git-checkout

GIT-CHECKOUT(1)                    Git Manual                    GIT-CHECKOUT(1)



NAME
       git-checkout - Switch branches or restore working tree files

SYNOPSIS
       git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] [<branch>]
       git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] --detach [<branch>]
       git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] [--detach] <commit>
       git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] [[-b|-B|--orphan] <new_branch>] [<start_point>]
       git checkout [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...
       git checkout [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] --pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]
       git checkout (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]


DESCRIPTION
       Updates files in the working tree to match the version in the index or
       the specified tree. If no pathspec was given, git checkout will also
       update HEAD to set the specified branch as the current branch.

       git checkout [<branch>]
           To prepare for working on <branch>, switch to it by updating the
           index and the files in the working tree, and by pointing HEAD at the
           branch. Local modifications to the files in the working tree are
           kept, so that they can be committed to the <branch>.

           If <branch> is not found but there does exist a tracking branch in
           exactly one remote (call it <remote>) with a matching name and
           --no-guess is not specified, treat as equivalent to

               $ git checkout -b <branch> --track <remote>/<branch>

           You could omit <branch>, in which case the command degenerates to
           "check out the current branch", which is a glorified no-op with
           rather expensive side-effects to show only the tracking information,
           if exists, for the current branch.

       git checkout -b|-B <new_branch> [<start point>]
           Specifying -b causes a new branch to be created as if git-branch(1)
           were called and then checked out. In this case you can use the
           --track or --no-track options, which will be passed to git branch. As
           a convenience, --track without -b implies branch creation; see the
           description of --track below.

           If -B is given, <new_branch> is created if it doesn’t exist;
           otherwise, it is reset. This is the transactional equivalent of

               $ git branch -f <branch> [<start point>]
               $ git checkout <branch>

           that is to say, the branch is not reset/created unless "git checkout"
           is successful.

       git checkout --detach [<branch>], git checkout [--detach] <commit>
           Prepare to work on top of <commit>, by detaching HEAD at it (see
           "DETACHED HEAD" section), and updating the index and the files in the
           working tree. Local modifications to the files in the working tree
           are kept, so that the resulting working tree will be the state
           recorded in the commit plus the local modifications.

           When the <commit> argument is a branch name, the --detach option can
           be used to detach HEAD at the tip of the branch (git checkout
           <branch> would check out that branch without detaching HEAD).

           Omitting <branch> detaches HEAD at the tip of the current branch.

       git checkout [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--]
       <pathspec>..., git checkout [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>]
       [<tree-ish>] --pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]
           Overwrite the contents of the files that match the pathspec. When the
           <tree-ish> (most often a commit) is not given, overwrite working tree
           with the contents in the index. When the <tree-ish> is given,
           overwrite both the index and the working tree with the contents at
           the <tree-ish>.

           The index may contain unmerged entries because of a previous failed
           merge. By default, if you try to check out such an entry from the
           index, the checkout operation will fail and nothing will be checked
           out. Using -f will ignore these unmerged entries. The contents from a
           specific side of the merge can be checked out of the index by using
           --ours or --theirs. With -m, changes made to the working tree file
           can be discarded to re-create the original conflicted merge result.

       git checkout (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]
           This is similar to the previous mode, but lets you use the
           interactive interface to show the "diff" output and choose which
           hunks to use in the result. See below for the description of --patch
           option.

OPTIONS
       -q, --quiet
           Quiet, suppress feedback messages.

       --progress, --no-progress
           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
           when it is attached to a terminal, unless --quiet is specified. This
           flag enables progress reporting even if not attached to a terminal,
           regardless of --quiet.

       -f, --force
           When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the working
           tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away local changes.

           When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged
           entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.

       --ours, --theirs
           When checking out paths from the index, check out stage #2 (ours) or
           #3 (theirs) for unmerged paths.

           Note that during git rebase and git pull --rebase, ours and theirs
           may appear swapped; --ours gives the version from the branch the
           changes are rebased onto, while --theirs gives the version from the
           branch that holds your work that is being rebased.

           This is because rebase is used in a workflow that treats the history
           at the remote as the shared canonical one, and treats the work done
           on the branch you are rebasing as the third-party work to be
           integrated, and you are temporarily assuming the role of the keeper
           of the canonical history during the rebase. As the keeper of the
           canonical history, you need to view the history from the remote as
           ours (i.e. "our shared canonical history"), while what you did on
           your side branch as theirs (i.e. "one contributor’s work on top of
           it").

       -b <new_branch>
           Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at <start_point>;
           see git-branch(1) for details.

       -B <new_branch>
           Creates the branch <new_branch> and start it at <start_point>; if it
           already exists, then reset it to <start_point>. This is equivalent to
           running "git branch" with "-f"; see git-branch(1) for details.

       -t, --track
           When creating a new branch, set up "upstream" configuration. See
           "--track" in git-branch(1) for details.

           If no -b option is given, the name of the new branch will be derived
           from the remote-tracking branch, by looking at the local part of the
           refspec configured for the corresponding remote, and then stripping
           the initial part up to the "*". This would tell us to use hack as the
           local branch when branching off of origin/hack (or
           remotes/origin/hack, or even refs/remotes/origin/hack). If the given
           name has no slash, or the above guessing results in an empty name,
           the guessing is aborted. You can explicitly give a name with -b in
           such a case.

       --no-track
           Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
           branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.

       --guess, --no-guess
           If <branch> is not found but there does exist a tracking branch in
           exactly one remote (call it <remote>) with a matching name, treat as
           equivalent to

               $ git checkout -b <branch> --track <remote>/<branch>

           If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by
           the checkout.defaultRemote configuration variable, we’ll use that one
           for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the <branch> isn’t unique
           across all remotes. Set it to e.g.  checkout.defaultRemote=origin to
           always checkout remote branches from there if <branch> is ambiguous
           but exists on the origin remote. See also checkout.defaultRemote in
           git-config(1).

           --guess is the default behavior. Use --no-guess to disable it.

           The default behavior can be set via the checkout.guess configuration
           variable.

       -l
           Create the new branch’s reflog; see git-branch(1) for details.

       -d, --detach
           Rather than checking out a branch to work on it, check out a commit
           for inspection and discardable experiments. This is the default
           behavior of git checkout <commit> when <commit> is not a branch name.
           See the "DETACHED HEAD" section below for details.

       --orphan <new_branch>
           Create a new orphan branch, named <new_branch>, started from
           <start_point> and switch to it. The first commit made on this new
           branch will have no parents and it will be the root of a new history
           totally disconnected from all the other branches and commits.

           The index and the working tree are adjusted as if you had previously
           run git checkout <start_point>. This allows you to start a new
           history that records a set of paths similar to <start_point> by
           easily running git commit -a to make the root commit.

           This can be useful when you want to publish the tree from a commit
           without exposing its full history. You might want to do this to
           publish an open source branch of a project whose current tree is
           "clean", but whose full history contains proprietary or otherwise
           encumbered bits of code.

           If you want to start a disconnected history that records a set of
           paths that is totally different from the one of <start_point>, then
           you should clear the index and the working tree right after creating
           the orphan branch by running git rm -rf .  from the top level of the
           working tree. Afterwards you will be ready to prepare your new files,
           repopulating the working tree, by copying them from elsewhere,
           extracting a tarball, etc.

       --ignore-skip-worktree-bits
           In sparse checkout mode, git checkout -- <paths> would update only
           entries matched by <paths> and sparse patterns in
           $GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout. This option ignores the sparse
           patterns and adds back any files in <paths>.

       -m, --merge
           When switching branches, if you have local modifications to one or
           more files that are different between the current branch and the
           branch to which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
           branches in order to preserve your modifications in context. However,
           with this option, a three-way merge between the current branch, your
           working tree contents, and the new branch is done, and you will be on
           the new branch.

           When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
           paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts and
           mark the resolved paths with git add (or git rm if the merge should
           result in deletion of the path).

           When checking out paths from the index, this option lets you recreate
           the conflicted merge in the specified paths.

           When switching branches with --merge, staged changes may be lost.

       --conflict=<style>
           The same as --merge option above, but changes the way the conflicting
           hunks are presented, overriding the merge.conflictStyle configuration
           variable. Possible values are "merge" (default) and "diff3" (in
           addition to what is shown by "merge" style, shows the original
           contents).

       -p, --patch
           Interactively select hunks in the difference between the <tree-ish>
           (or the index, if unspecified) and the working tree. The chosen hunks
           are then applied in reverse to the working tree (and if a <tree-ish>
           was specified, the index).

           This means that you can use git checkout -p to selectively discard
           edits from your current working tree. See the “Interactive Mode”
           section of git-add(1) to learn how to operate the --patch mode.

           Note that this option uses the no overlay mode by default (see also
           --overlay), and currently doesn’t support overlay mode.

       --ignore-other-worktrees
           git checkout refuses when the wanted ref is already checked out by
           another worktree. This option makes it check the ref out anyway. In
           other words, the ref can be held by more than one worktree.

       --overwrite-ignore, --no-overwrite-ignore
           Silently overwrite ignored files when switching branches. This is the
           default behavior. Use --no-overwrite-ignore to abort the operation
           when the new branch contains ignored files.

       --recurse-submodules, --no-recurse-submodules
           Using --recurse-submodules will update the content of all active
           submodules according to the commit recorded in the superproject. If
           local modifications in a submodule would be overwritten the checkout
           will fail unless -f is used. If nothing (or --no-recurse-submodules)
           is used, submodules working trees will not be updated. Just like git-
           submodule(1), this will detach HEAD of the submodule.

       --overlay, --no-overlay
           In the default overlay mode, git checkout never removes files from
           the index or the working tree. When specifying --no-overlay, files
           that appear in the index and working tree, but not in <tree-ish> are
           removed, to make them match <tree-ish> exactly.

       --pathspec-from-file=<file>
           Pathspec is passed in <file> instead of commandline args. If <file>
           is exactly - then standard input is used. Pathspec elements are
           separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be quoted as
           explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-
           config(1)). See also --pathspec-file-nul and global
           --literal-pathspecs.

       --pathspec-file-nul
           Only meaningful with --pathspec-from-file. Pathspec elements are
           separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
           literally (including newlines and quotes).

       <branch>
           Branch to checkout; if it refers to a branch (i.e., a name that, when
           prepended with "refs/heads/", is a valid ref), then that branch is
           checked out. Otherwise, if it refers to a valid commit, your HEAD
           becomes "detached" and you are no longer on any branch (see below for
           details).

           You can use the @{-N} syntax to refer to the N-th last branch/commit
           checked out using "git checkout" operation. You may also specify -
           which is synonymous to @{-1}.

           As a special case, you may use A...B as a shortcut for the merge base
           of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You can leave out at
           most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.

       <new_branch>
           Name for the new branch.

       <start_point>
           The name of a commit at which to start the new branch; see git-
           branch(1) for details. Defaults to HEAD.

           As a special case, you may use "A...B" as a shortcut for the merge
           base of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You can leave out
           at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.

       <tree-ish>
           Tree to checkout from (when paths are given). If not specified, the
           index will be used.

           As a special case, you may use "A...B" as a shortcut for the merge
           base of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You can leave out
           at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.

       --
           Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

       <pathspec>...
           Limits the paths affected by the operation.

           For more details, see the pathspec entry in gitglossary(7).

DETACHED HEAD
       HEAD normally refers to a named branch (e.g. master). Meanwhile, each
       branch refers to a specific commit. Let’s look at a repo with three
       commits, one of them tagged, and with branch master checked out:

                      HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
                       |
                       v
           a---b---c  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'c')
               ^
               |
             tag 'v2.0' (refers to commit 'b')


       When a commit is created in this state, the branch is updated to refer to
       the new commit. Specifically, git commit creates a new commit d, whose
       parent is commit c, and then updates branch master to refer to new commit
       d. HEAD still refers to branch master and so indirectly now refers to
       commit d:

           $ edit; git add; git commit

                          HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
                           |
                           v
           a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
               ^
               |
             tag 'v2.0' (refers to commit 'b')


       It is sometimes useful to be able to checkout a commit that is not at the
       tip of any named branch, or even to create a new commit that is not
       referenced by a named branch. Let’s look at what happens when we checkout
       commit b (here we show two ways this may be done):

           $ git checkout v2.0  # or
           $ git checkout master^^

              HEAD (refers to commit 'b')
               |
               v
           a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
               ^
               |
             tag 'v2.0' (refers to commit 'b')


       Notice that regardless of which checkout command we use, HEAD now refers
       directly to commit b. This is known as being in detached HEAD state. It
       means simply that HEAD refers to a specific commit, as opposed to
       referring to a named branch. Let’s see what happens when we create a
       commit:

           $ edit; git add; git commit

                HEAD (refers to commit 'e')
                 |
                 v
                 e
                /
           a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
               ^
               |
             tag 'v2.0' (refers to commit 'b')


       There is now a new commit e, but it is referenced only by HEAD. We can of
       course add yet another commit in this state:

           $ edit; git add; git commit

                    HEAD (refers to commit 'f')
                     |
                     v
                 e---f
                /
           a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
               ^
               |
             tag 'v2.0' (refers to commit 'b')


       In fact, we can perform all the normal Git operations. But, let’s look at
       what happens when we then checkout master:

           $ git checkout master

                          HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
                 e---f     |
                /          v
           a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
               ^
               |
             tag 'v2.0' (refers to commit 'b')


       It is important to realize that at this point nothing refers to commit f.
       Eventually commit f (and by extension commit e) will be deleted by the
       routine Git garbage collection process, unless we create a reference
       before that happens. If we have not yet moved away from commit f, any of
       these will create a reference to it:

           $ git checkout -b foo   (1)
           $ git branch foo        (2)
           $ git tag foo           (3)


       1. creates a new branch foo, which refers to commit f, and then updates
       HEAD to refer to branch foo. In other words, we’ll no longer be in
       detached HEAD state after this command.
       2. similarly creates a new branch foo, which refers to commit f, but
       leaves HEAD detached.
       3. creates a new tag foo, which refers to commit f, leaving HEAD
       detached.

       If we have moved away from commit f, then we must first recover its
       object name (typically by using git reflog), and then we can create a
       reference to it. For example, to see the last two commits to which HEAD
       referred, we can use either of these commands:

           $ git reflog -2 HEAD # or
           $ git log -g -2 HEAD


ARGUMENT DISAMBIGUATION
       When there is only one argument given and it is not -- (e.g. git checkout
       abc), and when the argument is both a valid <tree-ish> (e.g. a branch abc
       exists) and a valid <pathspec> (e.g. a file or a directory whose name is
       "abc" exists), Git would usually ask you to disambiguate. Because
       checking out a branch is so common an operation, however, git checkout
       abc takes "abc" as a <tree-ish> in such a situation. Use git checkout --
       <pathspec> if you want to checkout these paths out of the index.

EXAMPLES
        1. The following sequence checks out the master branch, reverts the
           Makefile to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by mistake, and gets
           it back from the index.

               $ git checkout master             (1)
               $ git checkout master~2 Makefile  (2)
               $ rm -f hello.c
               $ git checkout hello.c            (3)

           1. switch branch
           2. take a file out of another commit
           3. restore hello.c from the index

           If you want to check out all C source files out of the index, you can
           say

               $ git checkout -- '*.c'

           Note the quotes around *.c. The file hello.c will also be checked
           out, even though it is no longer in the working tree, because the
           file globbing is used to match entries in the index (not in the
           working tree by the shell).

           If you have an unfortunate branch that is named hello.c, this step
           would be confused as an instruction to switch to that branch. You
           should instead write:

               $ git checkout -- hello.c


        2. After working in the wrong branch, switching to the correct branch
           would be done using:

               $ git checkout mytopic

           However, your "wrong" branch and correct mytopic branch may differ in
           files that you have modified locally, in which case the above
           checkout would fail like this:

               $ git checkout mytopic
               error: You have local changes to 'frotz'; not switching branches.

           You can give the -m flag to the command, which would try a three-way
           merge:

               $ git checkout -m mytopic
               Auto-merging frotz

           After this three-way merge, the local modifications are not
           registered in your index file, so git diff would show you what
           changes you made since the tip of the new branch.

        3. When a merge conflict happens during switching branches with the -m
           option, you would see something like this:

               $ git checkout -m mytopic
               Auto-merging frotz
               ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
               fatal: merge program failed

           At this point, git diff shows the changes cleanly merged as in the
           previous example, as well as the changes in the conflicted files.
           Edit and resolve the conflict and mark it resolved with git add as
           usual:

               $ edit frotz
               $ git add frotz


SEE ALSO
       git-switch(1), git-restore(1)

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 2.30.0                         12/28/2020                    GIT-CHECKOUT(1)