GETPRIORITY(2)              Linux Programmer's Manual             GETPRIORITY(2)

       getpriority, setpriority - get/set program scheduling priority

       #include <sys/resource.h>

       int getpriority(int which, id_t who);
       int setpriority(int which, id_t who, int prio);

       The scheduling priority of the process, process group, or user, as
       indicated by which and who is obtained with the getpriority() call and
       set with the setpriority() call.  The process attribute dealt with by
       these system calls is the same attribute (also known as the "nice" value)
       that is dealt with by nice(2).

       The value which is one of PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_PGRP, or PRIO_USER, and who
       is interpreted relative to which (a process identifier for PRIO_PROCESS,
       process group identifier for PRIO_PGRP, and a user ID for PRIO_USER).  A
       zero value for who denotes (respectively) the calling process, the
       process group of the calling process, or the real user ID of the calling

       The prio argument is a value in the range -20 to 19 (but see NOTES
       below), with -20 being the highest priority and 19 being the lowest
       priority.  Attempts to set a priority outside this range are silently
       clamped to the range.  The default priority is 0; lower values give a
       process a higher scheduling priority.

       The getpriority() call returns the highest priority (lowest numerical
       value) enjoyed by any of the specified processes.  The setpriority() call
       sets the priorities of all of the specified processes to the specified

       Traditionally, only a privileged process could lower the nice value
       (i.e., set a higher priority).  However, since Linux 2.6.12, an
       unprivileged process can decrease the nice value of a target process that
       has a suitable RLIMIT_NICE soft limit; see getrlimit(2) for details.

       On success, getpriority() returns the calling thread's nice value, which
       may be a negative number.  On error, it returns -1 and sets errno to
       indicate the error.

       Since a successful call to getpriority() can legitimately return the
       value -1, it is necessary to clear errno prior to the call, then check
       errno afterward to determine if -1 is an error or a legitimate value.

       setpriority() returns 0 on success.  On failure, it returns -1 and sets
       errno to indicate the error.

       EINVAL which was not one of PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_PGRP, or PRIO_USER.

       ESRCH  No process was located using the which and who values specified.

       In addition to the errors indicated above, setpriority() may fail if:

       EACCES The caller attempted to set a lower nice value (i.e., a higher
              process priority), but did not have the required privilege (on
              Linux: did not have the CAP_SYS_NICE capability).

       EPERM  A process was located, but its effective user ID did not match
              either the effective or the real user ID of the caller, and was
              not privileged (on Linux: did not have the CAP_SYS_NICE
              capability).  But see NOTES below.

       POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, SVr4, 4.4BSD (these interfaces first appeared
       in 4.2BSD).

       For further details on the nice value, see sched(7).

       Note: the addition of the "autogroup" feature in Linux 2.6.38 means that
       the nice value no longer has its traditional effect in many
       circumstances.  For details, see sched(7).

       A child created by fork(2) inherits its parent's nice value.  The nice
       value is preserved across execve(2).

       The details on the condition for EPERM depend on the system.  The above
       description is what POSIX.1-2001 says, and seems to be followed on all
       System V-like systems.  Linux kernels before 2.6.12 required the real or
       effective user ID of the caller to match the real user of the process who
       (instead of its effective user ID).  Linux 2.6.12 and later require the
       effective user ID of the caller to match the real or effective user ID of
       the process who.  All BSD-like systems (SunOS 4.1.3, Ultrix 4.2, 4.3BSD,
       FreeBSD 4.3, OpenBSD-2.5, ...) behave in the same manner as Linux 2.6.12
       and later.

   C library/kernel differences
       Within the kernel, nice values are actually represented using the range
       40..1 (since negative numbers are error codes) and these are the values
       employed by the setpriority() and getpriority() system calls.  The glibc
       wrapper functions for these system calls handle the translations between
       the user-land and kernel representations of the nice value according to
       the formula unice = 20 - knice.  (Thus, the kernel's 40..1 range
       corresponds to the range -20..19 as seen by user space.)

       According to POSIX, the nice value is a per-process setting.  However,
       under the current Linux/NPTL implementation of POSIX threads, the nice
       value is a per-thread attribute: different threads in the same process
       can have different nice values.  Portable applications should avoid
       relying on the Linux behavior, which may be made standards conformant in
       the future.

       nice(1), renice(1), fork(2), capabilities(7), sched(7)

       Documentation/scheduler/sched-nice-design.txt in the Linux kernel source
       tree (since Linux 2.6.23)

       This page is part of release 5.12 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at

Linux                              2021-03-22                     GETPRIORITY(2)