git-branch

GIT-BRANCH(1)                     Git Manual                     GIT-BRANCH(1)



NAME
       git-branch - List, create, or delete branches

SYNOPSIS
       git branch [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [--show-current]
               [-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
               [--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [--sort=<key>]
               [(--merged | --no-merged) [<commit>]]
               [--contains [<commit]] [--no-contains [<commit>]]
               [--points-at <object>] [--format=<format>]
               [(-r | --remotes) | (-a | --all)]
               [--list] [<pattern>...]
       git branch [--track | --no-track] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
       git branch (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
       git branch --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
       git branch (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
       git branch (-c | -C) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
       git branch (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
       git branch --edit-description [<branchname>]


DESCRIPTION
       If --list is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
       branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted in green
       and marked with an asterisk. Any branches checked out in linked
       worktrees will be highlighted in cyan and marked with a plus sign.
       Option -r causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed, and option
       -a shows both local and remote branches.

       If a <pattern> is given, it is used as a shell wildcard to restrict the
       output to matching branches. If multiple patterns are given, a branch
       is shown if it matches any of the patterns.

       Note that when providing a <pattern>, you must use --list; otherwise
       the command may be interpreted as branch creation.

       With --contains, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
       (in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
       named commit), --no-contains inverts it. With --merged, only branches
       merged into the named commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are
       reachable from the named commit) will be listed. With --no-merged only
       branches not merged into the named commit will be listed. If the
       <commit> argument is missing it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the tip of the
       current branch).

       The command’s second form creates a new branch head named <branchname>
       which points to the current HEAD, or <start-point> if given. As a
       special case, for <start-point>, you may use "A...B" as a shortcut for
       the merge base of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You can
       leave out at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.

       Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
       working tree to it; use "git switch <newbranch>" to switch to the new
       branch.

       When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets
       up the branch (specifically the branch.<name>.remote and
       branch.<name>.merge configuration entries) so that git pull will
       appropriately merge from the remote-tracking branch. This behavior may
       be changed via the global branch.autoSetupMerge configuration flag.
       That setting can be overridden by using the --track and --no-track
       options, and changed later using git branch --set-upstream-to.

       With a -m or -M option, <oldbranch> will be renamed to <newbranch>. If
       <oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
       <newbranch>, and a reflog entry is created to remember the branch
       renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename to
       happen.

       The -c and -C options have the exact same semantics as -m and -M,
       except instead of the branch being renamed it along with its config and
       reflog will be copied to a new name.

       With a -d or -D option, <branchname> will be deleted. You may specify
       more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently has a reflog
       then the reflog will also be deleted.

       Use -r together with -d to delete remote-tracking branches. Note, that
       it only makes sense to delete remote-tracking branches if they no
       longer exist in the remote repository or if git fetch was configured
       not to fetch them again. See also the prune subcommand of git-remote(1)
       for a way to clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.

OPTIONS
       -d, --delete
           Delete a branch. The branch must be fully merged in its upstream
           branch, or in HEAD if no upstream was set with --track or
           --set-upstream-to.

       -D
           Shortcut for --delete --force.

       --create-reflog
           Create the branch’s reflog. This activates recording of all changes
           made to the branch ref, enabling use of date based sha1 expressions
           such as "<branchname>@{yesterday}". Note that in non-bare
           repositories, reflogs are usually enabled by default by the
           core.logAllRefUpdates config option. The negated form
           --no-create-reflog only overrides an earlier --create-reflog, but
           currently does not negate the setting of core.logAllRefUpdates.

       -f, --force
           Reset <branchname> to <startpoint>, even if <branchname> exists
           already. Without -f, git branch refuses to change an existing
           branch. In combination with -d (or --delete), allow deleting the
           branch irrespective of its merged status. In combination with -m
           (or --move), allow renaming the branch even if the new branch name
           already exists, the same applies for -c (or --copy).

       -m, --move
           Move/rename a branch and the corresponding reflog.

       -M
           Shortcut for --move --force.

       -c, --copy
           Copy a branch and the corresponding reflog.

       -C
           Shortcut for --copy --force.

       --color[=<when>]
           Color branches to highlight current, local, and remote-tracking
           branches. The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.

       --no-color
           Turn off branch colors, even when the configuration file gives the
           default to color output. Same as --color=never.

       -i, --ignore-case
           Sorting and filtering branches are case insensitive.

       --column[=<options>], --no-column
           Display branch listing in columns. See configuration variable
           column.branch for option syntax.--column and --no-column without
           options are equivalent to always and never respectively.

           This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.

       -r, --remotes
           List or delete (if used with -d) the remote-tracking branches.
           Combine with --list to match the optional pattern(s).

       -a, --all
           List both remote-tracking branches and local branches. Combine with
           --list to match optional pattern(s).

       -l, --list
           List branches. With optional <pattern>..., e.g.  git branch --list
           'maint-*', list only the branches that match the pattern(s).

       --show-current
           Print the name of the current branch. In detached HEAD state,
           nothing is printed.

       -v, -vv, --verbose
           When in list mode, show sha1 and commit subject line for each head,
           along with relationship to upstream branch (if any). If given
           twice, print the path of the linked worktree (if any) and the name
           of the upstream branch, as well (see also git remote show
           <remote>). Note that the current worktree’s HEAD will not have its
           path printed (it will always be your current directory).

       -q, --quiet
           Be more quiet when creating or deleting a branch, suppressing
           non-error messages.

       --abbrev=<length>
           Alter the sha1’s minimum display length in the output listing. The
           default value is 7 and can be overridden by the core.abbrev config
           option.

       --no-abbrev
           Display the full sha1s in the output listing rather than
           abbreviating them.

       -t, --track
           When creating a new branch, set up branch.<name>.remote and
           branch.<name>.merge configuration entries to mark the start-point
           branch as "upstream" from the new branch. This configuration will
           tell git to show the relationship between the two branches in git
           status and git branch -v. Furthermore, it directs git pull without
           arguments to pull from the upstream when the new branch is checked
           out.

           This behavior is the default when the start point is a
           remote-tracking branch. Set the branch.autoSetupMerge configuration
           variable to false if you want git switch, git checkout and git
           branch to always behave as if --no-track were given. Set it to
           always if you want this behavior when the start-point is either a
           local or remote-tracking branch.

       --no-track
           Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
           branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.

       --set-upstream
           As this option had confusing syntax, it is no longer supported.
           Please use --track or --set-upstream-to instead.

       -u <upstream>, --set-upstream-to=<upstream>
           Set up <branchname>'s tracking information so <upstream> is
           considered <branchname>'s upstream branch. If no <branchname> is
           specified, then it defaults to the current branch.

       --unset-upstream
           Remove the upstream information for <branchname>. If no branch is
           specified it defaults to the current branch.

       --edit-description
           Open an editor and edit the text to explain what the branch is for,
           to be used by various other commands (e.g.  format-patch,
           request-pull, and merge (if enabled)). Multi-line explanations may
           be used.

       --contains [<commit>]
           Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
           specified). Implies --list.

       --no-contains [<commit>]
           Only list branches which don’t contain the specified commit (HEAD
           if not specified). Implies --list.

       --merged [<commit>]
           Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the specified
           commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies --list, incompatible with
           --no-merged.

       --no-merged [<commit>]
           Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the specified
           commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies --list, incompatible with
           --merged.

       <branchname>
           The name of the branch to create or delete. The new branch name
           must pass all checks defined by git-check-ref-format(1). Some of
           these checks may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.

       <start-point>
           The new branch head will point to this commit. It may be given as a
           branch name, a commit-id, or a tag. If this option is omitted, the
           current HEAD will be used instead.

       <oldbranch>
           The name of an existing branch to rename.

       <newbranch>
           The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
           <branchname> apply.

       --sort=<key>
           Sort based on the key given. Prefix - to sort in descending order
           of the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option multiple times,
           in which case the last key becomes the primary key. The keys
           supported are the same as those in git for-each-ref. Sort order
           defaults to the value configured for the branch.sort variable if
           exists, or to sorting based on the full refname (including refs/...
           prefix). This lists detached HEAD (if present) first, then local
           branches and finally remote-tracking branches. See git-config(1).

       --points-at <object>
           Only list branches of the given object.

       --format <format>
           A string that interpolates %(fieldname) from a branch ref being
           shown and the object it points at. The format is the same as that
           of git-for-each-ref(1).

CONFIGURATION
       pager.branch is only respected when listing branches, i.e., when --list
       is used or implied. The default is to use a pager. See git-config(1).

EXAMPLES
       Start development from a known tag

               $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
               $ cd my2.6
               $ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14   (1)
               $ git switch my2.6.14

           1. This step and the next one could be combined into a single step
           with "checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14".

       Delete an unneeded branch

               $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/.../git.git my.git
               $ cd my.git
               $ git branch -d -r origin/todo origin/html origin/man   (1)
               $ git branch -D test                                    (2)

           1. Delete the remote-tracking branches "todo", "html" and "man".
           The next fetch or pull will create them again unless you configure
           them not to. See git-fetch(1).
           2. Delete the "test" branch even if the "master" branch (or
           whichever branch is currently checked out) does not have all
           commits from the test branch.

       Listing branches from a specific remote

               $ git branch -r -l '<remote>/<pattern>'                 (1)
               $ git for-each-ref 'refs/remotes/<remote>/<pattern>'    (2)

           1. Using -a would conflate <remote> with any local branches you
           happen to have been prefixed with the same <remote> pattern.
           2. for-each-ref can take a wide range of options. See git-for-each-
           ref(1)

       Patterns will normally need quoting.

NOTES
       If you are creating a branch that you want to switch to immediately, it
       is easier to use the "git switch" command with its -c option to do the
       same thing with a single command.

       The options --contains, --no-contains, --merged and --no-merged serve
       four related but different purposes:

       ·   --contains <commit> is used to find all branches which will need
           special attention if <commit> were to be rebased or amended, since
           those branches contain the specified <commit>.

       ·   --no-contains <commit> is the inverse of that, i.e. branches that
           don’t contain the specified <commit>.

       ·   --merged is used to find all branches which can be safely deleted,
           since those branches are fully contained by HEAD.

       ·   --no-merged is used to find branches which are candidates for
           merging into HEAD, since those branches are not fully contained by
           HEAD.

SEE ALSO
       git-check-ref-format(1), git-fetch(1), git-remote(1), “Understanding
       history: What is a branch?”[1] in the Git User’s Manual.

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

NOTES
        1. “Understanding history: What is a branch?”
           file:///usr/share/doc/git-doc/user-manual.html#what-is-a-branch



Git 2.24.0                        11/04/2019                     GIT-BRANCH(1)