git-checkout

GIT-CHECKOUT(1)                   Git Manual                   GIT-CHECKOUT(1)



NAME
       git-checkout - Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree

SYNOPSIS
       git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] [<branch>]
       git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] [-b <new_branch>] [<start_point>]
       git checkout [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
       git checkout --patch [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]


DESCRIPTION
       When <paths> are not given, this command switches branches by updating
       the index, working tree, and HEAD to reflect the specified branch.

       If -b is given, a new branch is created and checked out, as if git-
       branch(1) were called; in this case you can use the --track or
       --no-track options, which will be passed to git branch. As a
       convenience, --track without -b implies branch creation; see the
       description of --track below.

       When <paths> or --patch are given, this command does not switch
       branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from the index
       file, or from a named <tree-ish> (most often a commit). In this case,
       the -b and --track options are meaningless and giving either of them
       results in an error. The <tree-ish> argument can be used to specify a
       specific tree-ish (i.e. commit, tag or tree) to update the index for
       the given paths before updating the working tree.

       The index may contain unmerged entries after a failed merge. By
       default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
       checkout operation will fail and nothing will be checked out. Using -f
       will ignore these unmerged entries. The contents from a specific side
       of the merge can be checked out of the index by using --ours or
       --theirs. With -m, changes made to the working tree file can be
       discarded to recreate the original conflicted merge result.

OPTIONS
       -q, --quiet
           Quiet, suppress feedback messages.

       -f, --force
           When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the working
           tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away local changes.

           When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged
           entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.

       --ours, --theirs
           When checking out paths from the index, check out stage #2 (ours)
           or #3 (theirs) for unmerged paths.

       -b
           Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
           <start_point>; see git-branch(1) for details.

       -t, --track
           When creating a new branch, set up "upstream" configuration. See
           "--track" in git-branch(1) for details.

           If no -b option is given, the name of the new branch will be
           derived from the remote branch. If "remotes/" or "refs/remotes/" is
           prefixed it is stripped away, and then the part up to the next
           slash (which would be the nickname of the remote) is removed. This
           would tell us to use "hack" as the local branch when branching off
           of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
           "refs/remotes/origin/hack"). If the given name has no slash, or the
           above guessing results in an empty name, the guessing is aborted.
           You can explicitly give a name with -b in such a case.

       --no-track
           Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
           branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable is true.

       -l
           Create the new branch’s reflog; see git-branch(1) for details.

       -m, --merge
           When switching branches, if you have local modifications to one or
           more files that are different between the current branch and the
           branch to which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
           branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
           However, with this option, a three-way merge between the current
           branch, your working tree contents, and the new branch is done, and
           you will be on the new branch.

           When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
           paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts and
           mark the resolved paths with git add (or git rm if the merge should
           result in deletion of the path).

           When checking out paths from the index, this option lets you
           recreate the conflicted merge in the specified paths.

       --conflict=<style>
           The same as --merge option above, but changes the way the
           conflicting hunks are presented, overriding the merge.conflictstyle
           configuration variable. Possible values are "merge" (default) and
           "diff3" (in addition to what is shown by "merge" style, shows the
           original contents).

       -p, --patch
           Interactively select hunks in the difference between the <tree-ish>
           (or the index, if unspecified) and the working tree. The chosen
           hunks are then applied in reverse to the working tree (and if a
           <tree-ish> was specified, the index).

           This means that you can use git checkout -p to selectively discard
           edits from your current working tree.

       <branch>
           Branch to checkout; if it refers to a branch (i.e., a name that,
           when prepended with "refs/heads/", is a valid ref), then that
           branch is checked out. Otherwise, if it refers to a valid commit,
           your HEAD becomes "detached" and you are no longer on any branch
           (see below for details).

           As a special case, the "@{-N}" syntax for the N-th last branch
           checks out the branch (instead of detaching). You may also specify
           - which is synonymous with "@{-1}".

       <new_branch>
           Name for the new branch.

       <start_point>
           The name of a commit at which to start the new branch; see git-
           branch(1) for details. Defaults to HEAD.

       <tree-ish>
           Tree to checkout from (when paths are given). If not specified, the
           index will be used.

DETACHED HEAD
       It is sometimes useful to be able to checkout a commit that is not at
       the tip of one of your branches. The most obvious example is to check
       out the commit at a tagged official release point, like this:

           $ git checkout v2.6.18


       Earlier versions of git did not allow this and asked you to create a
       temporary branch using the -b option, but starting from version 1.5.0,
       the above command detaches your HEAD from the current branch and
       directly points at the commit named by the tag (v2.6.18 in the example
       above).

       You can use all git commands while in this state. You can use git reset
       --hard $othercommit to further move around, for example. You can make
       changes and create a new commit on top of a detached HEAD. You can even
       create a merge by using git merge $othercommit.

       The state you are in while your HEAD is detached is not recorded by any
       branch (which is natural --- you are not on any branch). What this
       means is that you can discard your temporary commits and merges by
       switching back to an existing branch (e.g. git checkout master), and a
       later git prune or git gc would garbage-collect them. If you did this
       by mistake, you can ask the reflog for HEAD where you were, e.g.

           $ git log -g -2 HEAD


EXAMPLES
        1. The following sequence checks out the master branch, reverts the
           Makefile to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by mistake, and
           gets it back from the index.

               $ git checkout master             (1)
               $ git checkout master~2 Makefile  (2)
               $ rm -f hello.c
               $ git checkout hello.c            (3)

           1. switch branch
           2. take a file out of another commit
           3. restore hello.c from the index

           If you have an unfortunate branch that is named hello.c, this step
           would be confused as an instruction to switch to that branch. You
           should instead write:

               $ git checkout -- hello.c


        2. After working in the wrong branch, switching to the correct branch
           would be done using:

               $ git checkout mytopic

           However, your "wrong" branch and correct "mytopic" branch may
           differ in files that you have modified locally, in which case the
           above checkout would fail like this:

               $ git checkout mytopic
               fatal: Entry ´frotz´ not uptodate. Cannot merge.

           You can give the -m flag to the command, which would try a
           three-way merge:

               $ git checkout -m mytopic
               Auto-merging frotz

           After this three-way merge, the local modifications are not
           registered in your index file, so git diff would show you what
           changes you made since the tip of the new branch.

        3. When a merge conflict happens during switching branches with the -m
           option, you would see something like this:

               $ git checkout -m mytopic
               Auto-merging frotz
               ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
               fatal: merge program failed

           At this point, git diff shows the changes cleanly merged as in the
           previous example, as well as the changes in the conflicted files.
           Edit and resolve the conflict and mark it resolved with git add as
           usual:

               $ edit frotz
               $ git add frotz


AUTHOR
       Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org[1]>

DOCUMENTATION
       Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list
       <git@vger.kernel.org[2]>.

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

NOTES
        1. torvalds@osdl.org
           mailto:torvalds@osdl.org

        2. git@vger.kernel.org
           mailto:git@vger.kernel.org



Git 1.7.1                         03/23/2016                   GIT-CHECKOUT(1)