git‐init − Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an
existing one

git init [−q | −−quiet] [−−bare] [−−template=<template_directory>]
          [−−separate−git−dir <git dir>] [−−object−format=<format]
          [−−shared[=<permissions>]] [directory]

This command creates an empty Git repository − basically a
.git directory with subdirectories for objects, refs/heads,
refs/tags, and template files. An initial HEAD file that
references the HEAD of the master branch is also created.

If the $GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it
specifies a path to use instead of ./.git for the base of
the repository.

If the object storage directory is specified via the
$GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY environment variable then the sha1
directories are created underneath − otherwise the default
$GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.

Running git init in an existing repository is safe. It will
not overwrite things that are already there. The primary
reason for rerunning git init is to pick up newly added
templates (or to move the repository to another place if
−−separate−git−dir is given).

     −q, −−quiet
     Only print error and warning messages; all other output
     will be suppressed.

     Create a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment is not
     set, it is set to the current working directory.

     Specify the given object format (hash algorithm) for
     the repository. The valid values are sha1 and (if
     enabled) sha256.  sha1 is the default.

     Specify the directory from which templates will be
     used. (See the "TEMPLATE DIRECTORY" section below.)

     −−separate−git−dir=<git dir>
     Instead of initializing the repository as a directory
     to either $GIT_DIR or ./.git/, create a text file there


     containing the path to the actual repository. This file
     acts as filesystem−agnostic Git symbolic link to the

     If this is reinitialization, the repository will be
     moved to the specified path.

     Specify that the Git repository is to be shared amongst
     several users. This allows users belonging to the same
     group to push into that repository. When specified, the
     config variable "core.sharedRepository" is set so that
     files and directories under $GIT_DIR are created with
     the requested permissions. When not specified, Git will
     use permissions reported by umask(2).

     The option can have the following values, defaulting to
     group if no value is given:

          umask (or false)
          Use permissions reported by umask(2). The default,
          when −−shared is not specified.

          group (or true)
          Make the repository group−writable, (and g+sx,
          since the git group may be not the primary group
          of all users). This is used to loosen the
          permissions of an otherwise safe umask(2) value.
          Note that the umask still applies to the other
          permission bits (e.g. if umask is 0022, using
          group will not remove read privileges from other
          (non−group) users). See 0xxx for how to exactly
          specify the repository permissions.

          all (or world or everybody)
          Same as group, but make the repository readable by
          all users.

          0xxx is an octal number and each file will have
          mode 0xxx.  0xxx will override users' umask(2)
          value (and not only loosen permissions as group
          and all does).  0640 will create a repository
          which is group−readable, but not group−writable or
          accessible to others.  0660 will create a repo
          that is readable and writable to the current user
          and group, but inaccessible to others.

By default, the configuration flag
receive.denyNonFastForwards is enabled in shared
repositories, so that you cannot force a non fast−forwarding
push into it.

If you provide a directory, the command is run inside it. If


this directory does not exist, it will be created.

Files and directories in the template directory whose name
do not start with a dot will be copied to the $GIT_DIR after
it is created.

The template directory will be one of the following (in

 •   the argument given with the −−template option;

 •   the contents of the $GIT_TEMPLATE_DIR environment

 •   the init.templateDir configuration variable; or

 •   the default template directory:

The default template directory includes some directory
structure, suggested "exclude patterns" (see gitignore(5)),
and sample hook files.

The sample hooks are all disabled by default. To enable one
of the sample hooks rename it by removing its .sample

See githooks(5) for more general info on hook execution.

     Start a new Git repository for an existing code base

          $ cd /path/to/my/codebase
          $ git init      (1)
          $ git add .     (2)
          $ git commit    (3)

     1. Create a /path/to/my/codebase/.git directory.
     2. Add all existing files to the index.
     3. Record the pristine state as the first commit in the

Part of the git(1) suite