git-annotate






git‐annotate − Annotate file lines with commit information



git annotate [<options>] <file> [<revision>]




Annotates each line in the given file with information from
the commit which introduced the line. Optionally annotates
from a given revision.

The only difference between this command and git‐blame(1) is
that they use slightly different output formats, and this
command exists only for backward compatibility to support
existing scripts, and provide a more familiar command name
for people coming from other SCM systems.



     −b
     Show blank SHA−1 for boundary commits. This can also be
     controlled via the blame.blankboundary config option.

     −−root
     Do not treat root commits as boundaries. This can also
     be controlled via the blame.showRoot config option.

     −−show−stats
     Include additional statistics at the end of blame
     output.

     −L <start>,<end>, −L :<funcname>
     Annotate only the given line range. May be specified
     multiple times. Overlapping ranges are allowed.

     <start> and <end> are optional. “−L <start>” or “−L
     <start>,” spans from <start> to end of file. “−L
     ,<end>” spans from start of file to <end>.

     <start> and <end> can take one of these forms:

      •   number

          If <start> or <end> is a number, it specifies an
          absolute line number (lines count from 1).

      •   /regex/

          This form will use the first line matching the
          given POSIX regex. If <start> is a regex, it will
          search from the end of the previous −L range, if
          any, otherwise from the start of file. If <start>









                             ‐2‐


          is “^/regex/”, it will search from the start of
          file. If <end> is a regex, it will search starting
          at the line given by <start>.

      •   +offset or −offset

          This is only valid for <end> and will specify a
          number of lines before or after the line given by
          <start>.

     If “:<funcname>” is given in place of <start> and
     <end>, it is a regular expression that denotes the
     range from the first funcname line that matches
     <funcname>, up to the next funcname line. “:<funcname>”
     searches from the end of the previous −L range, if any,
     otherwise from the start of file. “^:<funcname>”
     searches from the start of file.

     −l
     Show long rev (Default: off).

     −t
     Show raw timestamp (Default: off).

     −S <revs−file>
     Use revisions from revs−file instead of calling git‐
     rev‐list(1).

     −−reverse <rev>..<rev>
     Walk history forward instead of backward. Instead of
     showing the revision in which a line appeared, this
     shows the last revision in which a line has existed.
     This requires a range of revision like START..END where
     the path to blame exists in START.  git blame −−reverse
     START is taken as git blame −−reverse START..HEAD for
     convenience.

     −p, −−porcelain
     Show in a format designed for machine consumption.

     −−line−porcelain
     Show the porcelain format, but output commit
     information for each line, not just the first time a
     commit is referenced. Implies −−porcelain.

     −−incremental
     Show the result incrementally in a format designed for
     machine consumption.

     −−encoding=<encoding>
     Specifies the encoding used to output author names and
     commit summaries. Setting it to none makes blame output
     unconverted data. For more information see the
     discussion about encoding in the git‐log(1) manual









                             ‐3‐


     page.

     −−contents <file>
     When <rev> is not specified, the command annotates the
     changes starting backwards from the working tree copy.
     This flag makes the command pretend as if the working
     tree copy has the contents of the named file (specify 
     to make the command read from the standard input).

     −−date <format>
     Specifies the format used to output dates. If −−date is
     not provided, the value of the blame.date config
     variable is used. If the blame.date config variable is
     also not set, the iso format is used. For supported
     values, see the discussion of the −−date option at git‐
     log(1).

     −−[no−]progress
     Progress status is reported on the standard error
     stream by default when it is attached to a terminal.
     This flag enables progress reporting even if not
     attached to a terminal. Can’t use −−progress together
     with −−porcelain or −−incremental.

     −M[<num>]
     Detect moved or copied lines within a file. When a
     commit moves or copies a block of lines (e.g. the
     original file has A and then B, and the commit changes
     it to B and then A), the traditional blame algorithm
     notices only half of the movement and typically blames
     the lines that were moved up (i.e. B) to the parent and
     assigns blame to the lines that were moved down (i.e.
     A) to the child commit. With this option, both groups
     of lines are blamed on the parent by running extra
     passes of inspection.

     <num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the
     number of alphanumeric characters that Git must detect
     as moving/copying within a file for it to associate
     those lines with the parent commit. The default value
     is 20.

     −C[<num>]
     In addition to −M, detect lines moved or copied from
     other files that were modified in the same commit. This
     is useful when you reorganize your program and move
     code around across files. When this option is given
     twice, the command additionally looks for copies from
     other files in the commit that creates the file. When
     this option is given three times, the command
     additionally looks for copies from other files in any
     commit.

     <num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the









                             ‐4‐


     number of alphanumeric characters that Git must detect
     as moving/copying between files for it to associate
     those lines with the parent commit. And the default
     value is 40. If there are more than one −C options
     given, the <num> argument of the last −C will take
     effect.

     −−ignore−rev <rev>
     Ignore changes made by the revision when assigning
     blame, as if the change never happened. Lines that were
     changed or added by an ignored commit will be blamed on
     the previous commit that changed that line or nearby
     lines. This option may be specified multiple times to
     ignore more than one revision. If the
     blame.markIgnoredLines config option is set, then lines
     that were changed by an ignored commit and attributed
     to another commit will be marked with a ?  in the blame
     output. If the blame.markUnblamableLines config option
     is set, then those lines touched by an ignored commit
     that we could not attribute to another revision are
     marked with a *.

     −−ignore−revs−file <file>
     Ignore revisions listed in file, which must be in the
     same format as an fsck.skipList. This option may be
     repeated, and these files will be processed after any
     files specified with the blame.ignoreRevsFile config
     option. An empty file name, "", will clear the list of
     revs from previously processed files.

     −h
     Show help message.



git‐blame(1)



Part of the git(1) suite