GATED(8)                              3.5                             GATED(8)

       gated - gateway routing daemon

       gated [ -c ] [ -C ] [ -n ] [ -N ] [ -t trace_options ] [ -f config_file
       ] [ trace_file ]

       GateD is a routing daemon that handles multiple routing protocols and
       replaces routed (8) and egpup (8).  GateD currently handles the RIP,
       BGP, EGP, HELLO, and OSPF routing protocols. The gated process can be
       configured to perform all routing protocols or any subset of them.

       The command-line options are:

       -c     Specifies that the configuration file will be parsed for syntax
              errors and then gated will exit, if there were no errors, gated
              will leave a dump file in /usr/tmp/gated_dump. Gated does not
              need to be run as the super user to use the -c option but it may
              not be possible to read the kernel forwarding table and
              interface configuration if not run as super user. The -c option
              implies -tgeneral. All traceoption clauses in the configuration
              file will be ignored.

       -C     Specifies that the configuration file will just be parsed for
              syntax errors. gated will exit with a status 1 if there were any
              errors and 0 if there were not. Gated does not need to be run as
              the super user to use the -C option but it may not be possible
              to read the kernel forwarding table and interface configuration
              if not run as super user.

       -n     Specifies that gated will not modify the kernel forwarding
              table. This is used for testing gated configurations with actual
              routing data.

       -N     Specifies that gated will not daemonize.  Normally, if tracing
              to stderr is not specified gated will daemonize if the parent
              process ID is not 1. This allows the use of an /etc/inittab-like
              method of invoking gated that does not have a PID of 1.

       -t trace_options
              Specifies a comma separated list of trace options to be enabled
              on startup. If no flags are specified, general is assumed. No
              space is allowed between this option and it's arguments.

              This option must be used to trace events that take place before
              the config file is parsed, such as determining the interface
              configuration and reading routes from the kernel.

              See the GateD Configuration Guide for valid trace options and a
              more detailed explaination of tracing.

       -f config_file
              Use an alternate config file. By default, gated uses

              If a trace file is specified on the command line, or no trace
              flags are specified on the command line, gated detaches from the
              terminal and runs in the background. If trace flags are
              specified without specifying a trace file, gated assumes that
              tracing is desired to stderr and remains in the foreground.

       The following signals may be used to control gated:

       SIGHUP    Re-read configuration.

                 A SIGHUP causes gated to reread the configuration file. Gated
                 first performs a clean-up of all allocated policy structures.
                 All BGP and EGP peers are flagged for deletion and the
                 configuration file is re-parsed.

                 If the re-parse is successful, any BGP and EGP peers that are
                 no longer in the configuration are shut down, and new peers
                 are started. Gated attempts to determine if changes to
                 existing peers require a shutdown and restart. OSPF is not
                 capable of reconfiguring, it is shutdown and restarted during
                 a reconfiguration. This may have an adverse impact on the
                 routing system.

                 It should also be possible to enable/disable any protocol
                 without restarting gated.

       SIGINT    Snap-shot of current state.

                 The current state of all gated tasks, timers, protocols and
                 tables are written to /usr/tmp/gated_dump.

                 On systems supporting fork(), this is done by forking a
                 subprocess to dump the table information so as not to impact
                 gated's routing functions. On systems where memory management
                 does not support copy-on-write, fork() will cause the gated
                 address space to be duplicated; this may be cause a
                 noticeable impact on the system. On system not supporting
                 fork(), the main process immediately processes the dump,
                 which may impact gated's routing functions.

       SIGTERM   Graceful shutdown.

                 On receipt of a SIGTERM, gated attempts a graceful shutdown.
                 All tasks and protocols are asked to shutdown. Most will
                 terminate immediately, the exception being EGP peers which
                 wait for confirmation. It may be necessary to repeat the
                 SIGTERM once or twice if it this process takes too long.

                 All protocol routes are removed from the kernel forwarding
                 table on receipt of a SIGTERM. Interface routes, routes with
                 RTF_STATIC set (from the route command where supported) and
                 static routes specifying retain will remain. To terminate
                 gated with the exterior routes intact, use SIGKILL.

       SIGUSR1   Toggle tracing.

                 On receipt of a SIGUSR1, gated will close the trace file. A
                 subsequent SIGUSR1 will cause it to be reopened. This will
                 allow the file to be moved regularly.

                 It is not possible to use SIGUSR1 if a trace file has not
                 been specified, or tracing is being performed to stderr.

       SIGUSR2   Check for interface changes.

                 On receipt of a SIGUSR2, gated will rescan the kernel
                 interface list looking for changes.

       Many of default filenames listed below contain the string gated, which
       is replaced by the name with which gated is invoked. Normally this is
       gated, but if invoked as gated-test, gated will by default look for
       /etc/gated-test.conf. These paths may all be changed at compilation

                 Where gated writes status information. The default is
                 /usr/tmp/gated_dump. Another common path is

                 Where gated looks for it's configuration file.  The default
                 is /etc/gated.conf.

                 Where gated writes it's process id (PID). The defalt is
                 /etc/, but /var/run/ is common.

       Mark Fedor <>
       Jeffrey C Honig <>
       Rob Coltun <>
       Dennis Ferguson <>

       arp (8), gdc (8), fork (2), ifconfig (8), netstat (8), ospf_monitor
       (8), ripquery (8), routed (8), route (8)
       GateD Documentation
       GateD Configuration Guide

       Copyright (c) 1996, 1997 The Regents of the University of Michigan
        All Rights Reserved

       License to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
       documentation can be obtained from Merit at the University of Michigan.

       This package and associated documentation is Copyright (c)
       1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995 Cornell University., all rights reserved.
       This software contains code that is Copyright (c) 1988 Regents of the
       University of California., all rights reserved.; This package contains
       code that is Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1991 The University of Maryland,
       College Park, Maryland., all rights reserved.  This package contains
       code that is Copyright 1991 D.L.S.  Associates., all rights reserved.

Release                     1994/03/16 21:39:03 UTC                   GATED(8)