git-add

GIT-ADD(1)                         Git Manual                         GIT-ADD(1)



NAME
       git-add - Add file contents to the index

SYNOPSIS
       git add [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
                 [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
                 [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--renormalize]
                 [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]]
                 [--] [<pathspec>...]


DESCRIPTION
       This command updates the index using the current content found in the
       working tree, to prepare the content staged for the next commit. It
       typically adds the current content of existing paths as a whole, but with
       some options it can also be used to add content with only part of the
       changes made to the working tree files applied, or remove paths that do
       not exist in the working tree anymore.

       The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the working tree, and it
       is this snapshot that is taken as the contents of the next commit. Thus
       after making any changes to the working tree, and before running the
       commit command, you must use the add command to add any new or modified
       files to the index.

       This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. It only
       adds the content of the specified file(s) at the time the add command is
       run; if you want subsequent changes included in the next commit, then you
       must run git add again to add the new content to the index.

       The git status command can be used to obtain a summary of which files
       have changes that are staged for the next commit.

       The git add command will not add ignored files by default. If any ignored
       files were explicitly specified on the command line, git add will fail
       with a list of ignored files. Ignored files reached by directory
       recursion or filename globbing performed by Git (quote your globs before
       the shell) will be silently ignored. The git add command can be used to
       add ignored files with the -f (force) option.

       Please see git-commit(1) for alternative ways to add content to a commit.

OPTIONS
       <pathspec>...
           Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g.  *.c) can be given to add
           all matching files. Also a leading directory name (e.g.  dir to add
           dir/file1 and dir/file2) can be given to update the index to match
           the current state of the directory as a whole (e.g. specifying dir
           will record not just a file dir/file1 modified in the working tree, a
           file dir/file2 added to the working tree, but also a file dir/file3
           removed from the working tree). Note that older versions of Git used
           to ignore removed files; use --no-all option if you want to add
           modified or new files but ignore removed ones.

           For more details about the <pathspec> syntax, see the pathspec entry
           in gitglossary(7).

       -n, --dry-run
           Don’t actually add the file(s), just show if they exist and/or will
           be ignored.

       -v, --verbose
           Be verbose.

       -f, --force
           Allow adding otherwise ignored files.

       -i, --interactive
           Add modified contents in the working tree interactively to the index.
           Optional path arguments may be supplied to limit operation to a
           subset of the working tree. See “Interactive mode” for details.

       -p, --patch
           Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and the work
           tree and add them to the index. This gives the user a chance to
           review the difference before adding modified contents to the index.

           This effectively runs add --interactive, but bypasses the initial
           command menu and directly jumps to the patch subcommand. See
           “Interactive mode” for details.

       -e, --edit
           Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the user edit it.
           After the editor was closed, adjust the hunk headers and apply the
           patch to the index.

           The intent of this option is to pick and choose lines of the patch to
           apply, or even to modify the contents of lines to be staged. This can
           be quicker and more flexible than using the interactive hunk
           selector. However, it is easy to confuse oneself and create a patch
           that does not apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.

       -u, --update
           Update the index just where it already has an entry matching
           <pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies index entries to match
           the working tree, but adds no new files.

           If no <pathspec> is given when -u option is used, all tracked files
           in the entire working tree are updated (old versions of Git used to
           limit the update to the current directory and its subdirectories).

       -A, --all, --no-ignore-removal
           Update the index not only where the working tree has a file matching
           <pathspec> but also where the index already has an entry. This adds,
           modifies, and removes index entries to match the working tree.

           If no <pathspec> is given when -A option is used, all files in the
           entire working tree are updated (old versions of Git used to limit
           the update to the current directory and its subdirectories).

       --no-all, --ignore-removal
           Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to the index
           and files modified in the working tree, but ignore files that have
           been removed from the working tree. This option is a no-op when no
           <pathspec> is used.

           This option is primarily to help users who are used to older versions
           of Git, whose "git add <pathspec>..." was a synonym for "git add
           --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.

       -N, --intent-to-add
           Record only the fact that the path will be added later. An entry for
           the path is placed in the index with no content. This is useful for,
           among other things, showing the unstaged content of such files with
           git diff and committing them with git commit -a.

       --refresh
           Don’t add the file(s), but only refresh their stat() information in
           the index.

       --ignore-errors
           If some files could not be added because of errors indexing them, do
           not abort the operation, but continue adding the others. The command
           shall still exit with non-zero status. The configuration variable
           add.ignoreErrors can be set to true to make this the default
           behaviour.

       --ignore-missing
           This option can only be used together with --dry-run. By using this
           option the user can check if any of the given files would be ignored,
           no matter if they are already present in the work tree or not.

       --no-warn-embedded-repo
           By default, git add will warn when adding an embedded repository to
           the index without using git submodule add to create an entry in
           .gitmodules. This option will suppress the warning (e.g., if you are
           manually performing operations on submodules).

       --renormalize
           Apply the "clean" process freshly to all tracked files to forcibly
           add them again to the index. This is useful after changing
           core.autocrlf configuration or the text attribute in order to correct
           files added with wrong CRLF/LF line endings. This option implies -u.

       --chmod=(+|-)x
           Override the executable bit of the added files. The executable bit is
           only changed in the index, the files on disk are left unchanged.

       --pathspec-from-file=<file>
           Pathspec is passed in <file> instead of commandline args. If <file>
           is exactly - then standard input is used. Pathspec elements are
           separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be quoted as
           explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-
           config(1)). See also --pathspec-file-nul and global
           --literal-pathspecs.

       --pathspec-file-nul
           Only meaningful with --pathspec-from-file. Pathspec elements are
           separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
           literally (including newlines and quotes).

       --
           This option can be used to separate command-line options from the
           list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken for
           command-line options).

EXAMPLES
       •   Adds content from all *.txt files under Documentation directory and
           its subdirectories:

               $ git add Documentation/\*.txt

           Note that the asterisk * is quoted from the shell in this example;
           this lets the command include the files from subdirectories of
           Documentation/ directory.

       •   Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts:

               $ git add git-*.sh

           Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you are
           listing the files explicitly), it does not consider
           subdir/git-foo.sh.

INTERACTIVE MODE
       When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the output of the
       status subcommand, and then goes into its interactive command loop.

       The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and gives a
       prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt ends with a single >,
       you can pick only one of the choices given and type return, like this:

               *** Commands ***
                 1: status       2: update       3: revert       4: add untracked
                 5: patch        6: diff         7: quit         8: help
               What now> 1


       You also could say s or sta or status above as long as the choice is
       unique.

       The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).

       status
           This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what will be
           committed if you say git commit), and between index and working tree
           files (i.e. what you could stage further before git commit using git
           add) for each path. A sample output looks like this:

                             staged     unstaged path
                    1:       binary      nothing foo.png
                    2:     +403/-35        +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl

           It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (but that is binary
           so line count cannot be shown) and there is no difference between
           indexed copy and the working tree version (if the working tree
           version were also different, binary would have been shown in place of
           nothing). The other file, git-add--interactive.perl, has 403 lines
           added and 35 lines deleted if you commit what is in the index, but
           working tree file has further modifications (one addition and one
           deletion).

       update
           This shows the status information and issues an "Update>>" prompt.
           When the prompt ends with double >>, you can make more than one
           selection, concatenated with whitespace or comma. Also you can say
           ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9" to choose 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the
           second number in a range is omitted, all remaining patches are taken.
           E.g. "7-" to choose 7,8,9 from the list. You can say * to choose
           everything.

           What you chose are then highlighted with *, like this:

                          staged     unstaged path
                 1:       binary      nothing foo.png
               * 2:     +403/-35        +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl

           To remove selection, prefix the input with - like this:

               Update>> -2

           After making the selection, answer with an empty line to stage the
           contents of working tree files for selected paths in the index.

       revert
           This has a very similar UI to update, and the staged information for
           selected paths are reverted to that of the HEAD version. Reverting
           new paths makes them untracked.

       add untracked
           This has a very similar UI to update and revert, and lets you add
           untracked paths to the index.

       patch
           This lets you choose one path out of a status like selection. After
           choosing the path, it presents the diff between the index and the
           working tree file and asks you if you want to stage the change of
           each hunk. You can select one of the following options and type
           return:

               y - stage this hunk
               n - do not stage this hunk
               q - quit; do not stage this hunk or any of the remaining ones
               a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file
               d - do not stage this hunk or any of the later hunks in the file
               g - select a hunk to go to
               / - search for a hunk matching the given regex
               j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk
               J - leave this hunk undecided, see next hunk
               k - leave this hunk undecided, see previous undecided hunk
               K - leave this hunk undecided, see previous hunk
               s - split the current hunk into smaller hunks
               e - manually edit the current hunk
               ? - print help

           After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any hunk that was
           chosen, the index is updated with the selected hunks.

           You can omit having to type return here, by setting the configuration
           variable interactive.singleKey to true.

       diff
           This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between HEAD and
           index).

EDITING PATCHES
       Invoking git add -e or selecting e from the interactive hunk selector
       will open a patch in your editor; after the editor exits, the result is
       applied to the index. You are free to make arbitrary changes to the
       patch, but note that some changes may have confusing results, or even
       result in a patch that cannot be applied. If you want to abort the
       operation entirely (i.e., stage nothing new in the index), simply delete
       all lines of the patch. The list below describes some common things you
       may see in a patch, and which editing operations make sense on them.

       added content
           Added content is represented by lines beginning with "+". You can
           prevent staging any addition lines by deleting them.

       removed content
           Removed content is represented by lines beginning with "-". You can
           prevent staging their removal by converting the "-" to a " " (space).

       modified content
           Modified content is represented by "-" lines (removing the old
           content) followed by "+" lines (adding the replacement content). You
           can prevent staging the modification by converting "-" lines to " ",
           and removing "+" lines. Beware that modifying only half of the pair
           is likely to introduce confusing changes to the index.

       There are also more complex operations that can be performed. But beware
       that because the patch is applied only to the index and not the working
       tree, the working tree will appear to "undo" the change in the index. For
       example, introducing a new line into the index that is in neither the
       HEAD nor the working tree will stage the new line for commit, but the
       line will appear to be reverted in the working tree.

       Avoid using these constructs, or do so with extreme caution.

       removing untouched content
           Content which does not differ between the index and working tree may
           be shown on context lines, beginning with a " " (space). You can
           stage context lines for removal by converting the space to a "-". The
           resulting working tree file will appear to re-add the content.

       modifying existing content
           One can also modify context lines by staging them for removal (by
           converting " " to "-") and adding a "+" line with the new content.
           Similarly, one can modify "+" lines for existing additions or
           modifications. In all cases, the new modification will appear
           reverted in the working tree.

       new content
           You may also add new content that does not exist in the patch; simply
           add new lines, each starting with "+". The addition will appear
           reverted in the working tree.

       There are also several operations which should be avoided entirely, as
       they will make the patch impossible to apply:

       •   adding context (" ") or removal ("-") lines

       •   deleting context or removal lines

       •   modifying the contents of context or removal lines

SEE ALSO
       git-status(1) git-rm(1) git-reset(1) git-mv(1) git-commit(1) git-update-
       index(1)

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 2.30.0                         12/28/2020                         GIT-ADD(1)