GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)                 Git Manual                 GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)

       git-commit-tree - Create a new commit object

       git commit-tree <tree> [(-p <parent>)...]
       git commit-tree [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
                         [(-F <file>)...] <tree>

       This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See git-
       commit(1) instead.

       Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and emits
       the new commit object id on stdout. The log message is read from the
       standard input, unless -m or -F options are given.

       The -m and -F options can be given any number of times, in any order. The
       commit log message will be composed in the order in which the options are

       A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one parent,
       it is an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent makes the commit a
       merge between several lines of history. Initial (root) commits have no

       While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
       directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how to
       get there.

       Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while Git
       doesn’t care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
       tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
       .git/HEAD, so that we can always see what the last committed state was.

           An existing tree object.

       -p <parent>
           Each -p indicates the id of a parent commit object.

       -m <message>
           A paragraph in the commit log message. This can be given more than
           once and each <message> becomes its own paragraph.

       -F <file>
           Read the commit log message from the given file. Use - to read from
           the standard input. This can be given more than once and the content
           of each file becomes its own paragraph.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>], --no-gpg-sign
           GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to the
           committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the option
           without a space.  --no-gpg-sign is useful to countermand a --gpg-sign
           option given earlier on the command line.

       A commit encapsulates:

       •   all parent object ids

       •   author name, email and date

       •   committer name and email and the commit time.

       A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog entry is not provided
       via "<" redirection, git commit-tree will just wait for one to be entered
       and terminated with ^D.

       The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables support the
       following date formats:

       Git internal format
           It is <unix timestamp> <time zone offset>, where <unix timestamp> is
           the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.  <time zone offset> is a
           positive or negative offset from UTC. For example CET (which is 1
           hour ahead of UTC) is +0100.

       RFC 2822
           The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example Thu,
           07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.

       ISO 8601
           Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
           2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a space instead of the T
           character as well. Fractional parts of a second will be ignored, for
           example 2005-04-07T22:13:13.019 will be treated as

               In addition, the date part is accepted in the following formats:
               YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.

       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       •   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
           bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       •   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies to
           tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names in
           command line arguments, environment variables and config files
           (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5) and

           Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as sequences
           of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding conversions (except
           on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII path names will
           mostly work even on platforms and file systems that use legacy
           extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created on such
           systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux,
           Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based tools
           simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display other
           encodings correctly.

       •   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
           extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
           ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and CJK
           multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8,
       both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on
       projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
       convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
           message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless
           you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to
           say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like

                       commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
           people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
           commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding header
           of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into UTF-8
           unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired output
           encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file, like this:

                       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because
       re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.


       git-write-tree(1) git-commit(1)

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.30.0                         12/28/2020                 GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)