FUTEX(7)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   FUTEX(7)

       futex - fast user-space locking

       #include <linux/futex.h>

       The Linux kernel provides futexes ("Fast user-space mutexes") as a
       building block for fast user-space locking and semaphores.  Futexes are
       very basic and lend themselves well for building higher-level locking
       abstractions such as mutexes, condition variables, read-write locks,
       barriers, and semaphores.

       Most programmers will in fact not be using futexes directly but will
       instead rely on system libraries built on them, such as the Native POSIX
       Thread Library (NPTL) (see pthreads(7)).

       A futex is identified by a piece of memory which can be shared between
       processes or threads.  In these different processes, the futex need not
       have identical addresses.  In its bare form, a futex has semaphore
       semantics; it is a counter that can be incremented and decremented
       atomically; processes can wait for the value to become positive.

       Futex operation occurs entirely in user space for the noncontended case.
       The kernel is involved only to arbitrate the contended case.  As any sane
       design will strive for noncontention, futexes are also optimized for this

       In its bare form, a futex is an aligned integer which is touched only by
       atomic assembler instructions.  This integer is four bytes long on all
       platforms.  Processes can share this integer using mmap(2), via shared
       memory segments, or because they share memory space, in which case the
       application is commonly called multithreaded.

       Any futex operation starts in user space, but it may be necessary to
       communicate with the kernel using the futex(2) system call.

       To "up" a futex, execute the proper assembler instructions that will
       cause the host CPU to atomically increment the integer.  Afterward, check
       if it has in fact changed from 0 to 1, in which case there were no
       waiters and the operation is done.  This is the noncontended case which
       is fast and should be common.

       In the contended case, the atomic increment changed the counter from -1
       (or some other negative number).  If this is detected, there are waiters.
       User space should now set the counter to 1 and instruct the kernel to
       wake up any waiters using the FUTEX_WAKE operation.

       Waiting on a futex, to "down" it, is the reverse operation.  Atomically
       decrement the counter and check if it changed to 0, in which case the
       operation is done and the futex was uncontended.  In all other
       circumstances, the process should set the counter to -1 and request that
       the kernel wait for another process to up the futex.  This is done using
       the FUTEX_WAIT operation.

       The futex(2) system call can optionally be passed a timeout specifying
       how long the kernel should wait for the futex to be upped.  In this case,
       semantics are more complex and the programmer is referred to futex(2) for
       more details.  The same holds for asynchronous futex waiting.

       Initial futex support was merged in Linux 2.5.7 but with different
       semantics from those described above.  Current semantics are available
       from Linux 2.5.40 onward.

       To reiterate, bare futexes are not intended as an easy-to-use abstraction
       for end users.  Implementors are expected to be assembly literate and to
       have read the sources of the futex user-space library referenced below.

       This man page illustrates the most common use of the futex(2) primitives;
       it is by no means the only one.

       clone(2), futex(2), get_robust_list(2), set_robust_list(2),
       set_tid_address(2), pthreads(7)

       Fuss, Futexes and Furwocks: Fast Userlevel Locking in Linux (proceedings
       of the Ottawa Linux Symposium 2002), futex example library,
       futex-*.tar.bz2 ⟨ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/rusty/⟩.

       This page is part of release 5.10 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at

Linux                              2017-09-15                           FUTEX(7)