git-clone






git‐clone − Clone a repository into a new directory



git clone [−−template=<template_directory>]
          [−l] [−s] [−−no−hardlinks] [−q] [−n] [−−bare] [−−mirror]
          [−o <name>] [−b <name>] [−u <upload−pack>] [−−reference <repository>]
          [−−dissociate] [−−separate−git−dir <git dir>]
          [−−depth <depth>] [−−[no−]single−branch] [−−no−tags]
          [−−recurse−submodules[=<pathspec>]] [−−[no−]shallow−submodules]
          [−−[no−]remote−submodules] [−−jobs <n>] [−−sparse]
          [−−filter=<filter>] [−−] <repository>
          [<directory>]




Clones a repository into a newly created directory, creates
remote−tracking branches for each branch in the cloned
repository (visible using git branch −−remotes), and creates
and checks out an initial branch that is forked from the
cloned repository’s currently active branch.

After the clone, a plain git fetch without arguments will
update all the remote−tracking branches, and a git pull
without arguments will in addition merge the remote master
branch into the current master branch, if any (this is
untrue when "−−single−branch" is given; see below).

This default configuration is achieved by creating
references to the remote branch heads under
refs/remotes/origin and by initializing remote.origin.url
and remote.origin.fetch configuration variables.



     −l, −−local
     When the repository to clone from is on a local
     machine, this flag bypasses the normal "Git aware"
     transport mechanism and clones the repository by making
     a copy of HEAD and everything under objects and refs
     directories. The files under .git/objects/ directory
     are hardlinked to save space when possible.

     If the repository is specified as a local path (e.g.,
     /path/to/repo), this is the default, and −−local is
     essentially a no−op. If the repository is specified as
     a URL, then this flag is ignored (and we never use the
     local optimizations). Specifying −−no−local will
     override the default when /path/to/repo is given, using
     the regular Git transport instead.

     −−no−hardlinks
     Force the cloning process from a repository on a local









                             ‐2‐


     filesystem to copy the files under the .git/objects
     directory instead of using hardlinks. This may be
     desirable if you are trying to make a back−up of your
     repository.

     −s, −−shared
     When the repository to clone is on the local machine,
     instead of using hard links, automatically setup
     .git/objects/info/alternates to share the objects with
     the source repository. The resulting repository starts
     out without any object of its own.

     NOTE: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do not
     use it unless you understand what it does. If you clone
     your repository using this option and then delete
     branches (or use any other Git command that makes any
     existing commit unreferenced) in the source repository,
     some objects may become unreferenced (or dangling).
     These objects may be removed by normal Git operations
     (such as git commit) which automatically call git gc
     −−auto. (See git‐gc(1).) If these objects are removed
     and were referenced by the cloned repository, then the
     cloned repository will become corrupt.

     Note that running git repack without the −−local option
     in a repository cloned with −−shared will copy objects
     from the source repository into a pack in the cloned
     repository, removing the disk space savings of clone
     −−shared. It is safe, however, to run git gc, which
     uses the −−local option by default.

     If you want to break the dependency of a repository
     cloned with −−shared on its source repository, you can
     simply run git repack −a to copy all objects from the
     source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.

     −−reference[−if−able] <repository>
     If the reference repository is on the local machine,
     automatically setup .git/objects/info/alternates to
     obtain objects from the reference repository. Using an
     already existing repository as an alternate will
     require fewer objects to be copied from the repository
     being cloned, reducing network and local storage costs.
     When using the −−reference−if−able, a non existing
     directory is skipped with a warning instead of aborting
     the clone.

     NOTE: see the NOTE for the −−shared option, and also
     the −−dissociate option.

     −−dissociate
     Borrow the objects from reference repositories
     specified with the −−reference options only to reduce
     network transfer, and stop borrowing from them after a









                             ‐3‐


     clone is made by making necessary local copies of
     borrowed objects. This option can also be used when
     cloning locally from a repository that already borrows
     objects from another repository—the new repository will
     borrow objects from the same repository, and this
     option can be used to stop the borrowing.

     −q, −−quiet
     Operate quietly. Progress is not reported to the
     standard error stream.

     −v, −−verbose
     Run verbosely. Does not affect the reporting of
     progress status to the standard error stream.

     −−progress
     Progress status is reported on the standard error
     stream by default when it is attached to a terminal,
     unless −−quiet is specified. This flag forces progress
     status even if the standard error stream is not
     directed to a terminal.

     −−server−option=<option>
     Transmit the given string to the server when
     communicating using protocol version 2. The given
     string must not contain a NUL or LF character. The
     server’s handling of server options, including unknown
     ones, is server−specific. When multiple
     −−server−option=<option> are given, they are all sent
     to the other side in the order listed on the command
     line.

     −n, −−no−checkout
     No checkout of HEAD is performed after the clone is
     complete.

     −−bare
     Make a bare Git repository. That is, instead of
     creating <directory> and placing the administrative
     files in <directory>/.git, make the <directory> itself
     the $GIT_DIR. This obviously implies the −−no−checkout
     because there is nowhere to check out the working tree.
     Also the branch heads at the remote are copied directly
     to corresponding local branch heads, without mapping
     them to refs/remotes/origin/. When this option is used,
     neither remote−tracking branches nor the related
     configuration variables are created.

     −−sparse
     Initialize the sparse−checkout file so the working
     directory starts with only the files in the root of the
     repository. The sparse−checkout file can be modified to
     grow the working directory as needed.










                             ‐4‐


     −−filter=<filter−spec>
     Use the partial clone feature and request that the
     server sends a subset of reachable objects according to
     a given object filter. When using −−filter, the
     supplied <filter−spec> is used for the partial clone
     filter. For example, −−filter=blob:none will filter out
     all blobs (file contents) until needed by Git. Also,
     −−filter=blob:limit=<size> will filter out all blobs of
     size at least <size>. For more details on filter
     specifications, see the −−filter option in git‐rev‐
     list(1).

     −−mirror
     Set up a mirror of the source repository. This implies
     −−bare. Compared to −−bare, −−mirror not only maps
     local branches of the source to local branches of the
     target, it maps all refs (including remote−tracking
     branches, notes etc.) and sets up a refspec
     configuration such that all these refs are overwritten
     by a git remote update in the target repository.

     −o <name>, −−origin <name>
     Instead of using the remote name origin to keep track
     of the upstream repository, use <name>.

     −b <name>, −−branch <name>
     Instead of pointing the newly created HEAD to the
     branch pointed to by the cloned repository’s HEAD,
     point to <name> branch instead. In a non−bare
     repository, this is the branch that will be checked
     out.  −−branch can also take tags and detaches the HEAD
     at that commit in the resulting repository.

     −u <upload−pack>, −−upload−pack <upload−pack>
     When given, and the repository to clone from is
     accessed via ssh, this specifies a non−default path for
     the command run on the other end.

     −−template=<template_directory>
     Specify the directory from which templates will be
     used; (See the "TEMPLATE DIRECTORY" section of git‐
     init(1).)

     −c <key>=<value>, −−config <key>=<value>
     Set a configuration variable in the newly−created
     repository; this takes effect immediately after the
     repository is initialized, but before the remote
     history is fetched or any files checked out. The key is
     in the same format as expected by git‐config(1) (e.g.,
     core.eol=true). If multiple values are given for the
     same key, each value will be written to the config
     file. This makes it safe, for example, to add
     additional fetch refspecs to the origin remote.










                             ‐5‐


     Due to limitations of the current implementation, some
     configuration variables do not take effect until after
     the initial fetch and checkout. Configuration variables
     known to not take effect are: remote.<name>.mirror and
     remote.<name>.tagOpt. Use the corresponding −−mirror
     and −−no−tags options instead.

     −−depth <depth>
     Create a shallow clone with a history truncated to the
     specified number of commits. Implies −−single−branch
     unless −−no−single−branch is given to fetch the
     histories near the tips of all branches. If you want to
     clone submodules shallowly, also pass
     −−shallow−submodules.

     −−shallow−since=<date>
     Create a shallow clone with a history after the
     specified time.

     −−shallow−exclude=<revision>
     Create a shallow clone with a history, excluding
     commits reachable from a specified remote branch or
     tag. This option can be specified multiple times.

     −−[no−]single−branch
     Clone only the history leading to the tip of a single
     branch, either specified by the −−branch option or the
     primary branch remote’s HEAD points at. Further fetches
     into the resulting repository will only update the
     remote−tracking branch for the branch this option was
     used for the initial cloning. If the HEAD at the remote
     did not point at any branch when −−single−branch clone
     was made, no remote−tracking branch is created.

     −−no−tags
     Don’t clone any tags, and set
     remote.<remote>.tagOpt=−−no−tags in the config,
     ensuring that future git pull and git fetch operations
     won’t follow any tags. Subsequent explicit tag fetches
     will still work, (see git‐fetch(1)).

     Can be used in conjunction with −−single−branch to
     clone and maintain a branch with no references other
     than a single cloned branch. This is useful e.g. to
     maintain minimal clones of the default branch of some
     repository for search indexing.

     −−recurse−submodules[=<pathspec]
     After the clone is created, initialize and clone
     submodules within based on the provided pathspec. If no
     pathspec is provided, all submodules are initialized
     and cloned. This option can be given multiple times for
     pathspecs consisting of multiple entries. The resulting
     clone has submodule.active set to the provided









                             ‐6‐


     pathspec, or "." (meaning all submodules) if no
     pathspec is provided.

     Submodules are initialized and cloned using their
     default settings. This is equivalent to running git
     submodule update −−init −−recursive <pathspec>
     immediately after the clone is finished. This option is
     ignored if the cloned repository does not have a
     worktree/checkout (i.e. if any of −−no−checkout/−n,
     −−bare, or −−mirror is given)

     −−[no−]shallow−submodules
     All submodules which are cloned will be shallow with a
     depth of 1.

     −−[no−]remote−submodules
     All submodules which are cloned will use the status of
     the submodule’s remote−tracking branch to update the
     submodule, rather than the superproject’s recorded
     SHA−1. Equivalent to passing −−remote to git submodule
     update.

     −−separate−git−dir=<git dir>
     Instead of placing the cloned repository where it is
     supposed to be, place the cloned repository at the
     specified directory, then make a filesystem−agnostic
     Git symbolic link to there. The result is Git
     repository can be separated from working tree.

     −j <n>, −−jobs <n>
     The number of submodules fetched at the same time.
     Defaults to the submodule.fetchJobs option.

     <repository>
     The (possibly remote) repository to clone from. See the
     GIT URLS section below for more information on
     specifying repositories.

     <directory>
     The name of a new directory to clone into. The
     "humanish" part of the source repository is used if no
     directory is explicitly given (repo for
     /path/to/repo.git and foo for host.xz:foo/.git).
     Cloning into an existing directory is only allowed if
     the directory is empty.



In general, URLs contain information about the transport
protocol, the address of the remote server, and the path to
the repository. Depending on the transport protocol, some of
this information may be absent.

Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in









                             ‐7‐


addition, ftp, and ftps can be used for fetching, but this
is inefficient and deprecated; do not use it).

The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no
authentication and should be used with caution on unsecured
networks.

The following syntaxes may be used with them:

 •   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

 •   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

 •   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

 •   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

An alternative scp−like syntax may also be used with the ssh
protocol:

 •   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes
before the first colon. This helps differentiate a local
path that contains a colon. For example the local path
foo:bar could be specified as an absolute path or ./foo:bar
to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.

The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username
expansion:

 •   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

 •   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

 •   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the
following syntaxes may be used:

 •   /path/to/repo.git/

 •   file:///path/to/repo.git/

These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except the former
implies −−local option.

git clone, git fetch and git pull, but not git push, will
also accept a suitable bundle file. See git‐bundle(1).

When Git doesn’t know how to handle a certain transport
protocol, it attempts to use the remote−<transport> remote
helper, if one exists. To explicitly request a remote
helper, the following syntax may be used:









                             ‐8‐


 •   <transport>::<address>

where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an
arbitrary URL−like string recognized by the specific remote
helper being invoked. See gitremote‐helpers(7) for details.

If there are a large number of similarly−named remote
repositories and you want to use a different format for them
(such that the URLs you use will be rewritten into URLs that
work), you can create a configuration section of the form:

             [url "<actual url base>"]
                     insteadOf = <other url base>


For example, with this:

             [url "git://git.host.xz/"]
                     insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                     insteadOf = work:


a URL like "work:repo.git" or like
"host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten in any context
that takes a URL to be "git://git.host.xz/repo.git".

If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
configuration section of the form:

             [url "<actual url base>"]
                     pushInsteadOf = <other url base>


For example, with this:

             [url "ssh://example.org/"]
                     pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/


a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be
rewritten to "ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for
pushes, but pulls will still use the original URL.



 •   Clone from upstream:

          $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux.git my−linux
          $ cd my−linux
          $ make


 •   Make a local clone that borrows from the current
     directory, without checking things out:









                             ‐9‐


          $ git clone −l −s −n . ../copy
          $ cd ../copy
          $ git show−branch


 •   Clone from upstream while borrowing from an existing
     local directory:

          $ git clone −−reference /git/linux.git \
                  git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux.git \
                  my−linux
          $ cd my−linux


 •   Create a bare repository to publish your changes to the
     public:

          $ git clone −−bare −l /home/proj/.git /pub/scm/proj.git




Part of the git(1) suite