firejail

FIREJAIL(1)                    firejail man page                   FIREJAIL(1)



NAME
       Firejail - Linux namespaces sandbox program

SYNOPSIS
       Start a sandbox:

              firejail [OPTIONS] [program and arguments]

       File transfer from an existing sandbox

              firejail {--ls | --get | --put} dir_or_filename

       Network traffic shaping for an existing sandbox:

              firejail --bandwidth={name|pid} bandwidth-command

       Monitoring:

              firejail {--list | --netstats | --top | --tree}

       Miscellaneous:

              firejail {-? | --debug-caps | --debug-errnos | --debug-syscalls
              | --debug-protocols | --help | --version}

DESCRIPTION
       Firejail is a SUID sandbox program that reduces the risk of security
       breaches by restricting the running environment of untrusted
       applications using Linux namespaces, seccomp-bpf and Linux
       capabilities.  It allows a process and all its descendants to have
       their own private view of the globally shared kernel resources, such as
       the network stack, process table, mount table.  Firejail can work in a
       SELinux or AppArmor environment, and it is integrated with Linux
       Control Groups.

       Written in C with virtually no dependencies, the software runs on any
       Linux computer with a 3.x kernel version or newer.  It can sandbox any
       type of processes: servers, graphical applications, and even user login
       sessions.

       Firejail allows the user to manage application security using security
       profiles.  Each profile defines a set of permissions for a specific
       application or group of applications. The software includes security
       profiles for a number of more common Linux programs, such as Mozilla
       Firefox, Chromium, VLC, Transmission etc.


USAGE
       Without any options, the sandbox consists of a filesystem build in a
       new mount namespace, and new PID and UTS namespaces. IPC, network and
       user namespaces can be added using the command line options. The
       default Firejail filesystem is based on the host filesystem with the
       main system directories mounted read-only. These directories are /etc,
       /var, /usr, /bin, /sbin, /lib, /lib32, /libx32 and /lib64. Only /home
       and /tmp are writable.

       As it starts up, Firejail tries to find a security profile based on the
       name of the application.  If an appropriate profile is not found,
       Firejail will use a default profile.  The default profile is quite
       restrictive. In case the application doesn't work, use --noprofile
       option to disable it. For more information, please see SECURITY
       PROFILES section below.

       If a program argument is not specified, Firejail starts /bin/bash
       shell.  Examples:

       $ firejail [OPTIONS]                # starting a /bin/bash shell

       $ firejail [OPTIONS] firefox        # starting Mozilla Firefox

       # sudo firejail [OPTIONS] /etc/init.d/nginx start


OPTIONS
       --     Signal the end of options and disables further option
              processing.

       --allow-debuggers
              Allow tools such as strace and gdb inside the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail  --allow-debuggers
              --profile=/etc/firejail/firefox.profile strace -f firefox

       --allusers
              All user home directories are visible inside the sandbox. By
              default, only current user home directory is visible.

              Example:
              $ firejail --allusers

       --apparmor
              Enable AppArmor confinement. For more information, please see
              APPARMOR section below.

       --appimage
              Sandbox an AppImage (http://appimage.org/) application.

              Example:
              $ firejail --appimage krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
              $ firejail --appimage --private krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
              $ firejail --appimage --net=none --x11 krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage

       --audit
              Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.

       --audit=test-program
              Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.

       --bandwidth=name|pid
              Set bandwidth limits for the sandbox identified by name or PID,
              see TRAFFIC SHAPING section for more details.

       --bind=filename1,filename2
              Mount-bind filename1 on top of filename2. This option is only
              available when running as root.

              Example:
              # firejail --bind=/config/etc/passwd,/etc/passwd

       --blacklist=dirname_or_filename
              Blacklist directory or file.

              Example:
              $ firejail --blacklist=/sbin --blacklist=/usr/sbin
              $ firejail --blacklist=~/.mozilla
              $ firejail "--blacklist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"
              $ firejail --blacklist=/home/username/My\ Virtual\ Machines

       -c     Execute command and exit.

       --caps Linux capabilities is a kernel feature designed to split up the
              root privilege into a set of distinct privileges.  These
              privileges can be enabled or disabled independently, thus
              restricting what a process running as root can do in the system.

              By default root programs run with all capabilities enabled.
              --caps option disables the following capabilities:
              CAP_SYS_MODULE, CAP_SYS_RAWIO, CAP_SYS_BOOT, CAP_SYS_NICE,
              CAP_SYS_TTY_CONFIG, CAP_SYSLOG, CAP_MKNOD, CAP_SYS_ADMIN.  The
              filter is applied to all processes started in the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --caps /etc/init.d/nginx start


       --caps.drop=all
              Drop all capabilities for the processes running in the sandbox.
              This option is recommended for running GUI programs or any other
              program that doesn't require root privileges. It is a must-have
              option for sandboxing untrusted programs installed from
              unofficial sources - such as games, Java programs, etc.

              Example:
              $ firejail --caps.drop=all warzone2100


       --caps.drop=capability,capability,capability
              Define a custom blacklist Linux capabilities filter.

              Example:
              $ firejail --caps.keep=net_broadcast,net_admin,net_raw


       --caps.keep=capability,capability,capability
              Define a custom whitelist Linux capabilities filter.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --caps.keep=chown,net_bind_service,setgid,\
              setuid /etc/init.d/nginx start


       --caps.print=name|pid
              Print the caps filter for the sandbox identified by name or by
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --caps.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --caps.print=3272


       --cgroup=tasks-file
              Place the sandbox in the specified control group. tasks-file is
              the full path of cgroup tasks file.

              Example:
              # firejail --cgroup=/sys/fs/cgroup/g1/tasks


       --chroot=dirname
              Chroot the sandbox into a root filesystem. Unlike the regular
              filesystem container, the system directories are mounted read-
              write. If the sandbox is started as a regular user, default
              seccomp and capabilities filters are enabled. This option is not
              available on Grsecurity systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --chroot=/media/ubuntu warzone2100


       --cpu=cpu-number,cpu-number,cpu-number
              Set CPU affinity.

              Example:
              $ firejail --cpu=0,1 handbrake


       --cpu.print=name|pid
              Print the CPU cores in use by the sandbox identified by name or
              by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --cpu.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --cpu.print=3272


       --csh  Use /bin/csh as default user shell.

              Example:
              $ firejail --csh

       --debug
              Print debug messages.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug firefox


       --debug-blacklists
              Debug blacklisting.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-blacklists firefox


       --debug-caps
              Print all recognized capabilities in the current Firejail
              software build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-caps

       --debug-check-filename
              Debug filename checking.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-check-filename firefox


       --debug-errnos
              Print all recognized error numbers in the current Firejail
              software build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-errnos

       --debug-protocols
              Print all recognized protocols in the current Firejail software
              build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-protocols

       --debug-syscalls
              Print all recognized system calls in the current Firejail
              software build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-syscalls

       --debug-whitelists
              Debug whitelisting.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-whitelists firefox


       --defaultgw=address
              Use this address as default gateway in the new network
              namespace.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --defaultgw=10.10.20.1 firefox


       --dns=address
              Set a DNS server for the sandbox. Up to three DNS servers can be
              defined.  Use this option if you don't trust the DNS setup on
              your network.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dns=8.8.8.8 --dns=8.8.4.4 firefox


       --dns.print=name|pid
              Print DNS configuration for a sandbox identified by name or by
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --dns.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --dns.print=3272


       --env=name=value
              Set environment variable in the new sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --env=LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/test/lib


       --force
              By default, if Firejail is started in an existing sandbox, it
              will run the program in a bash shell.  This option disables this
              behavior, and attempts to start Firejail in the existing
              sandbox.  There could be lots of reasons for it to fail, for
              example if the existing sandbox disables admin capabilities,
              SUID binaries, or if it runs seccomp.


       --fs.print=name|print
              Print the filesystem log for the sandbox identified by name or
              by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --fs.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --fs.print=3272


       --get=name|pid filename
              Get a file from sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.


       -?, --help
              Print options end exit.



       --hostname=name
              Set sandbox hostname.

              Example:
              $ firejail --hostname=officepc firefox


       --ignore=command
              Ignore command in profile file.

              Example:
              $ firejail --ignore=shell --ignore=seccomp firefox


       --interface=interface
              Move interface in a new network namespace. Up to four
              --interface options can be specified.  Note: wlan devices are
              not supported for this option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --interface=eth1 --interface=eth0.vlan100


       --ip=address
              Assign IP addresses to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option. A default gateway is assigned by default.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=10.10.20.56 firefox


       --ip=none
              No IP address and no default gateway are configured for the last
              interface defined by a --net option. Use this option in case you
              intend to start an external DHCP client in the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=none

              If the corresponding interface doesn't have an IP address
              configured, this option is enabled by default.


       --ip6=address
              Assign IPv6 addresses to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip6=2001:0db8:0:f101::1/64 firefox

              Note: you don't need this option if you obtain your ip6 address
              from router via SLAAC (your ip6 address and default route will
              be configured by kernel automatically).


       --iprange=address,address
              Assign an IP address in the provided range to the last network
              interface defined by a --net option. A default gateway is
              assigned by default.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --iprange=192.168.1.100,192.168.1.150


       --ipc-namespace
              Enable  a new IPC namespace if the sandbox was started as a
              regular user. IPC namespace is enabled by default for sandboxes
              started as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --ipc-namespace firefox

       --join=name|pid
              Join the sandbox identified by name or by PID. By default a
              /bin/bash shell is started after joining the sandbox.  If a
              program is specified, the program is run in the sandbox. If
              --join command is issued as a regular user, all security filters
              are configured for the new process the same they are configured
              in the sandbox.  If --join command is issued as root, the
              security filters, cgroups and cpus configurations are not
              applied to the process joining the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --join=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --join=3272


       --join-filesystem=name|pid
              Join the mount namespace of the sandbox identified by name or
              PID. By default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the
              sandbox.  If a program is specified, the program is run in the
              sandbox. This command is available only to root user.  Security
              filters, cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to the
              process joining the sandbox.


       --join-network=name|PID
              Join the network namespace of the sandbox identified by name. By
              default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the sandbox.
              If a program is specified, the program is run in the sandbox.
              This command is available only to root user.  Security filters,
              cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to the process
              joining the sandbox. Example:

              # start firefox
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --name=browser firefox &

              # change netfilter configuration
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser bash -c "cat
              /etc/firejail/nolocal.net | /sbin/iptables-restore"

              # verify netfilter configuration
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser /sbin/iptables -vL

              # verify  IP addresses
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser ip addr
              Switching to pid 1932, the first child process inside the
              sandbox
              1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state
              UNKNOWN group default
                  link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
                  inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
                  inet6 ::1/128 scope host
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
              2: eth0-1931: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc
              noqueue state UNKNOWN group default
                  link/ether 76:58:14:42:78:e4 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
                  inet 192.168.1.158/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global
              eth0-1931
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
                  inet6 fe80::7458:14ff:fe42:78e4/64 scope link
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever


       --join-or-start=name
              Join the sandbox identified by name or start a new one.  Same as
              "firejail --join=name" if sandbox with specified name exists,
              otherwise same as "firejail --name=name ..."
              Note that in contrary to other join options there is respective
              profile option.


       --ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
              List files in sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.


       --list List all sandboxes, see MONITORING section for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              7015:netblue:firejail firefox
              7056:netblue:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
              7064:netblue:firejail --noroot xterm
              $

       --mac=address
              Assign MAC addresses to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --mac=00:11:22:33:44:55 firefox


       --mtu=number
              Assign a MTU value to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --mtu=1492


       --name=name
              Set sandbox name. Several options, such as --join and
              --shutdown, can use this name to identify a sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mybrowser firefox


       --net=bridge_interface
              Enable a new network namespace and connect it to this bridge
              interface.  Unless specified with option --ip and --defaultgw,
              an IP address and a default gateway will be assigned
              automatically to the sandbox. The IP address is verified using
              ARP before assignment. The address configured as default gateway
              is the bridge device IP address. Up to four --net bridge devices
              can be defined. Mixing bridge and macvlan devices is allowed.

              Example:
              $ sudo brctl addbr br0
              $ sudo ifconfig br0 10.10.20.1/24
              $ sudo brctl addbr br1
              $ sudo ifconfig br1 10.10.30.1/24
              $ firejail --net=br0 --net=br1


       --net=ethernet_interface
              Enable a new network namespace and connect it to this ethernet
              interface using the standard Linux macvlan driver. Unless
              specified with option --ip and --defaultgw, an IP address and a
              default gateway will be assigned automatically to the sandbox.
              The IP address is verified using ARP before assignment. The
              address configured as default gateway is the default gateway of
              the host. Up to four --net devices can be defined. Mixing bridge
              and macvlan devices is allowed.  Note: wlan devices are not
              supported for this option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=192.168.1.80 --dns=8.8.8.8 firefox


       --net=none
              Enable a new, unconnected network namespace. The only interface
              available in the new namespace is a new loopback interface (lo).
              Use this option to deny network access to programs that don't
              really need network access.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=none vlc


       --netfilter
              Enable a default client network filter in the new network
              namespace.  New network namespaces are created using --net
              option. If a new network namespaces is not created, --netfilter
              option does nothing.  The default filter is as follows:

              *filter
              :INPUT DROP [0:0]
              :FORWARD DROP [0:0]
              :OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
              -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
              # allow ping
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type destination-unreachable -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type time-exceeded -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
              # drop STUN (WebRTC) requests
              -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3478 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3479 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3478 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3479 -j DROP
              COMMIT

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --netfilter firefox

       --netfilter=filename
              Enable the network filter specified by filename in the new
              network namespace. The filter file format is the format of
              iptables-save and iptable-restore commands.  New network
              namespaces are created using --net option. If a new network
              namespaces is not created, --netfilter option does nothing.

              The following filters are available in /etc/firejail directory:

              webserver.net is a webserver filter that allows access only to
              TCP ports 80 and 443.  Example:

              $ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/webserver.net --net=eth0 \
              /etc/init.d/apache2 start

              nolocal.net is a client filter that disable access to local
              network. Example:

              $ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/nolocal.net \
              --net=eth0 firefox

       --netfilter6=filename
              Enable the IPv6 network filter specified by filename in the new
              network namespace. The filter file format is the format of
              ip6tables-save and ip6table-restore commands.  New network
              namespaces are created using --net option. If a new network
              namespaces is not created, --netfilter6 option does nothing.

       --netstats
              Monitor network namespace statistics, see MONITORING section for
              more details.

              Example:

              $ firejail --netstats
              PID  User    RX(KB/s) TX(KB/s) Command
              1294 netblue 53.355   1.473    firejail --net=eth0 firefox
              7383 netblue 9.045    0.112    firejail --net=eth0 transmission


       --nice=value
              Set nice value for all processes running inside the sandbox.
              Only root may specify a negative value.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nice=2 firefox


       --no3d Disable 3D hardware acceleration.

              Example:
              $ firejail --no3d firefox


       --noblacklist=dirname_or_filename
              Disable blacklist for this directory or file.

              Example:
              $ firejail
              $ nc dict.org 2628
              bash: /bin/nc: Permission denied
              $ exit

              $ firejail --noblacklist=/bin/nc
              $ nc dict.org 2628
              220 pan.alephnull.com dictd 1.12.1/rf on Linux 3.14-1-amd64

       --noexec=dirname_or_filename
              Remount directory or file noexec, nodev and nosuid.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noexec=/tmp

              /etc and /var are noexec by default if the sandbox was started
              as a regular user. If there are more than one mount operation on
              the path of the file or directory, noexec should be applied to
              the last one. Always check if the change took effect inside the
              sandbox.


       --nogroups
              Disable supplementary groups. Without this option, supplementary
              groups are enabled for the user starting the sandbox. For root
              user supplementary groups are always disabled.

              Example:
              $ id
              uid=1000(netblue) gid=1000(netblue)
              groups=1000(netblue),24(cdrom),25(floppy),27(sudo),29(audio)
              $ firejail --nogroups
              Parent pid 8704, child pid 8705
              Child process initialized
              $ id
              uid=1000(netblue) gid=1000(netblue) groups=1000(netblue)
              $


       --noprofile
              Do not use a security profile.

              Example:
              $ firejail
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

              $ firejail --noprofile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]


       --noroot
              Install a user namespace with a single user - the current user.
              root user does not exist in the new namespace. This option
              requires a Linux kernel version 3.8 or newer. The option is not
              supported for --chroot and --overlay configurations, or for
              sandboxes started as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noroot
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              $ ping google.com
              ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted
              $


       --nonewprivs
              Sets the NO_NEW_PRIVS prctl.  This ensures that child processes
              cannot acquire new privileges using execve(2);  in particular,
              this means that calling a suid binary (or one with file
              capabilities) does not result in an increase of privilege. This
              option is enabled by default if seccomp filter is activated.


       --nosound
              Disable sound system.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nosound firefox


       --output=logfile
              stdout logging and log rotation. Copy stdout and stderr to
              logfile, and keep the size of the file under 500KB using log
              rotation. Five files with prefixes .1 to .5 are used in
              rotation.

              Example:
              $ firejail --output=sandboxlog /bin/bash
              [...]
              $ ls -l sandboxlog*
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 333890 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.1
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.2
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.3
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.4
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.5


       --overlay
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem.
              Unlike the regular filesystem container, the system directories
              are mounted read-write. All filesystem modifications go into the
              overlay.  The overlay is stored in $HOME/.firejail/<PID>
              directory.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.  OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel
              version 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity
              systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay firefox


       --overlay-named=name
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem.
              Unlike the regular filesystem container, the system directories
              are mounted read-write. All filesystem modifications go into the
              overlay.  The overlay is stored in $HOME/.firejail/<NAME>
              directory. The created overlay can be reused between multiple
              sessions.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.  OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel
              version 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity
              systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-named=jail1 firefox


       --overlay-tmpfs
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem. All
              filesystem modifications go into the overlay, and are discarded
              when the sandbox is closed.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.  OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel
              version 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity
              systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-tmpfs firefox


       --overlay-clean
              Clean all overlays stored in $HOME/.firejail directory. Overlays
              created with --overlay-path=path outside $HOME/.firejail will
              not be deleted.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-clean


       --private
              Mount new /root and /home/user directories in temporary
              filesystems. All modifications are discarded when the sandbox is
              closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private firefox

       --private=directory
              Use directory as user home.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private=/home/netblue/firefox-home firefox


       --private-home=file,directory
              Build a new user home in a temporary filesystem, and copy the
              files and directories in the list in the new home. All
              modifications are discarded when the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-home=.mozilla firefox


       --private-bin=file,file
              Build a new /bin in a temporary filesystem, and copy the
              programs in the list.  If no listed file is found, /bin
              directory will be empty.  The same directory is also bind-
              mounted over /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin and /usr/local/bin.  All
              modifications are discarded when the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-bin=bash,sed,ls,cat
              Parent pid 20841, child pid 20842
              Child process initialized
              $ ls /bin
              bash  cat  ls  sed


       --private-dev
              Create a new /dev directory. Only dri, null, full, zero, tty,
              pts, ptmx, random, snd, urandom, log and shm devices are
              available.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-dev
              Parent pid 9887, child pid 9888
              Child process initialized
              $ ls /dev
              dri  full  log  null  ptmx  pts  random  shm  snd  tty  urandom
              zero
              $

       --private-etc=file,directory
              Build a new /etc in a temporary filesystem, and copy the files
              and directories in the list.  If no listed file is found, /etc
              directory will be empty.  All modifications are discarded when
              the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-etc=group,hostname,localtime, \
              nsswitch.conf,passwd,resolv.conf


       --private-tmp
              Mount an empty temporary filesystem on top of /tmp directory.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-tmp


       --profile=filename
              Load a custom security profile from filename. For filename use
              an absolute path or a path relative to the current path.  For
              more information, see SECURITY PROFILES section below.

              Example:
              $ firejail --profile=myprofile


       --profile-path=directory
              Use this directory to look for profile files. Use an absolute
              path or a path in the home directory starting with ~/.  For more
              information, see SECURITY PROFILES section below and RELOCATING
              PROFILE FILES in man 5 firejail-profile.

              Example:
              $ firejail --profile-path=~/myprofiles
              $ firejail --profile-path=/home/netblue/myprofiles


       --protocol=protocol,protocol,protocol
              Enable protocol filter. The filter is based on seccomp and
              checks the first argument to socket system call.  Recognized
              values: unix, inet, inet6, netlink and packet. This option is
              not supported for i386 architecture.

              Example:
              $ firejail --protocol=unix,inet,inet6 firefox

       --protocol.print=name|pid
              Print the protocol filter for the sandbox identified by name or
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mybrowser firefox &
              $ firejail --protocol.print=mybrowser
              unix,inet,inet6,netlink

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --protocol.print=3272
              unix,inet,inet6,netlink

       --put=name|pid src-filename dest-filename
              Put a file in sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.

       --quiet
              Turn off Firejail's output.

       --read-only=dirname_or_filename
              Set directory or file read-only.

              Example:
              $ firejail --read-only=~/.mozilla firefox

              A short note about mixing --whitelist and --read-only options.
              Whitelisted directories should be made read-only independently.
              Making a parent directory read-only, will not make the whitelist
              read-only. Example:

              $ firejail --whitelist=~/work --read-only=~ --read-only=~/work


       --read-write=dirname_or_filename
              Set directory or file read-write. Only files or directories
              belonging to the current user are allowed for this operation.
              Example:

              $ mkdir ~/test
              $ touch ~/test/a
              $ firejail --read-only=~/test --read-write=~/test/a



       --rlimit-fsize=number
              Set the maximum file size that can be created by a process.

       --rlimit-nofile=number
              Set the maximum number of files that can be opened by a process.

       --rlimit-nproc=number
              Set the maximum number of processes that can be created for the
              real user ID of the calling process.

       --rlimit-sigpending=number
              Set the maximum number of pending signals for a process.


       --rmenv=name
              Remove environment variable in the new sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --rmenv=DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS


       --scan ARP-scan all the networks from inside a network namespace.  This
              makes it possible to detect macvlan kernel device drivers
              running on the current host.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --scan

       --seccomp
              Enable seccomp filter and blacklist the syscalls in the default
              list. The default list is as follows: mount, umount2, ptrace,
              kexec_load, kexec_file_load, name_to_handle_at,
              open_by_handle_at, create_module, init_module, finit_module,
              delete_module, iopl, ioperm, ioprio_set, swapon, swapoff,
              syslog, process_vm_readv, process_vm_writev, sysfs,_sysctl,
              adjtimex, clock_adjtime, lookup_dcookie, perf_event_open,
              fanotify_init, kcmp, add_key, request_key, keyctl, uselib, acct,
              modify_ldt, pivot_root, io_setup, io_destroy, io_getevents,
              io_submit, io_cancel, remap_file_pages, mbind, get_mempolicy,
              set_mempolicy, migrate_pages, move_pages, vmsplice, chroot,
              tuxcall, reboot, mfsservctl and get_kernel_syms.

              System architecture is not strictly imposed. The filter is
              applied at run time only if the correct architecture was
              detected. For the case of I386 and AMD64 both 32-bit and 64-bit
              filters are installed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp

       --seccomp=syscall,syscall,syscall
              Enable seccomp filter, blacklist the default list and the
              syscalls specified by the command.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp=utime,utimensat,utimes firefox

       --seccomp.drop=syscall,syscall,syscall
              Enable seccomp filter, and blacklist the syscalls specified by
              the command.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp.drop=utime,utimensat,utimes

       --seccomp.keep=syscall,syscall,syscall
              Enable seccomp filter, and whitelist the syscalls specified by
              the command.

              Example:
              $ firejail --shell=none --seccomp.keep=poll,select,[...]
              transmission-gtk

       --seccomp.<errno>=syscall,syscall,syscall
              Enable seccomp filter, and return errno for the syscalls
              specified by the command.

              Example: a Bash shell where deleting files is disabled

              $ firejail --seccomp.eperm=unlinkat
              Parent pid 10662, child pid 10663
              Child process initialized
              $ touch testfile
              $ rm testfile
              rm: cannot remove `testfile': Operation not permitted


       --seccomp.print=name|PID
              Print the seccomp filter for the sandbox identified by name or
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=browser firefox &
              $ firejail --seccomp.print=browser
              SECCOMP Filter:
                VALIDATE_ARCHITECTURE
                EXAMINE_SYSCALL
                BLACKLIST 165 mount
                BLACKLIST 166 umount2
                BLACKLIST 101 ptrace
                BLACKLIST 246 kexec_load
                BLACKLIST 304 open_by_handle_at
                BLACKLIST 175 init_module
                BLACKLIST 176 delete_module
                BLACKLIST 172 iopl
                BLACKLIST 173 ioperm
                BLACKLIST 167 swapon
                BLACKLIST 168 swapoff
                BLACKLIST 103 syslog
                BLACKLIST 310 process_vm_readv
                BLACKLIST 311 process_vm_writev
                BLACKLIST 133 mknod
                BLACKLIST 139 sysfs
                BLACKLIST 156 _sysctl
                BLACKLIST 159 adjtimex
                BLACKLIST 305 clock_adjtime
                BLACKLIST 212 lookup_dcookie
                BLACKLIST 298 perf_event_open
                BLACKLIST 300 fanotify_init
                RETURN_ALLOW
              $

       --shell=none
              Run the program directly, without a user shell.

              Example:
              $ firejail --shell=none script.sh

       --shell=program
              Set default user shell. Use this shell to run the application
              using -c shell option.  For example "firejail --shell=/bin/dash
              firefox" will start Mozilla Firefox as "/bin/dash -c firefox".
              By default Bash shell (/bin/bash) is used. Options such as --zsh
              and --csh can also set the default shell.

              Example: $firejail --shell=/bin/dash script.sh

       --shutdown=name|PID
              Shutdown the sandbox identified by name or PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --shutdown=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --shutdown=3272

       --tmpfs=dirname
              Mount a tmpfs filesystem on directory dirname. This option is
              available only when running the sandbox as root.

              Example:
              # firejail --tmpfs=/var

       --top  Monitor the most CPU-intensive sandboxes, see MONITORING section
              for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --top

       --trace
              Trace open, access and connect system calls.

              Example:
              $ firejail --trace wget -q www.debian.org
              Parent pid 11793, child pid 11794
              Child process initialized
              1:bash:open /dev/tty
              1:wget:fopen64 /etc/wgetrc
              1:wget:fopen /etc/hosts
              1:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_DGRAM IPPROTO_IP
              1:wget:connect 8.8.8.8:53
              1:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_STREAM IPPROTO_IP
              1:wget:connect 140.211.15.34:80
              1:wget:fopen64 index.html.1

              parent is shutting down, bye...

       --tracelog
              This option enables auditing blacklisted files and directories.
              A message is sent to syslog in case the file or the directory is
              accessed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tracelog firefox

              Sample messages:
              $ sudo tail -f /var/log/syslog
              [...]
              Dec  3 11:43:25 debian firejail[70]: blacklist violation -
              sandbox 26370, exe firefox, syscall open64, path /etc/shadow
              Dec  3 11:46:17 debian firejail[70]: blacklist violation -
              sandbox 26370, exe firefox, syscall opendir, path /boot
              [...]

       --tree Print a tree of all sandboxed processes, see MONITORING section
              for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tree
              11903:netblue:firejail iceweasel
                11904:netblue:iceweasel
                  11957:netblue:/usr/lib/iceweasel/plugin-container
              11969:netblue:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
                11970:netblue:transmission-gtk


       --version
              Print program version and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --version
              firejail version 0.9.27


       --veth-name=name
              Use this name for the interface connected to the bridge for
              --net=bridge_interface commands, instead of the default one.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=br0 --veth-name=if0


       --whitelist=dirname_or_filename
              Whitelist directory or file. A temporary file system is mounted
              on the top directory, and the whitelisted files are mount-binded
              inside. Modifications to whitelisted files are persistent,
              everything else is discarded when the sandbox is closed. The top
              directory could be user home, /dev, /media, /mnt, /opt, /srv,
              /var, and /tmp.

              Symbolic link handling: with the exception of user home, both
              the link and the real file should be in the same top directory.
              For user home, both the link and the real file should be owned
              by the user.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noprofile --whitelist=~/.mozilla
              $ firejail --whitelist=/tmp/.X11-unix --whitelist=/dev/null
              $ firejail "--whitelist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"


       --writable-etc
              Mount /etc directory read-write.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-etc


       --writable-var
              Mount /var directory read-write.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-var



       --x11  Sandbox the application using Xpra, Xephyr or Xorg security
              extension.  The sandbox will prevents screenshot and keylogger
              applications started inside the sandbox from accessing clients
              running outside the sandbox.  Firejail will try first Xpra, and
              if Xpra is not installed on the system, it will try to find
              Xephyr.  If all fails, Firejail will not attempt to use X11
              security extension.

              Xpra and Xephyr modes require a network namespace to be
              instantiated in order to disable X11 abstract Unix socket. If
              this is not possible, the user can disable the abstract socket
              by adding "-nolisten local" on Xorg command line.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11 --net=eth0 firefox


       --x11=none
              Blacklist /tmp/.X11-unix directory, ${HOME}/.Xauthority and the
              file specified in ${XAUTHORITY} environment variable.  Remove
              DISPLAY and XAUTHORITY environment variables.  Stop with error
              message if X11 abstract socket will be accessible in jail.


       --x11=xephyr
              Start Xephyr and attach the sandbox to this server.  Xephyr is a
              display server implementing the X11 display server protocol.  A
              network namespace needs to be instantiated in order to deny
              access to X11 abstract Unix domain socket.

              Xephyr runs in a window just like any other X11 application. The
              default window size is 800x600.  This can be modified in
              /etc/firejail/firejail.config file.

              The recommended way to use this feature is to run a window
              manager inside the sandbox.  A security profile for OpenBox is
              provided.

              Xephyr is developed by Xorg project. On Debian platforms it is
              installed with the command sudo apt-get install xserver-xephyr.
              This feature is not available when running as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xephyr --net=eth0 openbox


       --x11=xorg
              Sandbox the application using the untrusted mode implemented by
              X11 security extension.  The extension is available in Xorg
              package and it is installed by default on most Linux
              distributions. It provides support for a simple
              trusted/untrusted connection model. Untrusted clients are
              restricted in certain ways to prevent them from reading window
              contents of other clients, stealing input events, etc.

              The untrusted mode has several limitations. A lot of regular
              programs  assume they are a trusted X11 clients and will crash
              or lock up when run in untrusted mode. Chromium browser and
              xterm are two examples.  Firefox and transmission-gtk seem to be
              working fine.  A network namespace is not required for this
              option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xorg firefox


       --x11=xpra
              Start Xpra (http://xpra.org) and attach the sandbox to this
              server.  Xpra is a persistent remote display server and client
              for forwarding X11 applications and desktop screens.  A network
              namespace needs to be instantiated in order to deny access to
              X11 abstract Unix domain socket.

              On Debian platforms Xpra is installed with the command sudo apt-
              get install xpra.  This feature is not available when running as
              root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xpra --net=eth0 firefox


       --zsh  Use /usr/bin/zsh as default user shell.

              Example:
              $ firejail --zsh


DESKTOP INTEGRATION
       A symbolic link to /usr/bin/firejail under the name of a program, will
       start the program in Firejail sandbox.  The symbolic link should be
       placed in the first $PATH position. On most systems, a good place is
       /usr/local/bin directory. Example:

              Make a firefox symlink to /usr/bin/firejail:

              $ ln -s /usr/bin/firejail /usr/local/bin/firefox

              Verify $PATH

              $ which -a firefox
              /usr/local/bin/firefox
              /usr/bin/firefox

              Starting firefox in this moment, automatically invokes âfirejail
              firefoxâ.

       This works for clicking on desktop environment icons, menus etc. Use
       "firejail --tree" to verify the program is sandboxed.

              $ firejail --tree
              1189:netblue:firejail firefox
                1190:netblue:firejail firefox
                  1220:netblue:/bin/sh -c "/usr/lib/firefox/firefox"
                    1221:netblue:/usr/lib/firefox/firefox


APPARMOR
       AppArmor support is disabled by default at compile time. Use --enable-
       apparmor configuration option to enable it:

              $ ./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-apparmor

       During software install, a generic AppArmor profile file, firejail-
       default, is placed in /etc/apparmor.d directory. The profile needs to
       be loaded into the kernel by running the following command as root:

              # aa-enforce firejail-default

       The installed profile tries to replicate some advanced security
       features inspired by kernel-based Grsecurity:

              - Prevent information leakage in /proc and /sys directories. The
              resulting filesystem is barely enough for running commands such
              as "top" and "ps aux".

              - Allow running programs only from well-known system paths, such
              as /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin etc. Running programs and scripts from
              user home or other directories writable by the user is not
              allowed.

              - Disable D-Bus. D-Bus has long been a huge security hole, and
              most programs don't use it anyway.  You should have no problems
              running Chromium or Firefox.


       To enable AppArmor confinement on top of your current Firejail security
       features, pass --apparmor flag to Firejail command line. You can also
       include apparmor command in a Firejail profile file. Example:

              $ firejail --apparmor firefox


FILE TRANSFER
       These features allow the user to inspect the filesystem container of an
       existing sandbox and transfer files from the container to the host
       filesystem.


       --get=name|pid filename
              Retrieve the container file and store it on the host in the
              current working directory.  The container is specified by name
              or PID. This option is not available for sandboxes using
              --chroot.


       --ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
              List container files. The container is specified by name or PID.


       --put=name|pid src-filename dest-filename
              Put src-filename in sandbox container.  The container is
              specified by name or PID. This option is not available for
              sandboxes using --chroot.


       Examples:

              $ firejail --name=mybrowser --private firefox

              $ firejail --ls=mybrowser ~/Downloads
              drwxr-xr-x netblue  netblue         4096 .
              drwxr-xr-x netblue  netblue         4096 ..
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue         7847 x11-x305.png
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue         6800 x11-x642.png
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue        34139 xpra-clipboard.png

              $ firejail --get=mybrowser ~/Downloads/xpra-clipboard.png

              $ firejail --put=mybrowser xpra-clipboard.png ~/Downloads/xpra-
              clipboard.png


TRAFFIC SHAPING
       Network bandwidth is an expensive resource shared among all sandboxes
       running on a system.  Traffic shaping allows the user to increase
       network performance by controlling the amount of data that flows into
       and out of the sandboxes.

       Firejail implements a simple rate-limiting shaper based on Linux
       command tc.  The shaper works at sandbox level, and can be used only
       for sandboxes configured with new network namespaces.

       Set rate-limits:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid set network download upload

       Clear rate-limits:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid clear network

       Status:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid status

       where:
            name - sandbox name
            pid - sandbox pid
            network - network interface as used by --net option
            download - download speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)
            upload - upload speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)

       Example:
            $ firejail --name=mybrowser --net=eth0 firefox &
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser set eth0 80 20
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser status
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser clear eth0


AUDIT
       Audit feature allows the user to point out gaps in security profiles.
       The implementation replaces the program to be sandboxed with a test
       program. By default, we use faudit program distributed with Firejail. A
       custom test program can also be supplied by the user. Examples:

       Running the default audit program:
            $ firejail --audit transmission-gtk

       Running a custom audit program:
            $ firejail --audit=~/sandbox-test transmission-gtk

       In the examples above, the sandbox configures transmission-gtk profile
       and starts the test program. The real program, transmission-gtk, will
       not be started.

       Limitations: audit feature is not implemented for --x11 commands.


MONITORING
       Option --list prints a list of all sandboxes. The format for each
       process entry is as follows:

            PID:USER:Command

       Option --tree prints the tree of processes running in the sandbox. The
       format for each process entry is as follows:

            PID:USER:Command

       Option --top is similar to the UNIX top command, however it applies
       only to sandboxes.

       Option --netstats prints network statistics for active sandboxes
       installing new network namespaces.


       Listed below are the available fields (columns) in alphabetical order
       for --top and --netstat options:


       Command
              Command used to start the sandbox.

       CPU%   CPU usage, the sandbox share of the elapsed CPU time since the
              last screen update

       PID    Unique process ID for the task controlling the sandbox.

       Prcs   Number of processes running in sandbox, including the
              controlling process.

       RES    Resident Memory Size (KiB), sandbox non-swapped physical memory.
              It is a sum of the RES values for all processes running in the
              sandbox.

       RX(KB/s)
              Network receive speed.

       SHR    Shared Memory Size (KiB), it reflects memory shared with other
              processes. It is a sum of the SHR values for all processes
              running in the sandbox, including the controlling process.

       TX(KB/s)
              Network transmit speed.

       Uptime Sandbox running time in hours:minutes:seconds format.

       User   The owner of the sandbox.


SECURITY PROFILES
       Several command line options can be passed to the program using profile
       files. Firejail chooses the profile file as follows:

       1. If a profile file is provided by the user with --profile option, the
       profile file is loaded.  Example:

              $ firejail --profile=/home/netblue/icecat.profile icecat
              Reading profile /home/netblue/icecat.profile
              [...]

       2. If a profile file with the same name as the application is present
       in ~/.config/firejail directory or in /etc/firejail, the profile is
       loaded. ~/.config/firejail takes precedence over /etc/firejail.
       Example:

              $ firejail icecat
              Command name #icecat#
              Found icecat profile in /home/netblue/.config/firejail directory
              Reading profile /home/netblue/.config/firejail/icecat.profile
              [...]

       3. Use default.profile file if the sandbox is started by a regular
       user, or server.profile file if the sandbox is started by root.
       Firejail looks for these files in ~/.config/firejail directory,
       followed by /etc/firejail directory.  To disable default profile
       loading, use --noprofile command option. Example:

              $ firejail
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

              $ firejail --noprofile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

       See man 5 firejail-profile for profile file syntax information.

RESTRICTED SHELL
       To configure a restricted shell, replace /bin/bash with
       /usr/bin/firejail in /etc/passwd file for each user that needs to be
       restricted. Alternatively, you can specify /usr/bin/firejail  in
       adduser command:

       adduser --shell /usr/bin/firejail username

       Additional arguments passed to firejail executable upon login are
       declared in /etc/firejail/login.users file.


EXAMPLES
       firejail
              Sandbox a regular /bin/bash session.

       firejail firefox
              Start Mozilla Firefox.

       firejail --debug firefox
              Debug Firefox sandbox.

       firejail --private firefox
              Start Firefox with a new, empty home directory.

       firejail --net=none vlc
              Start VLC in an unconnected network namespace.

       firejail --net=eth0 firefox
              Start Firefox in a new network namespace. An IP address is
              assigned automatically.

       firejail --net=br0 --ip=10.10.20.5 --net=br1 --net=br2
              Start a /bin/bash session in a new network namespace and connect
              it to br0, br1, and br2 host bridge devices. IP addresses are
              assigned automatically for the interfaces connected to br1 and
              b2

       firejail --list
              List all sandboxed processes.

LICENSE
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
       Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your
       option) any later version.

       Homepage: http://firejail.wordpress.com

SEE ALSO
       firemon(1), firecfg(1), firejail-profile(5), firejail-login(5)






0.9.44.2                           Dec 2016                        FIREJAIL(1)