git-annex(1)                 General Commands Manual                git-annex(1)

       git-annex - manage files with git, without checking their contents in

       git annex command [params ...]

       git-annex allows managing files with git, without checking the file
       contents into git. While that may seem paradoxical, it is useful when
       dealing with files larger than git can currently easily handle, whether
       due to limitations in memory, checksumming time, or disk space.

       Even without file content tracking, being able to manage files with git,
       move files around and delete files with versioned directory trees, and
       use branches and distributed clones, are all very handy reasons to use
       git. And annexed files can co-exist in the same git repository with
       regularly versioned files, which is convenient for maintaining documents,
       Makefiles, etc that are associated with annexed files but that benefit
       from full revision control.

       When a file is annexed, its content is moved into a key-value store, and
       a symlink is made that points to the content. These symlinks are checked
       into git and versioned like regular files. You can move them around,
       delete them, and so on. Pushing to another git repository will make git-
       annex there aware of the annexed file, and it can be used to retrieve its
       content from the key-value store.

        # git annex get video/
        get video/ (not available)
          I was unable to access these remotes: server
          Try making some of these repositories available:
            5863d8c0-d9a9-11df-adb2-af51e6559a49  -- my home file server
            58d84e8a-d9ae-11df-a1aa-ab9aa8c00826  -- portable USB drive
            ca20064c-dbb5-11df-b2fe-002170d25c55  -- backup SATA drive
        # sudo mount /media/usb
        # git remote add usbdrive /media/usb
        # git annex get video/
        get video/ (from usbdrive...) ok

        # git annex add iso
        add iso/Debian_5.0.iso ok

        # git annex drop iso/Debian_4.0.iso
        drop iso/Debian_4.0.iso ok

        # git annex move iso --to=usbdrive
        move iso/Debian_5.0.iso (moving to usbdrive...) ok

       Like many git commands, git-annex can be passed a path that is either a
       file or a directory. In the latter case it acts on all relevant files in
       the directory. When no path is specified, most git-annex commands default
       to acting on all relevant files in the current directory (and

       help   Display built-in help.

              For help on a specific command, use git annex help command

       add [path ...]
              Adds files in the path to the annex. If no path is specified, adds
              files from the current directory and below.

              See git-annex-add(1) for details.

       get [path ...]
              Makes the content of annexed files available in this repository.

              See git-annex-get(1) for details.

       drop [path ...]
              Drops the content of annexed files from this repository.

              See git-annex-drop(1) for details.

       move [path ...] [--from=remote|--to=remote]
              Moves the content of files from or to another remote.

              See git-annex-move(1) for details.

       copy [path ...] [--from=remote|--to=remote]
              Copies the content of files from or to another remote.

              See git-annex-copy(1) for details.

       status [path ...]
              Similar to git status --short, displays the status of the files in
              the working tree. Particularly useful in direct mode.

              See git-annex-status(1) for details.

       unlock [path ...]
              Unlock annexed files for modification.

              See git-annex-unlock(1) for details.

       edit [path ...]
              This is an alias for the unlock command. May be easier to
              remember, if you think of this as allowing you to edit an annexed

       lock [path ...]
              Use this to undo an unlock command if you don't want to modify the
              files, or have made modifications you want to discard.

              See git-annex-lock(1) for details.

       sync [remote ...]
              Synchronize local repository with remotes.

              See git-annex-sync(1) for details.

       mirror [path ...] [--to=remote|--from=remote]
              Mirror content of files to/from another repository.

              See git-annex-mirror(1) for details.

       addurl [url ...]
              Downloads each url to its own file, which is added to the annex.

              See git-annex-addurl(1) for details.

       rmurl file url
              Record that the file is no longer available at the url.

              See git-annex-rmurl(1) for details.

       import [path ...]
              Move and add files from outside git working copy into the annex.

              See git-annex-import(1) for details.

       importfeed [url ...]
              Imports the contents of podcast feeds into the annex.

              See git-annex-importfeed(1) for details.

       export treeish --to remote
              Export content to a remote.

              See git-annex-export(1) for details.

       undo [filename|directory] ...
              Undo last change to a file or directory.

              See git-annex-undo(1) for details.

              Multicast file distribution.

              See git-annex-multicast(1) for details.

       watch  Watch for changes and autocommit.

              See git-annex-watch(1) for details.

              Automatically sync folders between devices.

              See git-annex-assistant(1) for details.

       webapp Opens a web app, that allows easy setup of a git-annex repository,
              and control of the git-annex assistant. If the assistant is not
              already running, it will be started.

              See git-annex-webapp(1) for details.

       init [description]

              Until a repository (or one of its remotes) has been initialized,
              git-annex will refuse to operate on it, to avoid accidentally
              using it in a repository that was not intended to have an annex.

              See git-annex-init(1) for details.

       describe repository description
              Changes the description of a repository.

              See git-annex-describe(1) for details.

       initremote name type=value [param=value ...]
              Creates a new special remote, and adds it to .git/config.

              See git-annex-initremote(1) for details.

       enableremote name [param=value ...]
              Enables use of an existing special remote in the current

              See git-annex-enableremote(1) for details.

              Sets up tor hidden service.

              See git-annex-enable-tor(1) for details.

       numcopies [N]
              Configure desired number of copies.

              See git-annex-numcopies(1) for details.

       trust [repository ...]
              Records that a repository is trusted to not unexpectedly lose
              content. Use with care.

              See git-annex-trust(1) for details.

       untrust [repository ...]
              Records that a repository is not trusted and could lose content at
              any time.

              See git-annex-untrust(1) for details.

       semitrust [repository ...]
              Returns a repository to the default semi trusted state.

              See git-annex-semitrust(1) for details.

       group repository groupname
              Add a repository to a group.

              See git-annex-group(1) for details.

       ungroup repository groupname
              Removes a repository from a group.

              See git-annex-ungroup(1) for details.

       wanted repository [expression]
              Get or set preferred content expression.

              See git-annex-wanted(1) for details.

       groupwanted groupname [expression]
              Get or set groupwanted expression.

              See git-annex-groupwanted(1) for details.

       required repository [expression]
              Get or set required content expression.

              See git-annex-required(1) for details.

       schedule repository [expression]
              Get or set scheduled jobs.

              See git-annex-schedule(1) for details.

       config Get and set other configuration stored in git-annex branch.

              See git-annex-config(1) for details.

       vicfg  Opens EDITOR on a temp file containing most of the above
              configuration settings, as well as a few others, and when it
              exits, stores any changes made back to the git-annex branch.

              See git-annex-vicfg(1) for details.

       direct Switches a repository to use direct mode, where rather than
              symlinks to files, the files are directly present in the

              See git-annex-direct(1) for details.

              Switches a repository back from direct mode to the default,
              indirect mode.

              See git-annex-indirect(1) for details.

       adjust Switches a repository to use an adjusted branch, which can
              automatically unlock all files, etc.

              See git-annex-adjust(1) for details.

       fsck [path ...]

              Checks the annex consistency, and warns about or fixes any
              problems found.  This is a good complement to git fsck.

              See git-annex-fsck(1) for details.

       expire [repository:]time ...
              Expires repositories that have not recently performed an activity
              (such as a fsck).

              See git-annex-expire(1) for details.

       unused Checks the annex for data that does not correspond to any files
              present in any tag or branch, and prints a numbered list of the

              See git-annex-unused(1) for details.

       dropunused [number|range ...]
              Drops the data corresponding to the numbers, as listed by the last
              git annex unused

              See git-annex-dropunused(1) for details.

       addunused [number|range ...]
              Adds back files for the content corresponding to the numbers or
              ranges, as listed by the last git annex unused.

              See git-annex-addunused(1) for details.

       fix [path ...]
              Fixes up symlinks that have become broken to again point to
              annexed content.

              See git-annex-fix(1) for details.

       merge  Automatically merge changes from remotes.

              See git-annex-merge(1) for details.

              Upgrades the repository to current layout.

              See git-annex-upgrade(1) for details.

       dead [repository ...] [--key key]
              Indicates that a repository or a single key has been irretrievably

              See git-annex-dead(1) for details.

       forget Causes the git-annex branch to be rewritten, throwing away
              historical data about past locations of files.

              See git-annex-forget(1) for details.

       repair This can repair many of the problems with git repositories that
              git fsck detects, but does not itself fix. It's useful if a
              repository has become badly damaged. One way this can happen is if
              a repository used by git-annex is on a removable drive that gets
              unplugged at the wrong time.

              See git-annex-repair(1) for details.

       p2p    Configure peer-2-Peer links between repositories.

              See git-annex-p2p(1) for details.

       find [path ...]

              Outputs a list of annexed files in the specified path. With no
              path, finds files in the current directory and its subdirectories.

              See git-annex-find(1) for details.

       whereis [path ...]
              Displays information about where the contents of files are

              See git-annex-whereis(1) for details.

       list [path ...]
              Displays a table of remotes that contain the contents of the
              specified files. This is similar to whereis but a more compact

              See git-annex-list(1) for details.

       log [path ...]
              Displays the location log for the specified file or files, showing
              each repository they were added to ("+") and removed from ("-").

              See git-annex-log(1) for details.

       info [directory|file|remote|uuid ...]
              Displays statistics and other information for the specified item,
              which can be a directory, or a file, or a remote, or the uuid of a

              When no item is specified, displays statistics and information for
              the repository as a whole.

              See git-annex-info(1) for details.

              Shows the version of git-annex, as well as repository version

              See git-annex-version(1) for details.

       map    Generate map of repositories.

              See git-annex-map(1) for details.

              Access files while they're being downloaded.

              See git-annex-inprogress(1) for details.

       metadata [path ...]

              The content of an annexed file can have any number of metadata
              fields attached to it to describe it. Each metadata field can in
              turn have any number of values.

              This command can be used to set metadata, or show the currently
              set metadata.

              See git-annex-metadata(1) for details.

       view [tag ...] [field=value ...] [field=glob ...] [!tag ...]
       [field!=value ...]
              Uses metadata to build a view branch of the files in the current
              branch, and checks out the view branch. Only files in the current
              branch whose metadata matches all the specified field values and
              tags will be shown in the view.

              See git-annex-view(1) for details.

       vpop [N]
              Switches from the currently active view back to the previous view.
              Or, from the first view back to original branch.

              See git-annex-vpop(1) for details.

       vfilter [tag ...] [field=value ...] [!tag ...] [field!=value ...]
              Filters the current view to only the files that have the specified
              field values and tags.

              See git-annex-vfilter(1) for details.

       vadd [field=glob ...] [field=value ...] [tag ...]
              Changes the current view, adding an additional level of
              directories to categorize the files.

              See git-annex-vfilter(1) for details.

       vcycle When a view involves nested subdirectories, this cycles the order.

              See git-annex-vcycle(1) for details.

       migrate [path ...]

              Changes the specified annexed files to use a different key-value

              See git-annex-migrate(1) for details.

       reinject src dest
              Moves the src file into the annex as the content of the dest file.
              This can be useful if you have obtained the content of a file from
              elsewhere and want to put it in the local annex.

              See git-annex-reinject(1) for details.

       unannex [path ...]
              Use this to undo an accidental git annex add command. It puts the
              file back how it was before the add.

              See git-annex-unannex(1) for details.

       uninit De-initialize git-annex and clean out repository.

              See git-annex-uninit(1) for details.

       reinit uuid|description
              Initialize repository, reusing old UUID.

              See git-annex-reinit(1) for details.

       pre-commit [path ...]

              This is meant to be called from git's pre-commit hook. git annex
              init automatically creates a pre-commit hook using this.

              See git-annex-pre-commit(1) for details.

              This is meant to be called from git's post-receive hook. git annex
              init automatically creates a post-receive hook using this.

              See git-annex-post-receive(1) for details.

       lookupkey [file ...]
              Looks up key used for file.

              See git-annex-lookupkey(1) for details.

       calckey [file ...]
              Calculates the key that would be used to refer to a file.

              See git-annex-calckey(1) for details.

       contentlocation [key ..]
              Looks up location of annexed content for a key.

              See git-annex-contentlocation(1) for details.

       examinekey [key ...]
              Print information that can be determined purely by looking at the

              See git-annex-examinekey(1) for details.

              Checks if a preferred content expression matches provided data.

              See git-annex-matchexpression(1) for details.

       fromkey [key file]
              Manually set up a file in the git repository to link to a
              specified key.

              See git-annex-fromkey(1) for details.

       registerurl [key url]
              Registers an url for a key.

              See git-annex-registerurl(1) for details.

       setkey key file
              Moves a file into the annex as the content of a key.

              See git-annex-setkey(1) for details.

       dropkey [key ...]
              Drops annexed content for specified keys.

              See git-annex-dropkey(1) for details.

       transferkey key [--from=remote|--to=remote]
              Transfers a key from or to a remote.

              See git-annex-transferkey(1) for details.

              Used internally by the assistant.

              See git-annex-transferkey(1) for details.

       setpresentkey key uuid [1|0]
              This plumbing-level command changes git-annex's records about
              whether the specified key's content is present in a remote with
              the specified uuid.

              See git-annex-setpresentkey(1) for details.

       readpresentkey key uuid
              Read records of where key is present.

              See git-annex-readpresentkey(1) for details.

       checkpresentkey key remote
              Check if key is present in remote.

              See git-annex-checkpresentkey(1) for details.

       rekey [file key ...]
              Change keys used for files.

              See git-annex-rekey(1) for details.

       findref [ref]
              Lists files in a git ref.

              See git-annex-findref(1) for details.

       proxy -- git cmd [options]
              Only useful in a direct mode repository, this runs the specified
              git command with a temporary work tree, and updates the working
              tree to reflect any changes staged or committed by the git

              See git-annex-proxy(1) for details.

              Resolves a conflicted merge, by adding both conflicting versions
              of the file to the tree, using variants of their filename. This is
              done automatically when using git annex sync or git annex merge.

              See git-annex-resolvemerge(1) for details.

              This can be used to make git diff use an external diff driver with
              annexed files.

              See git-annex-diffdriver(1) for details.

       smudge This command lets git-annex be used as a git filter driver,
              allowing annexed files in the git repository to be unlocked at all
              times, instead of being symlinks.

              See git-annex-smudge(1) for details.

              Detects when network remotes have received git pushes and fetches
              from them.

              See git-annex-remotedaemon(1) for details.


              This runs git-annex's built-in test suite.

              See git-annex-test(1) for details.

       testremote remote
              This tests a remote by generating some random objects and sending
              them to the remote, then redownloading them, removing them from
              the remote, etc.

              It's safe to run in an existing repository (the repository
              contents are not altered), although it may perform expensive data

              See git-annex-testremote(1) for details.

              Generates random changes to files in the current repository, for
              use in testing the assistant.

              See git-annex-fuzztest(1) for details.

              This runs git-annex's built-in benchmarks, if it was built with
              benchmarking support.

       These common options are accepted by all git-annex commands, and may not
       be explicitly listed on their individual man pages.  (Many commands also
       accept the git-annex-matching-options(1).)

              Force unsafe actions, such as dropping a file's content when no
              other source of it can be verified to still exist, or adding
              ignored files.  Use with care.

       --fast Enable less expensive, but also less thorough versions of some
              commands.  What is avoided depends on the command.

              Avoid the default verbose display of what is done; only show

              Enable verbose display.

              Show debug messages.

              Disable debug messages.

              Overrides the numcopies setting, forcing git-annex to ensure the
              specified number of copies exist.

              Note that setting numcopies to 0 is very unsafe.

              Limits how long a git-annex command runs. The time can be
              something like "5h", or "30m" or even "45s" or "10d".

              Note that git-annex may continue running a little past the
              specified time limit, in order to finish processing a file.

              Also, note that if the time limit prevents git-annex from doing
              all it was asked to, it will exit with a special code, 101.



              Overrides trust settings for a repository. May be specified more
              than once.

              The repository should be specified using the name of a configured
              remote, or the UUID or description of a repository.

              Amazon Glacier inventories take hours to retrieve, and may not
              represent the current state of a repository. So git-annex does not
              trust that files that the inventory claims are in Glacier are
              really there.  This switch can be used to allow it to trust the

              Be careful using this, especially if you or someone else might
              have recently removed a file from Glacier. If you try to drop the
              only other copy of the file, and this switch is enabled, you could
              lose data!

              Specifies which key-value backend to use. This can be used when
              adding a file to the annex, or migrating a file. Once files are in
              the annex, their backend is known and this option is not

              Overrides the User-Agent to use when downloading files from the

              Caused a desktop notification to be displayed after each
              successful file download and upload.

              (Only supported on some platforms, e.g. Linux with dbus. A no-op
              when not supported.)

              Caused a desktop notification to be displayed when a file upload
              or download has started, or when a file is dropped.

       -c name=value
              Overrides git configuration settings. May be specified multiple

       Like other git commands, git-annex is configured via .git/config.  Here
       are all the supported configuration settings.

              A unique UUID for this repository (automatically set).

              Name of the default key-value backend to use when adding new files
              to the repository.

              This is overridden by annex annex.backend configuration in the
              .gitattributes files, and by the --backend option.

              (This used to be named annex.backends, and that will still be used
              if set.)

              Set to true to indicate that the repository should only use
              cryptographically secure hashes (SHA2, SHA3) and not insecure
              hashes (MD5, SHA1) for content.

       When this is set, the contents of files using cryptographically insecure
       hashes will not be allowed to be added to the repository.

       Also, git-annex fsck will complain about any files present in the
       repository that use insecure hashes.

       To configure the behavior in new clones of the repository, this can be
       set in git-annex-config.

              Amount of disk space to reserve. Disk space is checked when
              transferring content to avoid running out, and additional free
              space can be reserved via this option, to make space for more
              important content (such as git commit logs). Can be specified with
              any commonly used units, for example, "0.5 gb", "500M", or "100

              The default reserve is 1 megabyte.

              Used to configure which files are large enough to be added to the
              annex.  Default: All files.

              Overrides any annex.largefiles attributes in .gitattributes files.

              See <> for

              Controls whether small files (not matching annex.largefiles)
              should be checked into git by git annex add. Defaults to true; set
              to false to instead make small files be skipped.

              Set to true to make commands like git-annex add that add files to
              the repository add them in unlocked form. The default is to add
              files in locked form. This only has effect in version 6

              When a repository has core.symlinks set to false, it implicitly
              sets annex.addunlocked to true.

              This is a deprecated setting. You should instead use the git annex
              numcopies command to configure how many copies of files are kept
              across all repositories, or the annex.numcopies .gitattributes

              This config setting is only looked at when git annex numcopies has
              never been configured, and when there's no annex.numcopies setting
              in the .gitattributes file.

              Note that setting numcopies to 0 is very unsafe.

              Set this to true to make git-annex automatically generate some
              metadata when adding files to the repository.

              In particular, it stores year, month, and day metadata, from the
              file's modification date.

              When importfeed is used, it stores additional metadata from the
              feed, such as the author, title, etc.

              This controls which refs git-annex unused considers to be used.
              See REFSPEC FORMAT in git-annex-unused(1) for details.

              git-annex builds a queue of git commands, in order to combine
              similar commands for speed. By default the size of the queue is
              limited to 10240 commands; this can be used to change the size. If
              you have plenty of memory and are working with very large numbers
              of files, increasing the queue size can speed it up.

              The git annex unused and git annex sync --content commands use a
              bloom filter to determine what files are present in eg, the work
              tree.  The default bloom filter is sized to handle up to 500000
              files. If your repository is larger than that, you should increase
              this value. Larger values will make git-annex unused and git annex
              sync --content consume more memory; run git annex info for memory
              usage numbers.

              Adjusts the accuracy of the bloom filter used by git annex unused
              and git annex sync --content.  The default accuracy is 10000000 --
              1 unused file out of 10000000 will be missed by git annex unused.
              Increasing the accuracy will make git annex unused consume more
              memory; run git annex info for memory usage numbers.

              By default, git-annex caches ssh connections using ssh's
              ControlMaster and ControlPersist settings (if built using a new
              enough ssh). To disable this, set to false.

              By default, git-annex automatically commits data to the git-annex
              branch after each command is run. If you have a series of commands
              that you want to make a single commit, you can run the commands
              with -c annex.alwayscommit=false. You can later commit the data by
              running git annex merge (or by automatic merges) or git annex

              You should beware running git gc when using this configuration,
              since it could garbage collect objects that are staged in git-
              annex's index but not yet committed.

              When git-annex updates the git-annex branch, it usually makes up
              its own commit message ("update"), since users rarely look at or
              care about changes to that branch. If you do care, you can specify
              this setting by running commands with -c

              This works well in combination with annex.alwayscommit=false, to
              gather up a set of changes and commit them with a message you

              By default, git-annex branches that have been pulled from remotes
              are automatically merged into the local git-annex branch, so that
              git-annex has the most up-to-date possible knowledge.

              To avoid that merging, set this to "false". This can be useful
              particularly when you don't have write permission to the

              Set this to true to make file contents be hard linked between the
              repository and its remotes when possible, instead of a more
              expensive copy.

              Use with caution -- This can invalidate numcopies counting, since
              with hard links, fewer copies of a file can exist. So, it is a
              good idea to mark a repository using this setting as untrusted.

              When a repository is set up using git clone --shared, git-annex
              init will automatically set annex.hardlink and mark the repository
              as untrusted.

              Set this to true to make unlocked files be a hard link to their
              content in the annex, rather than a second copy. (Only when
              supported by the file system, and only in repository version 6.)
              This can save considerable disk space, but when a modification is
              made to a file, you will lose the local (and possibly only) copy
              of the old version. So, enable with care.

              After setting (or unsetting) this, you should run git annex fix to
              fix up the annexed files in the work tree to be hard links (or

              Note that annex.thin is not honored when git updates an annexed
              file in the working tree. So when git checkout or git merge
              updates the working tree, a second copy of annexed files will
              result. You can run git-annex fix to fix up the hard links after
              running such git commands.

              Makes the watch and assistant commands delay for the specified
              number of seconds before adding a newly created file to the annex.
              Normally this is not needed, because they already wait for all
              writers of the file to close it. On Mac OSX, when not using direct
              mode this defaults to 1 second, to work around a bad interaction
              with software there.

              Controls what the assistant does about unused file contents that
              are stored in the repository.

              The default is false, which causes all old and unused file
              contents to be retained, unless the assistant is able to move them
              to some other repository (such as a backup repository).

              Can be set to a time specification, like "7d" or "1m", and then
              file contents that have been known to be unused for a week or a
              month will be deleted.

              When set to false, prevents the webapp from reminding you when
              using repositories that lack consistency checks.

              When set to ask (the default), the webapp will check for new
              versions and prompt if they should be upgraded to. When set to
              true, automatically upgrades without prompting (on some supported
              platforms). When set to false, disables any upgrade checking.

              Note that upgrade checking is only done when git-annex is
              installed from one of the prebuilt images from its website. This
              does not bypass e.g., a Linux distribution's own upgrade handling

              This setting also controls whether to restart the git-annex
              assistant when the git-annex binary is detected to have changed.
              That is useful no matter how you installed git-annex.

              Set to false to prevent the git-annex assistant and git-annex sync
              from automatically committing changes to files in the repository.

              To configure the behavior in all clones of the repository, this
              can be set in git-annex-config.

              Set to false to prevent merge conflicts in the checked out branch
              being automatically resolved by the git-annex assitant, git-annex
              sync, git-annex merge, and the git-annex post-receive hook.

              To configure the behavior in all clones of the repository, this
              can be set in git-annex-config.

              Set to true to make git-annex sync default to syncing content.

              To configure the behavior in all clones of the repository, this
              can be set in git-annex-config.

              Set to false to prevent the git-annex assistant from scanning the
              repository for new and changed files on startup. This will prevent
              it from noticing changes that were made while it was not running,
              but can be a useful performance tweak for a large repository.

              Configures which address the webapp listens on. The default is
              localhost.  Can be either an IP address, or a hostname that
              resolves to the desired address.

              Set to true to enable debug logging by default.

              Automatically maintained, and used to automate upgrades between
              Set to true when the repository is in direct mode. Should not be
              set manually; use the "git annex direct" and "git annex indirect"
              commands instead.

              Set to true if the repository is on a crippled filesystem, such as
              FAT, which does not support symbolic links, or hard links, or unix
              permissions.  This is automatically probed by "git annex init".

              Normally, git-annex uses fine-grained lock files to allow multiple
              processes to run concurrently without getting in each others' way.
              That works great, unless you are using git-annex on a filesystem
              that does not support POSIX fcntl locks. This is sometimes the
              case when using NFS or Lustre filesystems.

              To support such situations, you can set annex.pidlock to true, and
              it will fall back to a single top-level pid file lock.

              Although, often, you'd really be better off fixing your networked
              filesystem configuration to support POSIX locks.. And, some
              networked filesystems are so inconsistent that one node can't
              reliably tell when the other node is holding a pid lock. Caveat

              When using pid lock files, it's possible for a stale lock file to
              get left behind by previous run of git-annex that crashed or was
              interrupted.  This is mostly avoided, but can occur especially
              when using a network file system.

              git-annex will wait up to this many seconds for the pid lock file
              to go away, and will then abort if it cannot continue. Default:

              When determining which repository to transfer annexed files from
              or to, ones with lower costs are preferred.  The default cost is
              100 for local repositories, and 200 for remote repositories.

              If set, the command is run, and the number it outputs is used as
              the cost.  This allows varying the cost based on e.g., the current

              A command to run when git-annex begins to use the remote. This can
              be used to, for example, mount the directory containing the

              The command may be run repeatedly when multiple git-annex
              processes are running concurrently.

              A command to run when git-annex is done using the remote.

              The command will only be run once *all* running git-annex
              processes are finished using the remote.

              Specify an alternative git-annex-shell executable on the remote
              instead of looking for "git-annex-shell" on the PATH.

              This is useful if the git-annex-shell program is outside the PATH
              or has a non-standard name.

              If set to true, prevents git-annex from storing file contents on
              this remote by default.  (You can still request it be used by the
              --from and --to options.)

              This is, for example, useful if the remote is located somewhere
              without git-annex-shell. (For example, if it's on GitHub).  Or, it
              could be used if the network connection between two repositories
              is too slow to be used normally.

              This does not prevent git-annex sync (or the git-annex assistant)
              from syncing the git repository to the remote.

              If set, the command is run, and if it exits nonzero, that's the
              same as setting annex-ignore to true. This allows controlling
              behavior based on e.g., the current network.

              If set to false, prevents git-annex sync (and the git-annex
              assistant) from syncing with this remote by default. However, git
              annex sync <name> can still be used to sync with the remote.

              If set, the command is run, and if it exits nonzero, that's the
              same as setting annex-sync to false. This allows controlling
              behavior based on e.g., the current network.

              If set to false, prevents git-annex sync (and the git-annex
              assistant etc) from ever pulling (or fetching) from the remote.

              If set to false, prevents git-annex sync (and the git-annex
              assistant etc) from ever pushing to the remote.

              If set to true, prevents git-annex from making changes to a
              remote.  This both prevents git-annex sync from pushing changes,
              and prevents storing or removing files from read-only remote.

       remote.<name>.annex-verify, annex.verify
              By default, git-annex will verify the checksums of objects
              downloaded from remotes. If you trust a remote and don't want the
              overhead of these checksums, you can set this to false.

              Note that even when this is set to false, git-annex does
              verification in some edge cases, where it's likely the case than
              an object was downloaded incorrectly, or when needed for security.

              When set to a branch name or other treeish, this makes what's
              exported to the special remote track changes to the branch. See
              git-annex-export(1). git-annex sync --content and the git-annex
              assistant update exports when changes have been committed to the
              tracking branch.

              Can be used to specify a different url than the regular
              remote.<name>.url for git-annex to use when talking with the
              remote. Similar to the pushUrl used by git-push.

              git-annex caches UUIDs of remote repositories here.

       remote.<name>.annex-retry, annex.retry
              Configure retries of failed transfers on a per-remote and general
              basis, respectively. The value is the number of retries that can
              be made of the same transfer. (default 0)

       remote.<name>.annex-retry-delay, annex.retry-delay
              Number of seconds to delay before the first retry of a transfer.
              When making multiple retries of the same transfer, the delay
              doubles after each retry. (default 1)

              This only affects remotes that have their url pointing to a
              directory on the same system. git-annex normally checks the uuid
              of such remotes each time it's run, which lets it transparently
              deal with different drives being mounted to the location at
              different times.

              Setting annex-checkuuid to false will prevent it from checking the
              uuid at startup (although the uuid is still verified before making
              any changes to the remote repository). This may be useful to set
              to prevent unncessary spin-up or automounting of a drive.

              Configures a local trust level for the remote. This overrides the
              value configured by the trust and untrust commands. The value can
              be any of "trusted", "semitrusted" or "untrusted".

              Can be used to tell git-annex whether a remote is LocallyAvailable
              or GloballyAvailable. Normally, git-annex determines this

              Set to "true" to make git-annex speculate that this remote may
              contain the content of any file, even though its normal location
              tracking does not indicate that it does. This will cause git-annex
              to try to get all file contents from the remote. Can be useful in
              setting up a caching remote.

              Can be used to tell git-annex if a remote is a bare repository or
              not. Normally, git-annex determines this automatically.

              Options to use when using ssh to talk to this remote.

              Options to use when using rsync to or from this remote. For
              example, to force IPv6, and limit the bandwidth to 100Kbyte/s, set
              it to -6 --bwlimit 100

              Note that git-annex-shell has a whitelist of allowed rsync
              options, and others will not be be passed to the remote rsync. So
              using some options may break the communication between the local
              and remote rsyncs.

              Options to use when using rsync to upload a file to a remote.

              These options are passed after other applicable rsync options, so
              can be used to override them. For example, to limit upload
              bandwidth to 10Kbyte/s, set --bwlimit 10.

              Options to use when using rsync to download a file from a remote.

              These options are passed after other applicable rsync options, so
              can be used to override them.

              The remote shell to use to connect to the rsync remote. Possible
              values are ssh (the default) and rsh, together with their
              arguments, for instance ssh -p 2222 -c blowfish; Note that the
              remote hostname should not appear there, see rsync(1) for details.
              When the transport used is ssh, connections are automatically
              cached unless annex.sshcaching is unset.

              Options to pass to bup split when storing content in this remote.
              For example, to limit the bandwidth to 100Kbyte/s, set it to
              --bwlimit 100k (There is no corresponding option for bup join.)

              Options to pass to GnuPG when it's encrypting data. For instance,
              to use the AES cipher with a 256 bits key and disable compression,
              set it to --cipher-algo AES256 --compress-algo none. (These
              options take precedence over the default GnuPG configuration,
              which is otherwise used.)

              Options to pass to GnuPG when it's decrypting data. (These options
              take precedence over the default GnuPG configuration, which is
              otherwise used.)

       annex.ssh-options, annex.rsync-options,
              annex.rsync-upload-options, annex.rsync-download-options,
              annex.bup-split-options, annex.gnupg-options,

              Default options to use if a remote does not have more specific
              options as described above.

              Options to pass to curl when git-annex uses it to download urls
              (rather than the default built-in url downloader).

              For example, to force IPv4 only, set it to "-4".  Or to make curl
              use your ~/.netrc file, set it to "--netrc".

              Setting this option makes git-annex use curl, but only when
     is configured in a specific
              way. See its documentation.
              Options to pass to youtube-dl when using it to find the url to
              download for a video.

              Some options may break git-annex's integration with youtube-dl.
              For example, the --output option could cause it to store files
              somewhere git-annex won't find them. Avoid setting here or in the
              youtube-dl config file any options that cause youtube-dl to
              download more than one file, or to store the file anywhere other
              than the current working directory.

              Options to pass to aria2c when using it to download a torrent.

              HTTP headers to send when downloading from the web. Multiple lines
              of this option can be set, one per header.

              If set, the command is run and each line of its output is used as
              a HTTP header. This overrides annex.http-headers.
              List of URL schemes that git-annex is allowed to download content
              from.  The default is "http https ftp".

              Think very carefully before changing this; there are security
              implications. For example, if it's changed to allow "file" URLs,
              then anyone who can get a commit into your git-annex repository
              could git-annex addurl a pointer to a private file located outside
              that repository, possibly causing it to be copied into your
              repository and transferred on to other remotes, exposing its

              Some special remotes support their own domain-specific URL
              schemes; those are not affected by this configuration setting.
              By default, git-annex only makes HTTP connections to public IP
              addresses; it will refuse to use HTTP servers on localhost or on a
              private network.

              This setting can override that behavior, allowing access to
              particular IP addresses. For example " ::1" allows access
              to localhost (both IPV4 and IPV6). To allow access to all IP
              addresses, use "all"

              Think very carefully before changing this; there are security
              implications. Anyone who can get a commit into your git-annex
              repository could git annex addurl an url on a private http server,
              possibly causing it to be downloaded into your repository and
              transferred to other remotes, exposing its content.

              Note that, since the interfaces of curl and youtube-dl do not
              allow these IP address restrictions to be enforced, curl and
              youtube-dl will never be used unless
              For security reasons, git-annex refuses to download content from
              most special remotes when it cannot check a hash to verify that
              the correct content was downloaded. This particularly impacts
              downloading the content of URL or WORM keys, which lack hashes.

              The best way to avoid problems due to this is to migrate files
              away from such keys, before their content reaches a special
              remote.  See git-annex-migrate(1).

              When the content is only available from a special remote, you can
              use this configuration to force git-annex to download it.  But you
              do so at your own risk, and it's very important you read and
              understand the information below first!

              Downloading unverified content from encrypted special remotes is
              prevented, because the special remote could send some other
              encrypted content than what you expect, causing git-annex to
              decrypt data that you never checked into git-annex, and risking
              exposing the decrypted data to any non-encrypted remotes you send
              content to.

              Downloading unverified content from (non-encrypted) external
              special remotes is prevented, because they could follow http
              redirects to web servers on localhost or on a private network, or
              in some cases to a file:/// url.

              If you decide to bypass this security check, the best thing to do
              is to only set it temporarily while running the command that gets
              the file.  The value to set the config to is "ACKTHPPT".  For

               git -c annex
              get myfile

              It would be a good idea to check that it downloaded the file you
              expected, too.
              This can be set to a command that should be run whenever git-annex
              removes the content of a file from the repository.

              In the command line, %file is replaced with the file that should
              be erased.

              For example, to use the wipe command, set it to wipe -f %file.

              Used by rsync special remotes, this configures the location of the
              rsync repository to use. Normally this is automatically set up by
              git annex initremote, but you can change it if needed.

              Used by bup special remotes, this configures the location of the
              bup repository to use. Normally this is automatically set up by
              git annex initremote, but you can change it if needed.

              Used by ddar special remotes, this configures the location of the
              ddar repository to use. Normally this is automatically set up by
              git annex initremote, but you can change it if needed.

              Used by directory special remotes, this configures the location of
              the directory where annexed files are stored for this remote.
              Normally this is automatically set up by git annex initremote, but
              you can change it if needed.

              Used to identify remotes on Android devices accessed via adb.
              Normally this is automatically set up by git annex initremote.

              Used by adb special remotes, this is the directory on the Android
              device where files are stored for this remote. Normally this is
              automatically set up by git annex initremote, but you can change
              it if needed.

              Used by adb special remotes, this is the serial number of the
              Android device used by the remote. Normally this is automatically
              set up by git annex initremote, but you can change it if needed,
              eg when upgrading to a new Android device.

              Used to identify Amazon S3 special remotes.  Normally this is
              automatically set up by git annex initremote.

              Used to identify Amazon Glacier special remotes.  Normally this is
              automatically set up by git annex initremote.

              Used to identify webdav special remotes.  Normally this is
              automatically set up by git annex initremote.

              Used to identify tahoe special remotes.  Points to the
              configuration directory for tahoe.

              Used to identify gcrypt special remotes.  Normally this is
              automatically set up by git annex initremote.

              It is set to "true" if this is a gcrypt remote.  If the gcrypt
              remote is accessible over ssh and has git-annex-shell available to
              manage it, it's set to "shell".

       remote.<name>.hooktype, remote.<name>.externaltype
              Used by hook special remotes and external special remotes to
              record the type of the remote.

       annex.tune.objecthash1, annex.tune.objecthashlower,
              These can be passed to git annex init to tune the repository.
              They cannot be safely changed in a running repository and should
              never be set in global git configuration.  For details, see

CONFIGURATION VIA .gitattributes
       The key-value backend used when adding a new file to the annex can be
       configured on a per-file-type basis via .gitattributes files. In the
       file, the annex.backend attribute can be set to the name of the backend
       to use. For example, this here's how to use the WORM backend by default,
       but the SHA256E backend for ogg files:

        * annex.backend=WORM
        *.ogg annex.backend=SHA256E

       There is a annex.largefiles attribute; which is used to configure which
       files are large enough to be added to the annex.  See <https://git-> for details.

       The numcopies setting can also be configured on a per-file-type basis via
       the annex.numcopies attribute in .gitattributes files. This overrides
       other numcopies settings.  For example, this makes two copies be needed
       for wav files and 3 copies for flac files:

        *.wav annex.numcopies=2
        *.flac annex.numcopies=3

       Note that setting numcopies to 0 is very unsafe.

       These settings are honored by git-annex whenever it's operating on a
       matching file. However, when using --all, --unused, or --key to specify
       keys to operate on, git-annex is operating on keys and not files, so will
       not honor the settings from .gitattributes. For this reason, the git
       annex numcopies command is useful to configure a global default for

       Also note that when using views, only the toplevel .gitattributes file is
       preserved in the view, so other settings in other files won't have any

       git-annex, when called as a git subcommand, may return exit codes 0 or 1
       for success or failures, or, more rarely, 127 or 128 for certain very
       specific failures.  git-annex itself should return 0 on success and 1 on
       failure, unless the --time-limit=time option is hit, in which case it
       returns with exit code 101.

       These environment variables are used by git-annex when set:

              Handled the same as they are by git, see git(1)

              Handled similarly to the same as described in git(1).  The one
              difference is that git-annex will sometimes pass an additional
              "-n" parameter to these, as the first parameter, to prevent ssh
              from reading from stdin. Since that can break existing uses of
              these environment variables that don't expect the extra parameter,
              you will need to set GIT_ANNEX_USE_GIT_SSH=1 to make git-annex
              support these.

              Note that setting either of these environment variables prevents
              git-annex from automatically enabling ssh connection caching (see
              annex.sshcaching), so it will slow down some operations with
              remotes over ssh. It's up to you to enable ssh connection caching
              if you need it; see ssh's documentation.

              Also, annex.ssh-options and remote.<name>.annex-ssh-options won't
              have any effect when these envionment variables are set.

              Usually it's better to configure any desired options through your
              ~/.ssh/config file, or by setting annex.ssh-options.

              Normally git-annex timestamps lines in the log files committed to
              the git-annex branch. Setting this environment variable to a
              number will make git-annex use that rather than the current number
              of seconds since the UNIX epoch. Note that decimal seconds are

              This is only provided for advanced users who either have a better
              way to tell which commit is current than the local clock, or who
              need to avoid embedding timestamps for policy reasons. Misuse of
              this environment variable can confuse git-annex's book-keeping,
              sometimes in ways that git annex fsck is unable to repair.

              Some special remotes use additional environment variables for
              authentication etc. For example, AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and
              GIT_ANNEX_P2P_AUTHTOKEN. See special remote documentation.

       These files are used by git-annex:

       .git/annex/objects/ in your git repository contains the annexed file
       contents that are currently available. Annexed files in your git
       repository symlink to that content.

       .git/annex/ in your git repository contains other run-time information
       used by git-annex.

       ~/.config/git-annex/autostart is a list of git repositories to start the
       git-annex assistant in.

       .git/hooks/pre-commit-annex in your git repository will be run whenever a
       commit is made to the HEAD branch, either by git commit, git-annex sync,
       or the git-annex assistant.

       .git/hooks/post-update-annex in your git repository will be run whenever
       the git-annex branch is updated. You can make this hook run git
       update-server-info when publishing a git-annex repository by http.

       More git-annex documentation is available on its web site, <https://git->

       If git-annex is installed from a package, a copy of its documentation
       should be included, in, for example, /usr/share/doc/git-annex/.

       Joey Hess <>