git-annex(1)                General Commands Manual               git-annex(1)

       git-annex - manage files with git, without checking their contents in

       git annex command [params ...]

       git-annex allows managing files with git, without checking the file
       contents into git. While that may seem paradoxical, it is useful when
       dealing with files larger than git can currently easily handle, whether
       due to limitations in memory, checksumming time, or disk space.

       Even without file content tracking, being able to manage files with
       git, move files around and delete files with versioned directory trees,
       and use branches and distributed clones, are all very handy reasons to
       use git. And annexed files can co-exist in the same git repository with
       regularly versioned files, which is convenient for maintaining
       documents, Makefiles, etc that are associated with annexed files but
       that benefit from full revision control.

       When a file is annexed, its content is moved into a key-value store,
       and a symlink is made that points to the content. These symlinks are
       checked into git and versioned like regular files. You can move them
       around, delete them, and so on. Pushing to another git repository will
       make git-annex there aware of the annexed file, and it can be used to
       retrieve its content from the key-value store.

        # git annex get video/
        get video/ (not available)
          I was unable to access these remotes: server
          Try making some of these repositories available:
            5863d8c0-d9a9-11df-adb2-af51e6559a49  -- my home file server
            58d84e8a-d9ae-11df-a1aa-ab9aa8c00826  -- portable USB drive
            ca20064c-dbb5-11df-b2fe-002170d25c55  -- backup SATA drive
        # sudo mount /media/usb
        # git remote add usbdrive /media/usb
        # git annex get video/
        get video/ (from usbdrive...) ok

        # git annex add iso
        add iso/Debian_5.0.iso ok

        # git annex drop iso/Debian_4.0.iso
        drop iso/Debian_4.0.iso ok

        # git annex move iso --to=usbdrive
        move iso/Debian_5.0.iso (moving to usbdrive...) ok

       Like many git commands, git-annex can be passed a path that is either a
       file or a directory. In the latter case it acts on all relevant files
       in the directory. When no path is specified, most git-annex commands
       default to acting on all relevant files in the current directory (and

       help   Display built-in help.

              For help on a specific command, use git annex help command

       add [path ...]
              Adds files in the path to the annex. If no path is specified,
              adds files from the current directory and below.

              See git-annex-add(1) for details.

       get [path ...]
              Makes the content of annexed files available in this repository.

              See git-annex-get(1) for details.

       drop [path ...]
              Drops the content of annexed files from this repository.

              See git-annex-drop(1) for details.

       move [path ...] [--from=remote|--to=remote]
              Moves the content of files from or to another remote.

              See git-annex-move(1) for details.

       copy [path ...] [--from=remote|--to=remote]
              Copies the content of files from or to another remote.

              See git-annex-copy(1) for details.

       status [path ...]
              Similar to git status --short, displays the status of the files
              in the working tree.

              See git-annex-status(1) for details.

       unlock [path ...]
              Unlock annexed files for modification.

              See git-annex-unlock(1) for details.

       edit [path ...]
              This is an alias for the unlock command. May be easier to
              remember, if you think of this as allowing you to edit an
              annexed file.

       lock [path ...]
              Use this to undo an unlock command if you don't want to modify
              the files, or have made modifications you want to discard.

              See git-annex-lock(1) for details.

       sync [remote ...]
              Synchronize local repository with remotes.

              See git-annex-sync(1) for details.

       mirror [path ...] [--to=remote|--from=remote]
              Mirror content of files to/from another repository.

              See git-annex-mirror(1) for details.

       addurl [url ...]
              Downloads each url to its own file, which is added to the annex.

              See git-annex-addurl(1) for details.

       rmurl file url
              Record that the file is no longer available at the url.

              See git-annex-rmurl(1) for details.

       import --from remote branch[:subdir] | [path ...]
              Add a tree of files to the repository.

              See git-annex-import(1) for details.

       importfeed [url ...]
              Imports the contents of podcast feeds into the annex.

              See git-annex-importfeed(1) for details.

       export treeish --to remote
              Export content to a remote.

              See git-annex-export(1) for details.

       undo [filename|directory] ...
              Undo last change to a file or directory.

              See git-annex-undo(1) for details.

              Multicast file distribution.

              See git-annex-multicast(1) for details.

       watch  Watch for changes and autocommit.

              See git-annex-watch(1) for details.

              Automatically sync folders between devices.

              See git-annex-assistant(1) for details.

       webapp Opens a web app, that allows easy setup of a git-annex
              repository, and control of the git-annex assistant. If the
              assistant is not already running, it will be started.

              See git-annex-webapp(1) for details.

              Persistant communication with remotes.

              See git-annex-remotedaemon(1) for details.

       init [description]

              Until a repository (or one of its remotes) has been initialized,
              git-annex will refuse to operate on it, to avoid accidentally
              using it in a repository that was not intended to have an annex.

              See git-annex-init(1) for details.

       describe repository description
              Changes the description of a repository.

              See git-annex-describe(1) for details.

       initremote name type=value [param=value ...]
              Creates a new special remote, and adds it to .git/config.

              See git-annex-initremote(1) for details.

       enableremote name [param=value ...]
              Enables use of an existing special remote in the current

              See git-annex-enableremote(1) for details.

              Renames a special remote.

              See git-annex-renameremote(1) for details.

              Sets up tor hidden service.

              See git-annex-enable-tor(1) for details.

       numcopies [N]
              Configure desired number of copies.

              See git-annex-numcopies(1) for details.

       trust [repository ...]
              Records that a repository is trusted to not unexpectedly lose
              content. Use with care.

              See git-annex-trust(1) for details.

       untrust [repository ...]
              Records that a repository is not trusted and could lose content
              at any time.

              See git-annex-untrust(1) for details.

       semitrust [repository ...]
              Returns a repository to the default semi trusted state.

              See git-annex-semitrust(1) for details.

       group repository groupname
              Add a repository to a group.

              See git-annex-group(1) for details.

       ungroup repository groupname
              Removes a repository from a group.

              See git-annex-ungroup(1) for details.

       wanted repository [expression]
              Get or set preferred content expression.

              See git-annex-wanted(1) for details.

       groupwanted groupname [expression]
              Get or set groupwanted expression.

              See git-annex-groupwanted(1) for details.

       required repository [expression]
              Get or set required content expression.

              See git-annex-required(1) for details.

       schedule repository [expression]
              Get or set scheduled jobs.

              See git-annex-schedule(1) for details.

       config Get and set other configuration stored in git-annex branch.

              See git-annex-config(1) for details.

       vicfg  Opens EDITOR on a temp file containing most of the above
              configuration settings, as well as a few others, and when it
              exits, stores any changes made back to the git-annex branch.

              See git-annex-vicfg(1) for details.

       adjust Switches a repository to use an adjusted branch, which can
              automatically unlock all files, etc.

              See git-annex-adjust(1) for details.

       direct Switches a repository to use direct mode. (deprecated)

              See git-annex-direct(1) for details.

              Switches a repository to use indirect mode. (deprecated)

              See git-annex-indirect(1) for details.

       fsck [path ...]

              Checks the annex consistency, and warns about or fixes any
              problems found.  This is a good complement to git fsck.

              See git-annex-fsck(1) for details.

       expire [repository:]time ...
              Expires repositories that have not recently performed an
              activity (such as a fsck).

              See git-annex-expire(1) for details.

       unused Checks the annex for data that does not correspond to any files
              present in any tag or branch, and prints a numbered list of the

              See git-annex-unused(1) for details.

       dropunused [number|range ...]
              Drops the data corresponding to the numbers, as listed by the
              last git annex unused

              See git-annex-dropunused(1) for details.

       addunused [number|range ...]
              Adds back files for the content corresponding to the numbers or
              ranges, as listed by the last git annex unused.

              See git-annex-addunused(1) for details.

       fix [path ...]
              Fixes up symlinks that have become broken to again point to
              annexed content.

              See git-annex-fix(1) for details.

       merge  Automatically merge changes from remotes.

              See git-annex-merge(1) for details.

              Upgrades the repository.

              See git-annex-upgrade(1) for details.

       dead [repository ...] [--key key]
              Indicates that a repository or a single key has been
              irretrievably lost.

              See git-annex-dead(1) for details.

       forget Causes the git-annex branch to be rewritten, throwing away
              historical data about past locations of files.

              See git-annex-forget(1) for details.

       repair This can repair many of the problems with git repositories that
              git fsck detects, but does not itself fix. It's useful if a
              repository has become badly damaged. One way this can happen is
              if a repository used by git-annex is on a removable drive that
              gets unplugged at the wrong time.

              See git-annex-repair(1) for details.

       p2p    Configure peer-2-Peer links between repositories.

              See git-annex-p2p(1) for details.

       find [path ...]

              Outputs a list of annexed files in the specified path. With no
              path, finds files in the current directory and its

              See git-annex-find(1) for details.

       whereis [path ...]
              Displays information about where the contents of files are

              See git-annex-whereis(1) for details.

       list [path ...]
              Displays a table of remotes that contain the contents of the
              specified files. This is similar to whereis but a more compact

              See git-annex-list(1) for details.

       log [path ...]
              Displays the location log for the specified file or files,
              showing each repository they were added to ("+") and removed
              from ("-").

              See git-annex-log(1) for details.

       info [directory|file|remote|uuid ...]
              Displays statistics and other information for the specified
              item, which can be a directory, or a file, or a remote, or the
              uuid of a repository.

              When no item is specified, displays statistics and information
              for the repository as a whole.

              See git-annex-info(1) for details.

              Shows the version of git-annex, as well as repository version

              See git-annex-version(1) for details.

       map    Generate map of repositories.

              See git-annex-map(1) for details.

              Access files while they're being downloaded.

              See git-annex-inprogress(1) for details.

       metadata [path ...]

              The content of an annexed file can have any number of metadata
              fields attached to it to describe it. Each metadata field can in
              turn have any number of values.

              This command can be used to set metadata, or show the currently
              set metadata.

              See git-annex-metadata(1) for details.

       view [tag ...] [field=value ...] [field=glob ...] [!tag ...]
       [field!=value ...]
              Uses metadata to build a view branch of the files in the current
              branch, and checks out the view branch. Only files in the
              current branch whose metadata matches all the specified field
              values and tags will be shown in the view.

              See git-annex-view(1) for details.

       vpop [N]
              Switches from the currently active view back to the previous
              view.  Or, from the first view back to original branch.

              See git-annex-vpop(1) for details.

       vfilter [tag ...] [field=value ...] [!tag ...] [field!=value ...]
              Filters the current view to only the files that have the
              specified field values and tags.

              See git-annex-vfilter(1) for details.

       vadd [field=glob ...] [field=value ...] [tag ...]
              Changes the current view, adding an additional level of
              directories to categorize the files.

              See git-annex-vfilter(1) for details.

       vcycle When a view involves nested subdirectories, this cycles the

              See git-annex-vcycle(1) for details.

       migrate [path ...]

              Changes the specified annexed files to use a different key-value

              See git-annex-migrate(1) for details.

       reinject src dest
              Moves the src file into the annex as the content of the dest
              file.  This can be useful if you have obtained the content of a
              file from elsewhere and want to put it in the local annex.

              See git-annex-reinject(1) for details.

       unannex [path ...]
              Use this to undo an accidental git annex add command. It puts
              the file back how it was before the add.

              See git-annex-unannex(1) for details.

       uninit De-initialize git-annex and clean out repository.

              See git-annex-uninit(1) for details.

       reinit uuid|description
              Initialize repository, reusing old UUID.

              See git-annex-reinit(1) for details.

       pre-commit [path ...]

              This is meant to be called from git's pre-commit hook. git annex
              init automatically creates a pre-commit hook using this.

              See git-annex-pre-commit(1) for details.

              This is meant to be called from git's post-receive hook. git
              annex init automatically creates a post-receive hook using this.

              See git-annex-post-receive(1) for details.

       lookupkey [file ...]
              Looks up key used for file.

              See git-annex-lookupkey(1) for details.

       calckey [file ...]
              Calculates the key that would be used to refer to a file.

              See git-annex-calckey(1) for details.

       contentlocation [key ..]
              Looks up location of annexed content for a key.

              See git-annex-contentlocation(1) for details.

       examinekey [key ...]
              Print information that can be determined purely by looking at
              the key.

              See git-annex-examinekey(1) for details.

              Checks if a preferred content expression matches provided data.

              See git-annex-matchexpression(1) for details.

       fromkey [key file]
              Manually set up a file in the git repository to link to a
              specified key.

              See git-annex-fromkey(1) for details.

       registerurl [key url]
              Registers an url for a key.

              See git-annex-registerurl(1) for details.

       setkey key file
              Moves a file into the annex as the content of a key.

              See git-annex-setkey(1) for details.

       dropkey [key ...]
              Drops annexed content for specified keys.

              See git-annex-dropkey(1) for details.

       transferkey key [--from=remote|--to=remote]
              Transfers a key from or to a remote.

              See git-annex-transferkey(1) for details.

              Used internally by the assistant.

              See git-annex-transferkey(1) for details.

       setpresentkey key uuid [1|0]
              This plumbing-level command changes git-annex's records about
              whether the specified key's content is present in a remote with
              the specified uuid.

              See git-annex-setpresentkey(1) for details.

       readpresentkey key uuid
              Read records of where key is present.

              See git-annex-readpresentkey(1) for details.

       checkpresentkey key remote
              Check if key is present in remote.

              See git-annex-checkpresentkey(1) for details.

       rekey [file key ...]
              Change keys used for files.

              See git-annex-rekey(1) for details.

              Resolves a conflicted merge, by adding both conflicting versions
              of the file to the tree, using variants of their filename. This
              is done automatically when using git annex sync or git annex

              See git-annex-resolvemerge(1) for details.

              This can be used to make git diff use an external diff driver
              with annexed files.

              See git-annex-diffdriver(1) for details.

       smudge This command lets git-annex be used as a git filter driver,
              allowing annexed files in the git repository to be unlocked at
              all times, instead of being symlinks.

              See git-annex-smudge(1) for details.

       findref [ref]
              Lists files in a git ref. (deprecated)

              See git-annex-findref(1) for details.

       proxy -- git cmd [options]
              Bypass direct mode guard. (deprecated)

              See git-annex-proxy(1) for details.


              This runs git-annex's built-in test suite.

              See git-annex-test(1) for details.

       testremote remote
              This tests a remote by generating some random objects and
              sending them to the remote, then redownloading them, removing
              them from the remote, etc.

              It's safe to run in an existing repository (the repository
              contents are not altered), although it may perform expensive
              data transfers.

              See git-annex-testremote(1) for details.

              Generates random changes to files in the current repository, for
              use in testing the assistant.

              See git-annex-fuzztest(1) for details.

              This runs git-annex's built-in benchmarks, if it was built with
              benchmarking support.

              See git-annex-benchmark(1) for details.

       These common options are accepted by all git-annex commands, and may
       not be explicitly listed on their individual man pages.  (Many commands
       also accept the git-annex-matching-options(1).)

              Force unsafe actions, such as dropping a file's content when no
              other source of it can be verified to still exist, or adding
              ignored files.  Use with care.

       --fast Enable less expensive, but also less thorough versions of some
              commands.  What is avoided depends on the command.

              Avoid the default verbose display of what is done; only show

              Enable verbose display.

              Show debug messages.

              Disable debug messages.

              Overrides the numcopies setting, forcing git-annex to ensure the
              specified number of copies exist.

              Note that setting numcopies to 0 is very unsafe.

              Limits how long a git-annex command runs. The time can be
              something like "5h", or "30m" or even "45s" or "10d".

              Note that git-annex may continue running a little past the
              specified time limit, in order to finish processing a file.

              Also, note that if the time limit prevents git-annex from doing
              all it was asked to, it will exit with a special code, 101.



              Overrides trust settings for a repository. May be specified more
              than once.

              The repository should be specified using the name of a
              configured remote, or the UUID or description of a repository.

              Amazon Glacier inventories take hours to retrieve, and may not
              represent the current state of a repository. So git-annex does
              not trust that files that the inventory claims are in Glacier
              are really there.  This switch can be used to allow it to trust
              the inventory.

              Be careful using this, especially if you or someone else might
              have recently removed a file from Glacier. If you try to drop
              the only other copy of the file, and this switch is enabled, you
              could lose data!

              Specifies which key-value backend to use. This can be used when
              adding a file to the annex, or migrating a file. Once files are
              in the annex, their backend is known and this option is not

              Overrides the User-Agent to use when downloading files from the

              Caused a desktop notification to be displayed after each
              successful file download and upload.

              (Only supported on some platforms, e.g. Linux with dbus. A no-op
              when not supported.)

              Caused a desktop notification to be displayed when a file upload
              or download has started, or when a file is dropped.

       -c name=value
              Overrides git configuration settings. May be specified multiple

       Like other git commands, git-annex is configured via .git/config.

              A unique UUID for this repository (automatically set).

              Name of the default key-value backend to use when adding new
              files to the repository.

              This is overridden by annex annex.backend configuration in the
              .gitattributes files, and by the --backend option.

              (This used to be named annex.backends, and that will still be
              used if set.)

              Set to true to indicate that the repository should only use
              cryptographically secure hashes (SHA2, SHA3) and not insecure
              hashes (MD5, SHA1) for content.

              When this is set, the contents of files using cryptographically
              insecure hashes will not be allowed to be added to the

              Also, git-annex fsck will complain about any files present in
              the repository that use insecure hashes.

              To configure the behavior in new clones of the repository, this
              can be set using git-annex-config.

              Maximum length of what is considered a filename extension when
              adding a file to a backend that preserves filename extensions.
              The default length is 4, which allows extensions like "jpeg".
              The dot before the extension is not counted part of its length.
              At most two extensions at the end of a filename will be
              preserved, e.g. .gz or .tar.gz .

              Amount of disk space to reserve. Disk space is checked when
              transferring content to avoid running out, and additional free
              space can be reserved via this option, to make space for more
              important content (such as git commit logs). Can be specified
              with any commonly used units, for example, "0.5 gb", "500M", or
              "100 KiloBytes"

              The default reserve is 1 megabyte.

              Used to configure which files are large enough to be added to
              the annex.  It is an expression that matches the large files, eg
              "include=*.mp3 or largerthan(500kb)" See git-
              annex-matching-expression(1) for details on the syntax.

              Overrides any annex.largefiles attributes in .gitattributes

              To configure a default annex.largefiles for all clones of the
              repository, this can be set in git-annex-config(1).

              This configures the behavior of both git-annex and git when
              adding files to the repository. By default, git-annex add adds
              all files to the annex, and git add adds files to git (unless
              they were added to the annex previously). When annex.largefiles
              is configured, both git annex add and git add will add matching
              large files to the annex, and the other files to git.

              Other git-annex commands also honor annex.largefiles, including
              git annex import, git annex addurl, git annex importfeed and the

              Setting this to false will prevent git add from adding files to
              the annex, despite the annex.largefiles configuration.

              Controls whether small files (not matching annex.largefiles)
              should be checked into git by git annex add. Defaults to true;
              set to false to instead make small files be skipped.

              Commands like git-annex add default to adding files to the
              repository in locked form. This can make them add the files in
              unlocked form, the same as if git-annex-unlock(1) were run on
              the files.

              This can be set to "true" to add everything unlocked, or it can
              be a more complicated expression that matches files by name,
              size, or content. See git-annex-matching-expression(1) for

              To configure a default annex.addunlocked for all clones of the
              repository, this can be set in git-annex-config(1).

              (Using git add always adds files in unlocked form and it is not
              affected by this setting.)

              When a repository has core.symlinks set to false, or has an
              adjusted unlocked branch checked out, this setting is ignored,
              and files are always added to the repository in unlocked form.

              This is a deprecated setting. You should instead use the git
              annex numcopies command to configure how many copies of files
              are kept across all repositories, or the annex.numcopies
              .gitattributes setting.

              This config setting is only looked at when git annex numcopies
              has never been configured, and when there's no annex.numcopies
              setting in the .gitattributes file.

              Note that setting numcopies to 0 is very unsafe.

              Set this to true to make git-annex automatically generate some
              metadata when adding files to the repository.

              In particular, it stores year, month, and day metadata, from the
              file's modification date.

              When importfeed is used, it stores additional metadata from the
              feed, such as the author, title, etc.

              This controls which refs git-annex unused considers to be used.
              See REFSPEC FORMAT in git-annex-unused(1) for details.
              Configure the number of concurrent jobs to run. Default is 1.

              Only git-annex commands that support the --jobs option will use

              Setting this to "cpus" will run one job per CPU core.

              git-annex builds a queue of git commands, in order to combine
              similar commands for speed. By default the size of the queue is
              limited to 10240 commands; this can be used to change the size.
              If you have plenty of memory and are working with very large
              numbers of files, increasing the queue size can speed it up.

              The git annex unused and git annex sync --content commands use a
              bloom filter to determine what files are present in eg, the work
              tree.  The default bloom filter is sized to handle up to 500000
              files. If your repository is larger than that, you should
              increase this value. Larger values will make git-annex unused
              and git annex sync --content consume more memory; run git annex
              info for memory usage numbers.

              Adjusts the accuracy of the bloom filter used by git annex
              unused and git annex sync --content.  The default accuracy is
              10000000 -- 1 unused file out of 10000000 will be missed by git
              annex unused. Increasing the accuracy will make git annex unused
              consume more memory; run git annex info for memory usage

              By default, git-annex caches ssh connections using ssh's
              ControlMaster and ControlPersist settings (if built using a new
              enough ssh). To disable this, set to false.

              By default, git-annex automatically commits data to the git-
              annex branch after each command is run. If you have a series of
              commands that you want to make a single commit, you can run the
              commands with -c annex.alwayscommit=false. You can later commit
              the data by running git annex merge (or by automatic merges) or
              git annex sync.

              You should beware running git gc when using this configuration,
              since it could garbage collect objects that are staged in git-
              annex's index but not yet committed.

              When git-annex updates the git-annex branch, it usually makes up
              its own commit message ("update"), since users rarely look at or
              care about changes to that branch. If you do care, you can
              specify this setting by running commands with -c

              This works well in combination with annex.alwayscommit=false, to
              gather up a set of changes and commit them with a message you

              By default git-annex avoids gpg signing commits that it makes
              when they're not the purpose of a command, but only a side
              effect.  That default avoids lots of gpg password prompts when
              commit.gpgSign is set. A command like git annex sync or git
              annex merge will gpg sign its commit, but a command like git
              annex get, that updates the git-annex branch, will not. The
              assistant also avoids signing commits.

              Setting annex.allowsign to true lets all commits be signed, as
              controlled by commit.gpgSign and other git configuration.

              By default, git-annex branches that have been pulled from
              remotes are automatically merged into the local git-annex
              branch, so that git-annex has the most up-to-date possible

              To avoid that merging, set this to "false". This can be useful
              particularly when you don't have write permission to the

              Set this to true to make file contents be hard linked between
              the repository and its remotes when possible, instead of a more
              expensive copy.

              Use with caution -- This can invalidate numcopies counting,
              since with hard links, fewer copies of a file can exist. So, it
              is a good idea to mark a repository using this setting as

              When a repository is set up using git clone --shared, git-annex
              init will automatically set annex.hardlink and mark the
              repository as untrusted.

              Set this to true to make unlocked files be a hard link to their
              content in the annex, rather than a second copy. This can save
              considerable disk space, but when a modification is made to a
              file, you will lose the local (and possibly only) copy of the
              old version. So, enable with care.

              After setting (or unsetting) this, you should run git annex fix
              to fix up the annexed files in the work tree to be hard links
              (or copies).

              Note that this has no effect when the filesystem does not
              support hard links.  And when multiple files in the work tree
              have the same content, only one of them gets hard linked to the

              Set to false to prevent merge conflicts in the checked out
              branch being automatically resolved by the git-annex assitant,
              git-annex sync, git-annex merge, and the git-annex post-receive

              To configure the behavior in all clones of the repository, this
              can be set in git-annex-config(1).

              Set to true to make git-annex sync default to syncing annexed

              To configure the behavior in all clones of the repository, this
              can be set in git-annex-config(1).

              Set to true to make git-annex sync default to only sincing the
              git-annex branch and annexed content.

              To configure the behavior in all clones of the repository, this
              can be set in git-annex-config(1).

              Set to true to enable debug logging by default.

              The current version of the git-annex repository. This is
              maintained by git-annex and should never be manually changed.

              When an old git-annex repository version has become deprecated,
              git-annex will normally automatically upgrade the repository to
              the new version.

              If this is set to false, git-annex won't automatically upgrade
              the repository. Instead it will exit with an error message. You
              can run git annex upgrade yourself when you are ready to upgrade
              the repository.

              Set to true if the repository is on a crippled filesystem, such
              as FAT, which does not support symbolic links, or hard links, or
              unix permissions.  This is automatically probed by "git annex

              Normally, git-annex uses fine-grained lock files to allow
              multiple processes to run concurrently without getting in each
              others' way.  That works great, unless you are using git-annex
              on a filesystem that does not support POSIX fcntl locks. This is
              sometimes the case when using NFS or Lustre filesystems.

              To support such situations, you can set annex.pidlock to true,
              and it will fall back to a single top-level pid file lock.

              Although, often, you'd really be better off fixing your
              networked filesystem configuration to support POSIX locks.. And,
              some networked filesystems are so inconsistent that one node
              can't reliably tell when the other node is holding a pid lock.
              Caveat emptor.

              When using pid lock files, it's possible for a stale lock file
              to get left behind by previous run of git-annex that crashed or
              was interrupted.  This is mostly avoided, but can occur
              especially when using a network file system.

              git-annex will wait up to this many seconds for the pid lock
              file to go away, and will then abort if it cannot continue.
              Default: 300

              When "true" (the default), git-annex will cache credentials used
              to access special remotes in files in .git/annex/creds/ that
              only you can read. To disable that caching, set to "false", and
              credentials will only be read from the environment, or if they
              have been embedded in encrypted form in the git repository, will
              be extracted and decrypted each time git-annex needs to access
              the remote.
              This can be set to a command that should be run whenever git-
              annex removes the content of a file from the repository.

              In the command line, %file is replaced with the file that should
              be erased.

              For example, to use the wipe command, set it to wipe -f %file.

       annex.tune.objecthash1, annex.tune.objecthashlower,
              These can be passed to git annex init to tune the repository.
              They cannot be safely changed in a running repository and should
              never be set in global git configuration.  For details, see

       Remotes are configured using these settings in .git/config.

              When determining which repository to transfer annexed files from
              or to, ones with lower costs are preferred.  The default cost is
              100 for local repositories, and 200 for remote repositories.

              If set, the command is run, and the number it outputs is used as
              the cost.  This allows varying the cost based on e.g., the
              current network.

              A command to run when git-annex begins to use the remote. This
              can be used to, for example, mount the directory containing the

              The command may be run repeatedly when multiple git-annex
              processes are running concurrently.

              A command to run when git-annex is done using the remote.

              The command will only be run once *all* running git-annex
              processes are finished using the remote.

              Specify an alternative git-annex-shell executable on the remote
              instead of looking for "git-annex-shell" on the PATH.

              This is useful if the git-annex-shell program is outside the
              PATH or has a non-standard name.

              If set to true, prevents git-annex from storing file contents on
              this remote by default.  (You can still request it be used by
              the --from and --to options.)

              This is, for example, useful if the remote is located somewhere
              without git-annex-shell. (For example, if it's on GitHub).  Or,
              it could be used if the network connection between two
              repositories is too slow to be used normally.

              This does not prevent git-annex sync (or the git-annex
              assistant) from syncing the git repository to the remote.

              If set, the command is run, and if it exits nonzero, that's the
              same as setting annex-ignore to true. This allows controlling
              behavior based on e.g., the current network.

              If set to false, prevents git-annex sync (and the git-annex
              assistant) from syncing with this remote by default. However,
              git annex sync <name> can still be used to sync with the remote.

              If set, the command is run, and if it exits nonzero, that's the
              same as setting annex-sync to false. This allows controlling
              behavior based on e.g., the current network.

              If set to false, prevents git-annex sync (and the git-annex
              assistant etc) from ever pulling (or fetching) from the remote.

              If set to false, prevents git-annex sync (and the git-annex
              assistant etc) from ever pushing to the remote.

              If set to true, prevents git-annex from making changes to a
              remote.  This both prevents git-annex sync from pushing changes,
              and prevents storing or removing files from read-only remote.

       remote.<name>.annex-verify, annex.verify
              By default, git-annex will verify the checksums of objects
              downloaded from remotes. If you trust a remote and don't want
              the overhead of these checksums, you can set this to false.

              Note that even when this is set to false, git-annex does
              verification in some edge cases, where it's likely the case than
              an object was downloaded incorrectly, or when needed for

              This is for use with special remotes that support exports and

              When set to eg, "master", this tells git-annex that you want the
              special remote to track that branch.

              When set to eg, "master:subdir", the special remote tracks only
              the subdirectory of that branch.

              git-annex sync --content will import changes from the remote and
              merge them into the annex-tracking-branch. They also export
              changes made to the branch to the remote.

              Deprecated name for remote.<name>.annex-tracking-branch. Will
              still be used if it's configured and
              remote.<name>.annex-tracking-branch is not.

              Can be used to specify a different url than the regular
              remote.<name>.url for git-annex to use when talking with the
              remote. Similar to the pushUrl used by git-push.

              git-annex caches UUIDs of remote repositories here.

              Used for some special remotes, points to a different special
              remote configuration to use.

       remote.<name>.annex-retry, annex.retry
              Configure retries of failed transfers on a per-remote and
              general basis, respectively. The value is the number of retries
              that can be made of the same transfer. (default 0)

       remote.<name>.annex-retry-delay, annex.retry-delay
              Number of seconds to delay before the first retry of a transfer.
              When making multiple retries of the same transfer, the delay
              doubles after each retry. (default 1)

              This only affects remotes that have their url pointing to a
              directory on the same system. git-annex normally checks the uuid
              of such remotes each time it's run, which lets it transparently
              deal with different drives being mounted to the location at
              different times.

              Setting annex-checkuuid to false will prevent it from checking
              the uuid at startup (although the uuid is still verified before
              making any changes to the remote repository). This may be useful
              to set to prevent unncessary spin-up or automounting of a drive.

              Configures a local trust level for the remote. This overrides
              the value configured by the trust and untrust commands. The
              value can be any of "trusted", "semitrusted" or "untrusted".

              Can be used to tell git-annex whether a remote is
              LocallyAvailable or GloballyAvailable. Normally, git-annex
              determines this automatically.

              Set to "true" to make git-annex speculate that this remote may
              contain the content of any file, even though its normal location
              tracking does not indicate that it does. This will cause git-
              annex to try to get all file contents from the remote. Can be
              useful in setting up a caching remote.

              Can be used to tell git-annex if a remote is a bare repository
              or not. Normally, git-annex determines this automatically.

              Options to use when using ssh to talk to this remote.

              Options to use when using rsync to or from this remote. For
              example, to force IPv6, and limit the bandwidth to 100Kbyte/s,
              set it to -6 --bwlimit 100

              Note that git-annex-shell has a whitelist of allowed rsync
              options, and others will not be be passed to the remote rsync.
              So using some options may break the communication between the
              local and remote rsyncs.

              Options to use when using rsync to upload a file to a remote.

              These options are passed after other applicable rsync options,
              so can be used to override them. For example, to limit upload
              bandwidth to 10Kbyte/s, set --bwlimit 10.

              Options to use when using rsync to download a file from a

              These options are passed after other applicable rsync options,
              so can be used to override them.

              The remote shell to use to connect to the rsync remote. Possible
              values are ssh (the default) and rsh, together with their
              arguments, for instance ssh -p 2222 -c blowfish; Note that the
              remote hostname should not appear there, see rsync(1) for
              details.  When the transport used is ssh, connections are
              automatically cached unless annex.sshcaching is unset.

              Options to pass to bup split when storing content in this
              remote.  For example, to limit the bandwidth to 100Kbyte/s, set
              it to --bwlimit 100k (There is no corresponding option for bup

              Options to pass to GnuPG when it's encrypting data. For
              instance, to use the AES cipher with a 256 bits key and disable
              compression, set it to --cipher-algo AES256 --compress-algo
              none. (These options take precedence over the default GnuPG
              configuration, which is otherwise used.)

              Options to pass to GnuPG when it's decrypting data. (These
              options take precedence over the default GnuPG configuration,
              which is otherwise used.)

       annex.ssh-options, annex.rsync-options,
              annex.rsync-upload-options, annex.rsync-download-options,
              annex.bup-split-options, annex.gnupg-options,

              Default options to use if a remote does not have more specific
              options as described above.

              Used by rsync special remotes, this configures the location of
              the rsync repository to use. Normally this is automatically set
              up by git annex initremote, but you can change it if needed.

              Used by bup special remotes, this configures the location of the
              bup repository to use. Normally this is automatically set up by
              git annex initremote, but you can change it if needed.

              Used by ddar special remotes, this configures the location of
              the ddar repository to use. Normally this is automatically set
              up by git annex initremote, but you can change it if needed.

              Used by directory special remotes, this configures the location
              of the directory where annexed files are stored for this remote.
              Normally this is automatically set up by git annex initremote,
              but you can change it if needed.

              Used to identify remotes on Android devices accessed via adb.
              Normally this is automatically set up by git annex initremote.

              Used by adb special remotes, this is the directory on the
              Android device where files are stored for this remote. Normally
              this is automatically set up by git annex initremote, but you
              can change it if needed.

              Used by adb special remotes, this is the serial number of the
              Android device used by the remote. Normally this is
              automatically set up by git annex initremote, but you can change
              it if needed, eg when upgrading to a new Android device.

              Used to identify Amazon S3 special remotes.  Normally this is
              automatically set up by git annex initremote.

              Used to identify Amazon Glacier special remotes.  Normally this
              is automatically set up by git annex initremote.

              Used to identify webdav special remotes.  Normally this is
              automatically set up by git annex initremote.

              Used to identify tahoe special remotes.  Points to the
              configuration directory for tahoe.

              Used to identify gcrypt special remotes.  Normally this is
              automatically set up by git annex initremote.

              It is set to "true" if this is a gcrypt remote.  If the gcrypt
              remote is accessible over ssh and has git-annex-shell available
              to manage it, it's set to "shell".

              Used to identify git-lfs special remotes.  Normally this is
              automatically set up by git annex initremote.

              It is set to "true" if this is a git-lfs remote.

       remote.<name>.annex-hooktype, remote.<name>.annex-externaltype
              Used by hook special remotes and external special remotes to
              record the type of the remote.

              Options to pass to curl when git-annex uses it to download urls
              (rather than the default built-in url downloader).

              For example, to force IPv4 only, set it to "-4".  Or to make
              curl use your ~/.netrc file, set it to "--netrc".

              Setting this option makes git-annex use curl, but only when
     is configured in a specific
              way. See its documentation.
              Options to pass to youtube-dl when using it to find the url to
              download for a video.

              Some options may break git-annex's integration with youtube-dl.
              For example, the --output option could cause it to store files
              somewhere git-annex won't find them. Avoid setting here or in
              the youtube-dl config file any options that cause youtube-dl to
              download more than one file, or to store the file anywhere other
              than the current working directory.

              Options to pass to aria2c when using it to download a torrent.

              HTTP headers to send when downloading from the web. Multiple
              lines of this option can be set, one per header.

              If set, the command is run and each line of its output is used
              as a HTTP header. This overrides annex.http-headers.
              List of URL schemes that git-annex is allowed to download
              content from.  The default is "http https ftp".

              Think very carefully before changing this; there are security
              implications. For example, if it's changed to allow "file" URLs,
              then anyone who can get a commit into your git-annex repository
              could git-annex addurl a pointer to a private file located
              outside that repository, possibly causing it to be copied into
              your repository and transferred on to other remotes, exposing
              its content.

              Some special remotes support their own domain-specific URL
              schemes; those are not affected by this configuration setting.
              By default, git-annex only makes connections to public IP
              addresses; it will refuse to use HTTP and other servers on
              localhost or on a private network.

              This setting can override that behavior, allowing access to
              particular IP addresses. For example " ::1" allows
              access to localhost (both IPV4 and IPV6). To allow access to all
              IP addresses, use "all"

              Think very carefully before changing this; there are security
              implications. Anyone who can get a commit into your git-annex
              repository could git annex addurl an url on a private server,
              possibly causing it to be downloaded into your repository and
              transferred to other remotes, exposing its content.

              Note that, since the interfaces of curl and youtube-dl do not
              allow these IP address restrictions to be enforced, curl and
              youtube-dl will never be used unless
              Old name for  If set, this
              is treated the same as having
              For security reasons, git-annex refuses to download content from
              most special remotes when it cannot check a hash to verify that
              the correct content was downloaded. This particularly impacts
              downloading the content of URL or WORM keys, which lack hashes.

              The best way to avoid problems due to this is to migrate files
              away from such keys, before their content reaches a special
              remote.  See git-annex-migrate(1).

              When the content is only available from a special remote, you
              can use this configuration to force git-annex to download it.
              But you do so at your own risk, and it's very important you read
              and understand the information below first!

              Downloading unverified content from encrypted special remotes is
              prevented, because the special remote could send some other
              encrypted content than what you expect, causing git-annex to
              decrypt data that you never checked into git-annex, and risking
              exposing the decrypted data to any non-encrypted remotes you
              send content to.

              Downloading unverified content from (non-encrypted) external
              special remotes is prevented, because they could follow http
              redirects to web servers on localhost or on a private network,
              or in some cases to a file:/// url.

              If you decide to bypass this security check, the best thing to
              do is to only set it temporarily while running the command that
              gets the file.  The value to set the config to is "ACKTHPPT".
              For example:

               git -c annex
              get myfile

              It would be a good idea to check that it downloaded the file you
              expected, too.

              Per-remote configuration of


              Makes the watch and assistant commands delay for the specified
              number of seconds before adding a newly created file to the
              annex. Normally this is not needed, because they already wait
              for all writers of the file to close it.

              Controls what the assistant does about unused file contents that
              are stored in the repository.

              The default is false, which causes all old and unused file
              contents to be retained, unless the assistant is able to move
              them to some other repository (such as a backup repository).

              Can be set to a time specification, like "7d" or "1m", and then
              file contents that have been known to be unused for a week or a
              month will be deleted.

              When set to false, prevents the webapp from reminding you when
              using repositories that lack consistency checks.

              When set to ask (the default), the webapp will check for new
              versions and prompt if they should be upgraded to. When set to
              true, automatically upgrades without prompting (on some
              supported platforms). When set to false, disables any upgrade

              Note that upgrade checking is only done when git-annex is
              installed from one of the prebuilt images from its website. This
              does not bypass e.g., a Linux distribution's own upgrade
              handling code.

              This setting also controls whether to restart the git-annex
              assistant when the git-annex binary is detected to have changed.
              That is useful no matter how you installed git-annex.

              Set to false to prevent the git-annex assistant and git-annex
              sync from automatically committing changes to files in the

              To configure the behavior in all clones of the repository, this
              can be set in git-annex-config(1).

              Set to false to prevent the git-annex assistant from scanning
              the repository for new and changed files on startup. This will
              prevent it from noticing changes that were made while it was not
              running, but can be a useful performance tweak for a large

              Configures which address the webapp listens on. The default is
              localhost.  Can be either an IP address, or a hostname that
              resolves to the desired address.

CONFIGURATION VIA .gitattributes
       The key-value backend used when adding a new file to the annex can be
       configured on a per-file-type basis via .gitattributes files. In the
       file, the annex.backend attribute can be set to the name of the backend
       to use. For example, this here's how to use the WORM backend by
       default, but the SHA256E backend for ogg files:

        * annex.backend=WORM
        *.ogg annex.backend=SHA256E

       There is a annex.largefiles attribute, which is used to configure which
       files are large enough to be added to the annex. Since attributes
       cannot contain spaces, it is difficult to use for more complex
       annex.largefiles settings. Setting annex.largefiles in git-
       annex-config(1) is an easier way to configure it across all clones of
       the repository.  See git-annex-matching-expression(1) for details on
       the syntax.

       The numcopies setting can also be configured on a per-file-type basis
       via the annex.numcopies attribute in .gitattributes files. This
       overrides other numcopies settings.  For example, this makes two copies
       be needed for wav files and 3 copies for flac files:

        *.wav annex.numcopies=2
        *.flac annex.numcopies=3

       Note that setting numcopies to 0 is very unsafe.

       These settings are honored by git-annex whenever it's operating on a
       matching file. However, when using --all, --unused, or --key to specify
       keys to operate on, git-annex is operating on keys and not files, so
       will not honor the settings from .gitattributes. For this reason, the
       git annex numcopies command is useful to configure a global default for

       Also note that when using views, only the toplevel .gitattributes file
       is preserved in the view, so other settings in other files won't have
       any effect.

       git-annex, when called as a git subcommand, may return exit codes 0 or
       1 for success or failures, or, more rarely, 127 or 128 for certain very
       specific failures.  git-annex itself should return 0 on success and 1
       on failure, unless the --time-limit=time option is hit, in which case
       it returns with exit code 101.

       These environment variables are used by git-annex when set:

              Handled the same as they are by git, see git(1)

              Handled similarly to the same as described in git(1).  The one
              difference is that git-annex will sometimes pass an additional
              "-n" parameter to these, as the first parameter, to prevent ssh
              from reading from stdin. Since that can break existing uses of
              these environment variables that don't expect the extra
              parameter, you will need to set GIT_ANNEX_USE_GIT_SSH=1 to make
              git-annex support these.

              Note that setting either of these environment variables prevents
              git-annex from automatically enabling ssh connection caching
              (see annex.sshcaching), so it will slow down some operations
              with remotes over ssh. It's up to you to enable ssh connection
              caching if you need it; see ssh's documentation.

              Also, annex.ssh-options and remote.<name>.annex-ssh-options
              won't have any effect when these envionment variables are set.

              Usually it's better to configure any desired options through
              your ~/.ssh/config file, or by setting annex.ssh-options.

              Normally git-annex timestamps lines in the log files committed
              to the git-annex branch. Setting this environment variable to a
              number will make git-annex use that rather than the current
              number of seconds since the UNIX epoch. Note that decimal
              seconds are supported.

              This is only provided for advanced users who either have a
              better way to tell which commit is current than the local clock,
              or who need to avoid embedding timestamps for policy reasons.
              Misuse of this environment variable can confuse git-annex's
              book-keeping, sometimes in ways that git annex fsck is unable to

              Some special remotes use additional environment variables for
              authentication etc. For example, AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and
              GIT_ANNEX_P2P_AUTHTOKEN. See special remote documentation.

       These files are used by git-annex:

       .git/annex/objects/ in your git repository contains the annexed file
       contents that are currently available. Annexed files in your git
       repository symlink to that content.

       .git/annex/ in your git repository contains other run-time information
       used by git-annex.

       ~/.config/git-annex/autostart is a list of git repositories to start
       the git-annex assistant in.

       .git/hooks/pre-commit-annex in your git repository will be run whenever
       a commit is made to the HEAD branch, either by git commit, git-annex
       sync, or the git-annex assistant.

       .git/hooks/post-update-annex in your git repository will be run
       whenever the git-annex branch is updated. You can make this hook run
       git update-server-info when publishing a git-annex repository by http.

       More git-annex documentation is available on its web site,

       If git-annex is installed from a package, a copy of its documentation
       should be included, in, for example, /usr/share/doc/git-annex/.

       Joey Hess <>