gcov

GCOV(1)                                GNU                               GCOV(1)



NAME
       gcov - coverage testing tool

SYNOPSIS
       gcov [-v|--version] [-h|--help]
            [-a|--all-blocks]
            [-b|--branch-probabilities]
            [-c|--branch-counts]
            [-d|--display-progress]
            [-f|--function-summaries]
            [-i|--json-format]
            [-j|--human-readable]
            [-k|--use-colors]
            [-l|--long-file-names]
            [-m|--demangled-names]
            [-n|--no-output]
            [-o|--object-directory directory|file]
            [-p|--preserve-paths]
            [-q|--use-hotness-colors]
            [-r|--relative-only]
            [-s|--source-prefix directory]
            [-t|--stdout]
            [-u|--unconditional-branches]
            [-x|--hash-filenames]
            files

DESCRIPTION
       gcov is a test coverage program.  Use it in concert with GCC to analyze
       your programs to help create more efficient, faster running code and to
       discover untested parts of your program.  You can use gcov as a profiling
       tool to help discover where your optimization efforts will best affect
       your code.  You can also use gcov along with the other profiling tool,
       gprof, to assess which parts of your code use the greatest amount of
       computing time.

       Profiling tools help you analyze your code's performance.  Using a
       profiler such as gcov or gprof, you can find out some basic performance
       statistics, such as:

       *   how often each line of code executes

       *   what lines of code are actually executed

       *   how much computing time each section of code uses

       Once you know these things about how your code works when compiled, you
       can look at each module to see which modules should be optimized.  gcov
       helps you determine where to work on optimization.

       Software developers also use coverage testing in concert with testsuites,
       to make sure software is actually good enough for a release.  Testsuites
       can verify that a program works as expected; a coverage program tests to
       see how much of the program is exercised by the testsuite.  Developers
       can then determine what kinds of test cases need to be added to the
       testsuites to create both better testing and a better final product.

       You should compile your code without optimization if you plan to use gcov
       because the optimization, by combining some lines of code into one
       function, may not give you as much information as you need to look for
       `hot spots' where the code is using a great deal of computer time.
       Likewise, because gcov accumulates statistics by line (at the lowest
       resolution), it works best with a programming style that places only one
       statement on each line.  If you use complicated macros that expand to
       loops or to other control structures, the statistics are less
       helpful---they only report on the line where the macro call appears.  If
       your complex macros behave like functions, you can replace them with
       inline functions to solve this problem.

       gcov creates a logfile called sourcefile.gcov which indicates how many
       times each line of a source file sourcefile.c has executed.  You can use
       these logfiles along with gprof to aid in fine-tuning the performance of
       your programs.  gprof gives timing information you can use along with the
       information you get from gcov.

       gcov works only on code compiled with GCC.  It is not compatible with any
       other profiling or test coverage mechanism.

OPTIONS
       -a
       --all-blocks
           Write individual execution counts for every basic block.  Normally
           gcov outputs execution counts only for the main blocks of a line.
           With this option you can determine if blocks within a single line are
           not being executed.

       -b
       --branch-probabilities
           Write branch frequencies to the output file, and write branch summary
           info to the standard output.  This option allows you to see how often
           each branch in your program was taken.  Unconditional branches will
           not be shown, unless the -u option is given.

       -c
       --branch-counts
           Write branch frequencies as the number of branches taken, rather than
           the percentage of branches taken.

       -d
       --display-progress
           Display the progress on the standard output.

       -f
       --function-summaries
           Output summaries for each function in addition to the file level
           summary.

       -h
       --help
           Display help about using gcov (on the standard output), and exit
           without doing any further processing.

       -i
       --json-format
           Output gcov file in an easy-to-parse JSON intermediate format which
           does not require source code for generation.  The JSON file is
           compressed with gzip compression algorithm and the files have
           .gcov.json.gz extension.

           Structure of the JSON is following:

                   {
                     "current_working_directory": <current_working_directory>,
                     "data_file": <data_file>,
                     "format_version": <format_version>,
                     "gcc_version": <gcc_version>
                     "files": [<file>]
                   }

           Fields of the root element have following semantics:

           *   current_working_directory: working directory where a compilation
               unit was compiled

           *   data_file: name of the data file (GCDA)

           *   format_version: semantic version of the format

           *   gcc_version: version of the GCC compiler

           Each file has the following form:

                   {
                     "file": <file_name>,
                     "functions": [<function>],
                     "lines": [<line>]
                   }

           Fields of the file element have following semantics:

           *   file_name: name of the source file

           Each function has the following form:

                   {
                     "blocks": <blocks>,
                     "blocks_executed": <blocks_executed>,
                     "demangled_name": "<demangled_name>,
                     "end_column": <end_column>,
                     "end_line": <end_line>,
                     "execution_count": <execution_count>,
                     "name": <name>,
                     "start_column": <start_column>
                     "start_line": <start_line>
                   }

           Fields of the function element have following semantics:

           *   blocks: number of blocks that are in the function

           *   blocks_executed: number of executed blocks of the function

           *   demangled_name: demangled name of the function

           *   end_column: column in the source file where the function ends

           *   end_line: line in the source file where the function ends

           *   execution_count: number of executions of the function

           *   name: name of the function

           *   start_column: column in the source file where the function begins

           *   start_line: line in the source file where the function begins

           Note that line numbers and column numbers number from 1.  In the
           current implementation, start_line and start_column do not include
           any template parameters and the leading return type but that this is
           likely to be fixed in the future.

           Each line has the following form:

                   {
                     "branches": [<branch>],
                     "count": <count>,
                     "line_number": <line_number>,
                     "unexecuted_block": <unexecuted_block>
                     "function_name": <function_name>,
                   }

           Branches are present only with -b option.  Fields of the line element
           have following semantics:

           *   count: number of executions of the line

           *   line_number: line number

           *   unexecuted_block: flag whether the line contains an unexecuted
               block (not all statements on the line are executed)

           *   function_name: a name of a function this line belongs to (for a
               line with an inlined statements can be not set)

           Each branch has the following form:

                   {
                     "count": <count>,
                     "fallthrough": <fallthrough>,
                     "throw": <throw>
                   }

           Fields of the branch element have following semantics:

           *   count: number of executions of the branch

           *   fallthrough: true when the branch is a fall through branch

           *   throw: true when the branch is an exceptional branch

       -j
       --human-readable
           Write counts in human readable format (like 24.6k).

       -k
       --use-colors
           Use colors for lines of code that have zero coverage.  We use red
           color for non-exceptional lines and cyan for exceptional.  Same
           colors are used for basic blocks with -a option.

       -l
       --long-file-names
           Create long file names for included source files.  For example, if
           the header file x.h contains code, and was included in the file a.c,
           then running gcov on the file a.c will produce an output file called
           a.c##x.h.gcov instead of x.h.gcov.  This can be useful if x.h is
           included in multiple source files and you want to see the individual
           contributions.  If you use the -p option, both the including and
           included file names will be complete path names.

       -m
       --demangled-names
           Display demangled function names in output. The default is to show
           mangled function names.

       -n
       --no-output
           Do not create the gcov output file.

       -o directory|file
       --object-directory directory
       --object-file file
           Specify either the directory containing the gcov data files, or the
           object path name.  The .gcno, and .gcda data files are searched for
           using this option.  If a directory is specified, the data files are
           in that directory and named after the input file name, without its
           extension.  If a file is specified here, the data files are named
           after that file, without its extension.

       -p
       --preserve-paths
           Preserve complete path information in the names of generated .gcov
           files.  Without this option, just the filename component is used.
           With this option, all directories are used, with / characters
           translated to # characters, . directory components removed and
           unremoveable ..  components renamed to ^.  This is useful if
           sourcefiles are in several different directories.

       -q
       --use-hotness-colors
           Emit perf-like colored output for hot lines.  Legend of the color
           scale is printed at the very beginning of the output file.

       -r
       --relative-only
           Only output information about source files with a relative pathname
           (after source prefix elision).  Absolute paths are usually system
           header files and coverage of any inline functions therein is normally
           uninteresting.

       -s directory
       --source-prefix directory
           A prefix for source file names to remove when generating the output
           coverage files.  This option is useful when building in a separate
           directory, and the pathname to the source directory is not wanted
           when determining the output file names.  Note that this prefix
           detection is applied before determining whether the source file is
           absolute.

       -t
       --stdout
           Output to standard output instead of output files.

       -u
       --unconditional-branches
           When branch probabilities are given, include those of unconditional
           branches.  Unconditional branches are normally not interesting.

       -v
       --version
           Display the gcov version number (on the standard output), and exit
           without doing any further processing.

       -w
       --verbose
           Print verbose informations related to basic blocks and arcs.

       -x
       --hash-filenames
           When using --preserve-paths, gcov uses the full pathname of the
           source files to create an output filename.  This can lead to long
           filenames that can overflow filesystem limits.  This option creates
           names of the form source-file##md5.gcov, where the source-file
           component is the final filename part and the md5 component is
           calculated from the full mangled name that would have been used
           otherwise.  The option is an alternative to the --preserve-paths on
           systems which have a filesystem limit.

       gcov should be run with the current directory the same as that when you
       invoked the compiler.  Otherwise it will not be able to locate the source
       files.  gcov produces files called mangledname.gcov in the current
       directory.  These contain the coverage information of the source file
       they correspond to.  One .gcov file is produced for each source (or
       header) file containing code, which was compiled to produce the data
       files.  The mangledname part of the output file name is usually simply
       the source file name, but can be something more complicated if the -l or
       -p options are given.  Refer to those options for details.

       If you invoke gcov with multiple input files, the contributions from each
       input file are summed.  Typically you would invoke it with the same list
       of files as the final link of your executable.

       The .gcov files contain the : separated fields along with program source
       code.  The format is

               <execution_count>:<line_number>:<source line text>

       Additional block information may succeed each line, when requested by
       command line option.  The execution_count is - for lines containing no
       code.  Unexecuted lines are marked ##### or =====, depending on whether
       they are reachable by non-exceptional paths or only exceptional paths
       such as C++ exception handlers, respectively. Given the -a option,
       unexecuted blocks are marked $$$$$ or %%%%%, depending on whether a basic
       block is reachable via non-exceptional or exceptional paths.  Executed
       basic blocks having a statement with zero execution_count end with *
       character and are colored with magenta color with the -k option.  This
       functionality is not supported in Ada.

       Note that GCC can completely remove the bodies of functions that are not
       needed -- for instance if they are inlined everywhere.  Such functions
       are marked with -, which can be confusing.  Use the
       -fkeep-inline-functions and -fkeep-static-functions options to retain
       these functions and allow gcov to properly show their execution_count.

       Some lines of information at the start have line_number of zero.  These
       preamble lines are of the form

               -:0:<tag>:<value>

       The ordering and number of these preamble lines will be augmented as gcov
       development progresses --- do not rely on them remaining unchanged.  Use
       tag to locate a particular preamble line.

       The additional block information is of the form

               <tag> <information>

       The information is human readable, but designed to be simple enough for
       machine parsing too.

       When printing percentages, 0% and 100% are only printed when the values
       are exactly 0% and 100% respectively.  Other values which would
       conventionally be rounded to 0% or 100% are instead printed as the
       nearest non-boundary value.

       When using gcov, you must first compile your program with a special GCC
       option --coverage.  This tells the compiler to generate additional
       information needed by gcov (basically a flow graph of the program) and
       also includes additional code in the object files for generating the
       extra profiling information needed by gcov.  These additional files are
       placed in the directory where the object file is located.

       Running the program will cause profile output to be generated.  For each
       source file compiled with -fprofile-arcs, an accompanying .gcda file will
       be placed in the object file directory.

       Running gcov with your program's source file names as arguments will now
       produce a listing of the code along with frequency of execution for each
       line.  For example, if your program is called tmp.cpp, this is what you
       see when you use the basic gcov facility:

               $ g++ --coverage tmp.cpp
               $ a.out
               $ gcov tmp.cpp -m
               File 'tmp.cpp'
               Lines executed:92.86% of 14
               Creating 'tmp.cpp.gcov'

       The file tmp.cpp.gcov contains output from gcov.  Here is a sample:

                       -:    0:Source:tmp.cpp
                       -:    0:Working directory:/home/gcc/testcase
                       -:    0:Graph:tmp.gcno
                       -:    0:Data:tmp.gcda
                       -:    0:Runs:1
                       -:    0:Programs:1
                       -:    1:#include <stdio.h>
                       -:    2:
                       -:    3:template<class T>
                       -:    4:class Foo
                       -:    5:{
                       -:    6:  public:
                      1*:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::Foo():
                   #####:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::Foo():
                       1:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
                      2*:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::inc():
                   #####:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::inc():
                       2:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
                       -:    9:
                       -:   10:  private:
                       -:   11:  int b;
                       -:   12:};
                       -:   13:
                       -:   14:template class Foo<int>;
                       -:   15:template class Foo<char>;
                       -:   16:
                       -:   17:int
                       1:   18:main (void)
                       -:   19:{
                       -:   20:  int i, total;
                       1:   21:  Foo<int> counter;
                       -:   22:
                       1:   23:  counter.inc();
                       1:   24:  counter.inc();
                       1:   25:  total = 0;
                       -:   26:
                      11:   27:  for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
                      10:   28:    total += i;
                       -:   29:
                      1*:   30:  int v = total > 100 ? 1 : 2;
                       -:   31:
                       1:   32:  if (total != 45)
                   #####:   33:    printf ("Failure\n");
                       -:   34:  else
                       1:   35:    printf ("Success\n");
                       1:   36:  return 0;
                       -:   37:}

       Note that line 7 is shown in the report multiple times.  First occurrence
       presents total number of execution of the line and the next two belong to
       instances of class Foo constructors.  As you can also see, line 30
       contains some unexecuted basic blocks and thus execution count has
       asterisk symbol.

       When you use the -a option, you will get individual block counts, and the
       output looks like this:

                       -:    0:Source:tmp.cpp
                       -:    0:Working directory:/home/gcc/testcase
                       -:    0:Graph:tmp.gcno
                       -:    0:Data:tmp.gcda
                       -:    0:Runs:1
                       -:    0:Programs:1
                       -:    1:#include <stdio.h>
                       -:    2:
                       -:    3:template<class T>
                       -:    4:class Foo
                       -:    5:{
                       -:    6:  public:
                      1*:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::Foo():
                   #####:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::Foo():
                       1:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
                      2*:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::inc():
                   #####:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::inc():
                       2:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
                       -:    9:
                       -:   10:  private:
                       -:   11:  int b;
                       -:   12:};
                       -:   13:
                       -:   14:template class Foo<int>;
                       -:   15:template class Foo<char>;
                       -:   16:
                       -:   17:int
                       1:   18:main (void)
                       -:   19:{
                       -:   20:  int i, total;
                       1:   21:  Foo<int> counter;
                       1:   21-block  0
                       -:   22:
                       1:   23:  counter.inc();
                       1:   23-block  0
                       1:   24:  counter.inc();
                       1:   24-block  0
                       1:   25:  total = 0;
                       -:   26:
                      11:   27:  for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
                       1:   27-block  0
                      11:   27-block  1
                      10:   28:    total += i;
                      10:   28-block  0
                       -:   29:
                      1*:   30:  int v = total > 100 ? 1 : 2;
                       1:   30-block  0
                   %%%%%:   30-block  1
                       1:   30-block  2
                       -:   31:
                       1:   32:  if (total != 45)
                       1:   32-block  0
                   #####:   33:    printf ("Failure\n");
                   %%%%%:   33-block  0
                       -:   34:  else
                       1:   35:    printf ("Success\n");
                       1:   35-block  0
                       1:   36:  return 0;
                       1:   36-block  0
                       -:   37:}

       In this mode, each basic block is only shown on one line -- the last line
       of the block.  A multi-line block will only contribute to the execution
       count of that last line, and other lines will not be shown to contain
       code, unless previous blocks end on those lines.  The total execution
       count of a line is shown and subsequent lines show the execution counts
       for individual blocks that end on that line.  After each block, the
       branch and call counts of the block will be shown, if the -b option is
       given.

       Because of the way GCC instruments calls, a call count can be shown after
       a line with no individual blocks.  As you can see, line 33 contains a
       basic block that was not executed.

       When you use the -b option, your output looks like this:

                       -:    0:Source:tmp.cpp
                       -:    0:Working directory:/home/gcc/testcase
                       -:    0:Graph:tmp.gcno
                       -:    0:Data:tmp.gcda
                       -:    0:Runs:1
                       -:    0:Programs:1
                       -:    1:#include <stdio.h>
                       -:    2:
                       -:    3:template<class T>
                       -:    4:class Foo
                       -:    5:{
                       -:    6:  public:
                      1*:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::Foo():
               function Foo<char>::Foo() called 0 returned 0% blocks executed 0%
                   #####:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::Foo():
               function Foo<int>::Foo() called 1 returned 100% blocks executed 100%
                       1:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
                      2*:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::inc():
               function Foo<char>::inc() called 0 returned 0% blocks executed 0%
                   #####:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::inc():
               function Foo<int>::inc() called 2 returned 100% blocks executed 100%
                       2:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
                       -:    9:
                       -:   10:  private:
                       -:   11:  int b;
                       -:   12:};
                       -:   13:
                       -:   14:template class Foo<int>;
                       -:   15:template class Foo<char>;
                       -:   16:
                       -:   17:int
               function main called 1 returned 100% blocks executed 81%
                       1:   18:main (void)
                       -:   19:{
                       -:   20:  int i, total;
                       1:   21:  Foo<int> counter;
               call    0 returned 100%
               branch  1 taken 100% (fallthrough)
               branch  2 taken 0% (throw)
                       -:   22:
                       1:   23:  counter.inc();
               call    0 returned 100%
               branch  1 taken 100% (fallthrough)
               branch  2 taken 0% (throw)
                       1:   24:  counter.inc();
               call    0 returned 100%
               branch  1 taken 100% (fallthrough)
               branch  2 taken 0% (throw)
                       1:   25:  total = 0;
                       -:   26:
                      11:   27:  for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
               branch  0 taken 91% (fallthrough)
               branch  1 taken 9%
                      10:   28:    total += i;
                       -:   29:
                      1*:   30:  int v = total > 100 ? 1 : 2;
               branch  0 taken 0% (fallthrough)
               branch  1 taken 100%
                       -:   31:
                       1:   32:  if (total != 45)
               branch  0 taken 0% (fallthrough)
               branch  1 taken 100%
                   #####:   33:    printf ("Failure\n");
               call    0 never executed
               branch  1 never executed
               branch  2 never executed
                       -:   34:  else
                       1:   35:    printf ("Success\n");
               call    0 returned 100%
               branch  1 taken 100% (fallthrough)
               branch  2 taken 0% (throw)
                       1:   36:  return 0;
                       -:   37:}

       For each function, a line is printed showing how many times the function
       is called, how many times it returns and what percentage of the
       function's blocks were executed.

       For each basic block, a line is printed after the last line of the basic
       block describing the branch or call that ends the basic block.  There can
       be multiple branches and calls listed for a single source line if there
       are multiple basic blocks that end on that line.  In this case, the
       branches and calls are each given a number.  There is no simple way to
       map these branches and calls back to source constructs.  In general,
       though, the lowest numbered branch or call will correspond to the
       leftmost construct on the source line.

       For a branch, if it was executed at least once, then a percentage
       indicating the number of times the branch was taken divided by the number
       of times the branch was executed will be printed.  Otherwise, the message
       "never executed" is printed.

       For a call, if it was executed at least once, then a percentage
       indicating the number of times the call returned divided by the number of
       times the call was executed will be printed.  This will usually be 100%,
       but may be less for functions that call "exit" or "longjmp", and thus may
       not return every time they are called.

       The execution counts are cumulative.  If the example program were
       executed again without removing the .gcda file, the count for the number
       of times each line in the source was executed would be added to the
       results of the previous run(s).  This is potentially useful in several
       ways.  For example, it could be used to accumulate data over a number of
       program runs as part of a test verification suite, or to provide more
       accurate long-term information over a large number of program runs.

       The data in the .gcda files is saved immediately before the program
       exits.  For each source file compiled with -fprofile-arcs, the profiling
       code first attempts to read in an existing .gcda file; if the file
       doesn't match the executable (differing number of basic block counts) it
       will ignore the contents of the file.  It then adds in the new execution
       counts and finally writes the data to the file.

   Using gcov with GCC Optimization
       If you plan to use gcov to help optimize your code, you must first
       compile your program with a special GCC option --coverage.  Aside from
       that, you can use any other GCC options; but if you want to prove that
       every single line in your program was executed, you should not compile
       with optimization at the same time.  On some machines the optimizer can
       eliminate some simple code lines by combining them with other lines.  For
       example, code like this:

               if (a != b)
                 c = 1;
               else
                 c = 0;

       can be compiled into one instruction on some machines.  In this case,
       there is no way for gcov to calculate separate execution counts for each
       line because there isn't separate code for each line.  Hence the gcov
       output looks like this if you compiled the program with optimization:

                     100:   12:if (a != b)
                     100:   13:  c = 1;
                     100:   14:else
                     100:   15:  c = 0;

       The output shows that this block of code, combined by optimization,
       executed 100 times.  In one sense this result is correct, because there
       was only one instruction representing all four of these lines.  However,
       the output does not indicate how many times the result was 0 and how many
       times the result was 1.

       Inlineable functions can create unexpected line counts.  Line counts are
       shown for the source code of the inlineable function, but what is shown
       depends on where the function is inlined, or if it is not inlined at all.

       If the function is not inlined, the compiler must emit an out of line
       copy of the function, in any object file that needs it.  If fileA.o and
       fileB.o both contain out of line bodies of a particular inlineable
       function, they will also both contain coverage counts for that function.
       When fileA.o and fileB.o are linked together, the linker will, on many
       systems, select one of those out of line bodies for all calls to that
       function, and remove or ignore the other.  Unfortunately, it will not
       remove the coverage counters for the unused function body.  Hence when
       instrumented, all but one use of that function will show zero counts.

       If the function is inlined in several places, the block structure in each
       location might not be the same.  For instance, a condition might now be
       calculable at compile time in some instances.  Because the coverage of
       all the uses of the inline function will be shown for the same source
       lines, the line counts themselves might seem inconsistent.

       Long-running applications can use the "__gcov_reset" and "__gcov_dump"
       facilities to restrict profile collection to the program region of
       interest. Calling "__gcov_reset(void)" will clear all profile counters to
       zero, and calling "__gcov_dump(void)" will cause the profile information
       collected at that point to be dumped to .gcda output files.  Instrumented
       applications use a static destructor with priority 99 to invoke the
       "__gcov_dump" function. Thus "__gcov_dump" is executed after all user
       defined static destructors, as well as handlers registered with "atexit".
       If an executable loads a dynamic shared object via dlopen functionality,
       -Wl,--dynamic-list-data is needed to dump all profile data.

       Profiling run-time library reports various errors related to profile
       manipulation and profile saving.  Errors are printed into standard error
       output or GCOV_ERROR_FILE file, if environment variable is used.  In
       order to terminate immediately after an errors occurs set
       GCOV_EXIT_AT_ERROR environment variable.  That can help users to find
       profile clashing which leads to a misleading profile.

SEE ALSO
       gpl(7), gfdl(7), fsf-funding(7), gcc(1) and the Info entry for gcc.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (c) 1996-2020 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any
       later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
       Invariant Sections being "GNU General Public License" and "Funding Free
       Software", the Front-Cover texts being (a) (see below), and with the
       Back-Cover Texts being (b) (see below).  A copy of the license is
       included in the gfdl(7) man page.

       (a) The FSF's Front-Cover Text is:

            A GNU Manual

       (b) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is:

            You have freedom to copy and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU
            software.  Copies published by the Free Software Foundation raise
            funds for GNU development.



gcc-10.2.0                         2020-07-23                            GCOV(1)