GFDL(1)                     General Commands Manual                    GFDL(1)

       GFDL - The GNU Free Documentation License

                               Version 1.1, March 2000

       Copyright (c) 2000  Free Software Foundation, Inc.  59 Temple Place,
       Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA

       Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
       license document, but changing it is not allowed.

       The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
       written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the
       effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
       modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.  Secondarily,
       this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit
       for their work, while not being considered responsible for
       modifications made by others.

       This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works
       of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It
       complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license
       designed for free software.

       We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
       software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
       program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
       software does.  But this License is not limited to software manuals; it
       can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
       whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this License
       principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

       This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice
       placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the
       terms of this License.  The "Document", below, refers to any such
       manual or work.  Any member of the public is a licensee, and is
       addressed as "you."

       A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
       Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
       modifications and/or translated into another language.

       A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
       the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
       publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
       (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
       within that overall subject.  (For example, if the Document is in part
       a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
       mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of historical
       connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
       commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding

       The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
       are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
       that says that the Document is released under this License.

       The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
       as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
       the Document is released under this License.

       A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
       represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
       public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
       straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
       pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
       drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
       for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to
       text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format
       whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent
       modification by readers is not Transparent.  A copy that is not
       "Transparent" is called "Opaque."

       Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
       without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML
       using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML
       designed for human modification.  Opaque formats include PostScript,
       PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
       proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
       processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated
       HTML produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

       The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus
       such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this
       License requires to appear in the title page.  For works in formats
       which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text
       near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the
       beginning of the body of the text.

       You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
       commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
       copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
       to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
       conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
       technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
       copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However, you may accept
       compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute a large enough
       number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

       You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
       you may publicly display copies.

       If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
       and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
       enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these
       Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts
       on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
       you as the publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present the
       full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible.
       You may add other material on the covers in addition.  Copying with
       changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of
       the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim
       copying in other respects.

       If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
       legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
       reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent

       If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
       more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
       copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
       a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
       Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the
       general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
       charge using public-standard network protocols.  If you use the latter
       option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
       distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this
       Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location
       until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque
       copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to
       the public.

       It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
       Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
       them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

       You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
       the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the
       Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
       Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
       and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of
       it.  In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

       A.     Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
              distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous
              versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
              History section of the Document).  You may use the same title as
              a previous version if the original publisher of that version
              gives permission.

       B.     List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
              entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
              Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal
              authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has
              less than five).

       C.     State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
              Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D.     Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E.     Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
              adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F.     Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
              notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version
              under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the
              Addendum below.

       G.     Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
              Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
              license notice.

       H.     Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I.     Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add
              to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
              publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.
              If there is no section entitled "History" in the Document,
              create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of
              the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item
              describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous

       J.     Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
              public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
              likewise the network locations given in the Document for
              previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in the
              "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a work
              that was published at least four years before the Document
              itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
              gives permission.

       K.     In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
              preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all
              the substance and tone of each of the contributor
              acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L.     Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered
              in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers or the
              equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

       M.     Delete any section entitled "Endorsements."  Such a section may
              not be included in the Modified Version.

       N.     Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to
              conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

       If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
       appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
       copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
       of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles to the
       list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
       These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

       You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
       nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
       parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
       been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a

       You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
       passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
       of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage of Front-
       Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through
       arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document already includes
       a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by
       arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you
       may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
       permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

       The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
       give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
       imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

       You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
       License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
       versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
       Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
       list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
       license notice.

       The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
       multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
       copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
       different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
       adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
       author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
       Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant
       Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

       In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in
       the various original documents, forming one section entitled "History";
       likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any
       sections entitled "Dedications."  You must delete all sections entitled

       You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
       documents released under this License, and replace the individual
       copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that
       is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of
       this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other

       You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
       distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
       copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
       License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that

       A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
       and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
       distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of
       the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the
       compilation.  Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this
       License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled
       with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they are
       not themselves derivative works of the Document.

       If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
       copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter
       of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
       covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate.  Otherwise
       they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.

       Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
       translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.  Replacing
       Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from
       their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or
       all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these
       Invariant Sections.  You may include a translation of this License
       provided that you also include the original English version of this
       License.  In case of a disagreement between the translation and the
       original English version of this License, the original English version
       will prevail.

       You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
       as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other attempt to
       copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
       automatically terminate your rights under this License.  However,
       parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
       License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties
       remain in full compliance.

       The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the
       GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new versions
       will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
       detail to address new problems or concerns.  See

       Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
       If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
       License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
       following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
       of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
       Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
       number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
       as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
       To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
       the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
       notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (c) [year]  [your name].  Permission is granted to copy,
       distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free
       Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by
       the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being [list
       their titles], with the Front-Cover Texts being [list], and with the
       Back-Cover Texts being [list].  A copy of the license is included in
       the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License."

       If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections"
       instead of saying which ones are invariant.  If you have no Front-Cover
       Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being
       [list]"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

       If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
       recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
       free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
       permit their use in free software.

4th Berkeley Distribution        2001 April 23                         GFDL(1)