as "/bin/dash -c firefox".
              By default Bash shell (/bin/bash) is used.

              Example: $firejail --shell=/bin/dash script.sh

       --shutdown=name|pid
              Shutdown the sandbox identified by name or PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --shutdown=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --shutdown=3272

       --timeout=hh:mm:ss
              Kill the sandbox automatically after the time has elapsed. The
              time is specified in hours/minutes/seconds format.

              $ firejail --timeout=01:30:00 firefox

       --tmpfs=dirname
              Mount a writable tmpfs filesystem on directory dirname. This
              option is available only when running the sandbox as root.  File
              globbing is supported, see FILE GLOBBING section for more
              details.

              Example:
              # firejail --tmpfs=/var

       --top  Monitor the most CPU-intensive sandboxes, see MONITORING section
              for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --top

       --trace[=filename]
              Trace open, access and connect system calls. If filename is
              specified, log trace output to filename, otherwise log to
              console.

              Example:
              $ firejail --trace wget -q www.debian.org
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/wget.profile
              3:wget:fopen64 /etc/wgetrc:0x5c8e8ce6c0
              3:wget:fopen /etc/hosts:0x5c8e8cfb70
              3:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_DGRAM IPPROTO_IP:3
              3:wget:connect 3 8.8.8.8 port 53:0
              3:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_STREAM IPPROTO_IP:3
              3:wget:connect 3 130.89.148.14 port 80:0
              3:wget:fopen64 index.html:0x5c8e8d1a60

              parent is shutting down, bye...

       --tracelog
              This option enables auditing blacklisted files and directories.
              A message is sent to syslog in case the file or the directory is
              accessed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tracelog firefox

              Sample messages:
              $ sudo tail -f /var/log/syslog
              [...]
              Dec  3 11:43:25 debian firejail[70]: blacklist violation -
              sandbox 26370, exe firefox, syscall open64, path /etc/shadow
              Dec  3 11:46:17 debian firejail[70]: blacklist violation -
              sandbox 26370, exe firefox, syscall opendir, path /boot
              [...]

       --tree Print a tree of all sandboxed processes, see MONITORING section
              for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tree
              11903:netblue:firejail iceweasel
                11904:netblue:iceweasel
                  11957:netblue:/usr/lib/iceweasel/plugin-container
              11969:netblue:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
                11970:netblue:transmission-gtk


       --tunnel[=devname]
              Connect the sandbox to a network overlay/VPN tunnel created by
              firetunnel utility. This options tries first the client side of
              the tunnel. If this fails, it tries the server side. If multiple
              tunnels are active, please specify the tunnel device using
              --tunnel=devname.

              The available tunnel devices are listed in /etc/firetunnel
              directory, one file for each device.  The files are regular
              firejail profile files containing the network configuration, and
              are created and managed by firetunnel utility.  By default ftc
              is the client-side device and fts is the server-side device. For
              more information please see man 1 firetunnel.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tunnel firefox

       --version
              Print program version and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --version
              firejail version 0.9.27


       --veth-name=name
              Use this name for the interface connected to the bridge for
              --net=bridge_interface commands, instead of the default one.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=br0 --veth-name=if0


       --whitelist=dirname_or_filename
              Whitelist directory or file. A temporary file system is mounted
              on the top directory, and the whitelisted files are mount-binded
              inside. Modifications to whitelisted files are persistent,
              everything else is discarded when the sandbox is closed. The top
              directory could be user home, /dev, /etc, /media, /mnt, /opt,
              /run/user/$UID, /srv, /sys/module, /tmp, /usr/share and /var.

              Symbolic link handling: with the exception of user home, both
              the link and the real file should be in the same top directory.
              For user home, both the link and the real file should be owned
              by the user.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noprofile --whitelist=~/.mozilla
              $ firejail --whitelist=/tmp/.X11-unix --whitelist=/dev/null
              $ firejail "--whitelist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"


       --writable-etc
              Mount /etc directory read-write.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-etc


       --writable-run-user
              Disable the default blacklisting of /run/user/$UID/systemd and
              /run/user/$UID/gnupg.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-run-user


       --writable-var
              Mount /var directory read-write.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-var


       --writable-var-log
              Use the real /var/log directory, not a clone. By default, a
              tmpfs is mounted on top of /var/log directory, and a skeleton
              filesystem is created based on the original /var/log.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-var-log



       --x11  Sandbox the application using Xpra, Xephyr, Xvfb or Xorg
              security extension.  The sandbox will prevent screenshot and
              keylogger applications started inside the sandbox from accessing
              clients running outside the sandbox.  Firejail will try Xpra
              first, and if Xpra is not installed on the system, it will try
              to find Xephyr.  If all fails, Firejail will not attempt to use
              Xvfb or X11 security extension.

              Xpra, Xephyr and Xvfb modes require a network namespace to be
              instantiated in order to disable X11 abstract Unix socket. If
              this is not possible, the user can disable the abstract socket
              by adding "-nolisten local" on Xorg command line at system
              level.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11 --net=eth0 firefox


       --x11=none
              Blacklist /tmp/.X11-unix directory, ${HOME}/.Xauthority and the
              file specified in ${XAUTHORITY} environment variable.  Remove
              DISPLAY and XAUTHORITY environment variables.  Stop with error
              message if X11 abstract socket will be accessible in jail.


       --x11=xephyr
              Start Xephyr and attach the sandbox to this server.  Xephyr is a
              display server implementing the X11 display server protocol.  A
              network namespace needs to be instantiated in order to deny
              access to X11 abstract Unix domain socket.

              Xephyr runs in a window just like any other X11 application. The
              default window size is 800x600.  This can be modified in
              /etc/firejail/firejail.config file.

              The recommended way to use this feature is to run a window
              manager inside the sandbox.  A security profile for OpenBox is
              provided.

              Xephyr is developed by Xorg project. On Debian platforms it is
              installed with the command sudo apt-get install xserver-xephyr.
              This feature is not available when running as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xephyr --net=eth0 openbox


       --x11=xorg
              Sandbox the application using the untrusted mode implemented by
              X11 security extension.  The extension is available in Xorg
              package and it is installed by default on most Linux
              distributions. It provides support for a simple
              trusted/untrusted connection model. Untrusted clients are
              restricted in certain ways to prevent them from reading window
              contents of other clients, stealing input events, etc.

              The untrusted mode has several limitations. A lot of regular
              programs  assume they are a trusted X11 clients and will crash
              or lock up when run in untrusted mode. Chromium browser and
              xterm are two examples.  Firefox and transmission-gtk seem to be
              working fine.  A network namespace is not required for this
              option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xorg firefox


       --x11=xpra
              Start Xpra (https://xpra.org) and attach the sandbox to this
              server.  Xpra is a persistent remote display server and client
              for forwarding X11 applications and desktop screens.  A network
              namespace needs to be instantiated in order to deny access to
              X11 abstract Unix domain socket.

              On Debian platforms Xpra is installed with the command sudo apt-
              get install xpra.  This feature is not available when running as
              root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xpra --net=eth0 firefox



       --x11=xvfb
              Start Xvfb X11 server and attach the sandbox to this server.
              Xvfb, short for X virtual framebuffer, performs all graphical
              operations in memory without showing any screen output. Xvfb is
              mainly used for remote access and software testing on headless
              servers.

              On Debian platforms Xvfb is installed with the command sudo apt-
              get install xvfb.  This feature is not available when running as
              root.

              Example: remote VNC access

              On the server we start a sandbox using Xvfb and openbox window
              manager. The default size of Xvfb screen is 800x600 - it can be
              changed in /etc/firejail/firejail.config (xvfb-screen). Some
              sort of networking (--net) is required in order to isolate the
              abstract sockets used by other X servers.

              $ firejail --net=none --x11=xvfb openbox

              *** Attaching to Xvfb display 792 ***

              Reading profile /etc/firejail/openbox.profile
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/disable-common.inc
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/disable-common.local
              Parent pid 5400, child pid 5401

              On the server we also start a VNC server and attach it to the
              display handled by our Xvfb server (792).

              $ x11vnc -display :792

              On the client machine we start a VNC viewer and use it to
              connect to our server:

              $ vncviewer


       --xephyr-screen=WIDTHxHEIGHT
              Set screen size for --x11=xephyr. The setting will overwrite the
              default set in /etc/firejail/firejail.config for the current
              sandbox. Run xrandr to get a list of supported resolutions on
              your computer.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --x11=xephyr --xephyr-screen=640x480
              firefox


APPARMOR
       AppArmor support is disabled by default at compile time. Use --enable-
       apparmor configuration option to enable it:

              $ ./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-apparmor

       During software install, a generic AppArmor profile file, firejail-
       default, is placed in /etc/apparmor.d directory. The local
       customizations must be placed in /etc/apparmor.d/local/firejail-local.
       The profile needs to be loaded into the kernel by reloading
       apparmor.service, rebooting the system or running the following command
       as root:

              # apparmor_parser -r /etc/apparmor.d/firejail-default

       The installed profile is supplemental for main firejail functions and
       among other things does the following:

              - Disable ptrace. With ptrace it is possible to inspect and
              hijack running programs. Usually this is needed only for
              debugging. You should have no problems running Chromium or
              Firefox. This feature is available only on Ubuntu kernels.

              - Whitelist write access to several files under /run, /proc and
              /sys.

              - Allow running programs only from well-known system paths, such
              as /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin etc. Those paths are available as read-
              only. Running programs and scripts from user home or other
              directories writable by the user is not allowed.

              - Prevent using non-standard network sockets. Only unix, inet,
              inet6, netlink, raw and packet are allowed.

              - Deny access to known sensitive paths like .snapshots.


       To enable AppArmor confinement on top of your current Firejail security
       features, pass --apparmor flag to Firejail command line. You can also
       include apparmor command in a Firejail profile file. Example:

              $ firejail --apparmor firefox


AUDIT
       Audit feature allows the user to point out gaps in security profiles.
       The implementation replaces the program to be sandboxed with a test
       program. By default, we use faudit program distributed with Firejail. A
       custom test program can also be supplied by the user. Examples:

       Running the default audit program:
            $ firejail --audit transmission-gtk

       Running a custom audit program:
            $ firejail --audit=~/sandbox-test transmission-gtk

       In the examples above, the sandbox configures transmission-gtk profile
       and starts the test program. The real program, transmission-gtk, will
       not be started.

       Limitations: audit feature is not implemented for --x11 commands.


DESKTOP INTEGRATION
       A symbolic link to /usr/bin/firejail under the name of a program, will
       start the program in Firejail sandbox.  The symbolic link should be
       placed in the first $PATH position. On most systems, a good place is
       /usr/local/bin directory. Example:

              Make a firefox symlink to /usr/bin/firejail:

              $ sudo ln -s /usr/bin/firejail /usr/local/bin/firefox

              Verify $PATH

              $ which -a firefox
              /usr/local/bin/firefox
              /usr/bin/firefox

              Starting firefox in this moment, automatically invokes âfirejail
              firefoxâ.

       This works for clicking on desktop environment icons, menus etc. Use
       "firejail --tree" to verify the program is sandboxed.

              $ firejail --tree
              1189:netblue:firejail firefox
                1190:netblue:firejail firefox
                  1220:netblue:/bin/sh -c "/usr/lib/firefox/firefox"
                    1221:netblue:/usr/lib/firefox/firefox

       We provide a tool that automates all this integration, please see
       firecfg(1) for more details.


EXAMPLES
       firejail
              Sandbox a regular /bin/bash session.

       firejail firefox
              Start Mozilla Firefox.

       firejail --debug firefox
              Debug Firefox sandbox.

       firejail --private firefox
              Start Firefox with a new, empty home directory.

       firejail --net=none vlc
              Start VLC in an unconnected network namespace.

       firejail --net=eth0 firefox
              Start Firefox in a new network namespace. An IP address is
              assigned automatically.

       firejail --net=br0 --ip=10.10.20.5 --net=br1 --net=br2
              Start a /bin/bash session in a new network namespace and connect
              it to br0, br1, and br2 host bridge devices. IP addresses are
              assigned automatically for the interfaces connected to br1 and
              b2

       firejail --list
              List all sandboxed processes.


FILE GLOBBING
       Globbing is the operation that expands a wildcard pattern into the list
       of pathnames matching the pattern. Matching is defined by:

              - '?' matches any character
              - '*' matches any string
              - '[' denotes a range of characters

       The globbing feature is implemented using glibc glob command. For more
       information on the wildcard syntax see man 7 glob.


       The following command line options are supported: --blacklist,
       --private-bin, --noexec, --read-only, --read-write, and --tmpfs.


       Examples:

              $ firejail --private-bin=sh,bash,python*
              $ firejail --blacklist=~/dir[1234]
              $ firejail --read-only=~/dir[1-4]


FILE TRANSFER
       These features allow the user to inspect the filesystem container of an
       existing sandbox and transfer files between the container and the host
       filesystem.


       --get=name|pid filename
              Retrieve the container file and store it on the host in the
              current working directory.  The container is specified by name
              or PID.


       --ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
              List container files. The container is specified by name or PID.


       --put=name|pid src-filename dest-filename
              Put src-filename in sandbox container.  The container is
              specified by name or PID.


       Examples:

              $ firejail --name=mybrowser --private firefox

              $ firejail --ls=mybrowser ~/Downloads
              drwxr-xr-x netblue  netblue         4096 .
              drwxr-xr-x netblue  netblue         4096 ..
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue         7847 x11-x305.png
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue         6800 x11-x642.png
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue        34139 xpra-clipboard.png

              $ firejail --get=mybrowser ~/Downloads/xpra-clipboard.png

              $ firejail --put=mybrowser xpra-clipboard.png ~/Downloads/xpra-
              clipboard.png


MONITORING
       Option --list prints a list of all sandboxes. The format for each
       process entry is as follows:

            PID:USER:Sandbox Name:Command

       Option --tree prints the tree of processes running in the sandbox. The
       format for each process entry is as follows:

            PID:USER:Sandbox Name:Command

       Option --top is similar to the UNIX top command, however it applies
       only to sandboxes.

       Option --netstats prints network statistics for active sandboxes
       installing new network namespaces.


       Listed below are the available fields (columns) in alphabetical order
       for --top and --netstats options:


       Command
              Command used to start the sandbox.

       CPU%   CPU usage, the sandbox share of the elapsed CPU time since the
              last screen update

       PID    Unique process ID for the task controlling the sandbox.

       Prcs   Number of processes running in sandbox, including the
              controlling process.

       RES    Resident Memory Size (KiB), sandbox non-swapped physical memory.
              It is a sum of the RES values for all processes running in the
              sandbox.

       RX(KB/s)
              Network receive speed.

       Sandbox Name
              The name of the sandbox, if any.

       SHR    Shared Memory Size (KiB), it reflects memory shared with other
              processes. It is a sum of the SHR values for all processes
              running in the sandbox, including the controlling process.

       TX(KB/s)
              Network transmit speed.

       Uptime Sandbox running time in hours:minutes:seconds format.

       USER   The owner of the sandbox.


SECURITY PROFILES
       Several command line options can be passed to the program using profile
       files. Firejail chooses the profile file as follows:

       1. If a profile file is provided by the user with --profile=FILE
       option, the profile FILE is loaded. If a profile name is given, it is
       searched for first in the ~/.config/firejail directory and if not found
       then in  /etc/firejail directory. Profile names do not include the
       .profile suffix. If there is a file with the same name as the given
       profile name, it will be used instead of doing the profile search. To
       force a profile search, prefix the profile name with a colon (:), eg.
       --profile=:PROFILE_NAME.  Example:

              $ firejail --profile=/home/netblue/icecat.profile icecat
              Reading profile /home/netblue/icecat.profile
              [...]


              $ firejail --profile=icecat icecat-wrapper.sh
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/icecat.profile
              [...]

       2. If a profile file with the same name as the application is present
       in ~/.config/firejail directory or in /etc/firejail, the profile is
       loaded. ~/.config/firejail takes precedence over /etc/firejail.
       Example:

              $ firejail icecat
              Command name #icecat#
              Found icecat profile in /home/netblue/.config/firejail directory
              Reading profile /home/netblue/.config/firejail/icecat.profile
              [...]

       3. Use default.profile file if the sandbox is started by a regular
       user, or server.profile file if the sandbox is started by root.
       Firejail looks for these files in ~/.config/firejail directory,
       followed by /etc/firejail directory.  To disable default profile
       loading, use --noprofile command option. Example:

              $ firejail
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

              $ firejail --noprofile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

       See man 5 firejail-profile for profile file syntax information.


RESTRICTED SHELL
       To configure a restricted shell, replace /bin/bash with
       /usr/bin/firejail in /etc/passwd file for each user that needs to be
       restricted. Alternatively, you can specify /usr/bin/firejail  in
       adduser command:

       adduser --shell /usr/bin/firejail username

       Additional arguments passed to firejail executable upon login are
       declared in /etc/firejail/login.users file.


TRAFFIC SHAPING
       Network bandwidth is an expensive resource shared among all sandboxes
       running on a system.  Traffic shaping allows the user to increase
       network performance by controlling the amount of data that flows into
       and out of the sandboxes.

       Firejail implements a simple rate-limiting shaper based on Linux
       command tc.  The shaper works at sandbox level, and can be used only
       for sandboxes configured with new network namespaces.

       Set rate-limits:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid set network download upload

       Clear rate-limits:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid clear network

       Status:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid status

       where:
            name - sandbox name
            pid - sandbox pid
            network - network interface as used by --net option
            download - download speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)
            upload - upload speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)

       Example:
            $ firejail --name=mybrowser --net=eth0 firefox &
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser set eth0 80 20
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser status
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser clear eth0


LICENSE
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
       Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your
       option) any later version.

       Homepage: https://firejail.wordpress.com

SEE ALSO
       firemon(1), firecfg(1), firejail-profile(5), firejail-login(5)
       firejail-users(5)



0.9.62                             Jan 2020                        FIREJAIL(1)