FSCK(8)                     System Manager's Manual                    FSCK(8)

       fsck - check and repair a Linux file system

       fsck [ -AVRTNP ] [ -s ] [ -t fstype ] [ fs-options ] filesys [ ... ]

       fsck is used to check and optionally repair a Linux file system.
       filesys is either the device name (e.g. /dev/hda1, /dev/sdb2) or the
       mount point (e.g. /, /usr, /home) for the file system.  If this fsck
       has several filesystems on different physical disk drives to check,
       this fsck will try to run them in parallel.  This reduces the total
       amount time it takes to check all of the filesystems, since fsck takes
       advantage of the parallelism of multiple disk spindles.

       The exit code returned by fsck is the sum of the following conditions:
            0    - No errors
            1    - File system errors corrected
            2    - System should be rebooted
            4    - File system errors left uncorrected
            8    - Operational error
            16   - Usage or syntax error
            128  - Shared library error
       The exit code returned when all file systems are checked using the -A
       option is the bit-wise OR of the exit codes for each file system that
       is checked.

       In actuality, fsck is simply a front-end for the various file system
       checkers (fsck.fstype) available under Linux.  The file system-specific
       checker is searched for in /sbin first, then in /etc/fs and /etc, and
       finally in the directories listed in the PATH environment variable.
       Please see the file system-specific checker manual pages for further

       -A     Walk through the /etc/fstab file and try to check all file
              systems in one run.  This option is typically used from the
              /etc/rc system initalization file, instead of multiple commands
              for checking a single file system.

       -R     When checking all file systems with the -A flag, skip the root
              file system (in case it's already mounted read-write).

       -T     Don't show the title on startup.

       -N     Don't execute, just show what would be done.

       -P     When the -A flag is set, check the root filesystem in parallel
              with the other filesystems.  This is not the safest thing in the
              world to do, since if the root filesystem is in doubt things
              like the e2fsck executable might be corrupted!  This option is
              mainly provided for those sysadmins who don't want to
              repartition the root filesystem to be small and compact (which
              is really the right solution).

       -s     Serialize fsck operations.  This is a good idea if you checking
              multiple filesystems in and the checkers are in an interactive
              mode.  (Note: e2fsck runs in an interactive mode by default.  To
              make e2fsck run in a non-interactive mode, you must either
              specify the -p or -a option, if you wish for errors to be
              corrected automatically, or the -n option if you do not.)

       -V     Produce verbose output, including all file system-specific
              commands that are executed.

       -t fstype
              Specifies the type of file system to be checked.  When the -A
              flag is specified, only filesystems that match fstype are
              checked.  If fstype is prefixed with no only filesystems whose
              filesystem do not match fstype are checked.

              Normally, the filesystem type is deduced by searching for
              filesys in the /etc/fstab file and using the corresponding
              entry.  If the type can not be deduced, fsck will use the type
              specified by the -t option if it specifies a unique filesystem
              type.  If this type is not available, the the default file
              system type (currently ext2) is used.

              Any options which are not understood by fsck, or which follow
              the -- option are treated as file system-specific options to be
              passed to the file system-specific checker.

       Currently, standardized file system-specific options are somewhat in
       flux.  Although not guaranteed, the following options are supported by
       most file system checkers.

       -a     Automatically repair the file system without any questions (use
              this option with caution).  Note that e2fsck supports -a for
              backwards compatibility only.  This option is mapped to e2fsck's
              -p option which is safe to use, unlike the -a option that most
              file system checkers support.

       -r     Interactively repair the filesystem (ask for confirmations).
              Note: It is generally a bad idea to use this option if multiple
              fsck's are being run in parallel.  Also note that this is e2fsck
              default behavior; it supports this option for backwards
              compatibility reasons only.

       Theodore Ts'o (tytso@mit.edu)

       The manual page was shamelessly adapted from David Engel and Fred van
       Kempen's generic fsck front end program, which was in turn shamelessly
       adapted from Remy Card's version for the ext2 file system.


       fstab(5), mkfs(8), fsck.minix(8), fsck.ext2(8) or e2fsck(8),

E2fsprogs version 1.10            April 1997                           FSCK(8)